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FIRST DECLENSION. 42. Nouns of the first declension end in
ă and ē, -feminine; ās and ēs,-masculine. But purę Latin nouns end only in a, and are declined as follows:
tables, Gen. mensārům,
ārům Dat. mensis,
to, for tables, Acc. mensās,
with, from, by tables. 1. CASE-ENDINGS.–From an inspection of this example, it will be seen that the several cases are distinguished from each other by their case. endings.
2. EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. With these endings decline : Ala, wing; ăqua, water; causa, cause; fortūna, fortune. 3. IRREGULAR CASE-ENDINGS.—The following occur:
1) As for ae in the Gen. of familia, in composition with păter, māter, filius, and filia : paterfamilias, father of a family.
2) Ai for the genitive ending ae, in the poets : aulāï for aulae, of a hall.
3) Um for ārun in the Gen. Plur.: Dardanidum for Dardanidārum, of the descendants of Dardanus.
4) Abus for īs in the Dat. and Abl. Plur., especially in dea, goddess, and filia, daughter, to distinguish them from the same cases of deus, god, and filius, son.
4. ARTICLE.-The Latin has no article. A Latin noun may therefore, according to the connection.in which it is used, be translated either without any article, with a or an, or with the : corona, crown, a crown, the
words; as, John's book. Here the possessive case (John's) shows that John sustains to the book the relation of possessor.
6. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER.—Hadria, Adriatic Sea, is masculine; sometimes also dāma, deer, and talpa, mole. See also 35, 1.
43. GREEK NOUNS.-Nouns of this declension in e, as, and es are of Greek origin, and are declined in the singular' as follows:
Epitome, epitome. Aeneas, Aeneas. Pyrītes, pyrites.
N. ěpitomo G. epitomēs D. epitomae A. epitomēn V. epitomě A. epitomě.
pýrītēs pyrītae pyrītae pyrītēn pyrītē, ā pyrītē, a.
SECOND DECLENSION. 45. Nouns of the second declension end in
ěr, ir, ús, os,—masculine ; ům, on,-neuter. But pure Latin nouns end only in er, ir, us, um, and are declined as follows: Servus, slave. Puer, boy. Ager, field. Templum, temple.
N. servis puěr
templům G. servī puěrı
templi D. servo puěrő
templo A. servům puěrům
agrăm templắm V. servě puěr
templăm A. servo puěrő
PLURAL. N. servi puěrI
templă G. servõrům puěrorům agrārům templorăm D. servis pueris
agris templis A. servos puěros
agros templă V. servi puěr1
templă A. servis. puěrīs.
agrīs. templis. 4. AGER.—Most nouns in er are declined like ager. 5.-IRREGULAR CASE-ENDINGS.-The foilowing occur:
1) I for ii by contraction in the Gen. Sing., without change of accent: ingě'ni for inge'nië, of talent.
1 In the plural they are entirely regular.
2) I for ie, common in proper names in ius, without change of accent: Mercủ'ri for Mercu'rie, Mercury. Also in fāli for filie, son; gěni for genie, guardian spirit.
3) Us for e in the Voc. of deus, god, rare in other words.
4) Um for orum, common in a few words denoting money, weight, and measure: talentum for talentorum, of talents; also in a few other words: deum for deorum ; liběrum for liberorum ; Argīvum for Argivörum.
6. Deus has, Voc. Sing., deus ; Nom. and Voc. Pl., dei, dii, di ; Gen., deorum, deum ; Dat. and Abl., deis, diis, dis ; otherwise regular.
46. GREEK NOUNS.-Nouns of this declension in os and on are of Greek origin.
1. Nouns in os are generally declined like those in us, except in the accus. sing., where they have on: Dēlos, Delī, Delo, Delon, etc., island Delos.
2. Nouns in on are declined like templum, with on for um in the nominative, accusative, and vocative.
3. Most Greek nouns generally assume in prose the Latin forms in us and um, but sometimes, especially in poetry, they retain in one or more cases the peculiar endings of the Greek. Thus, Accusative Sing.,
Atho, Athon, from Athos. Genitive Plur., On (om): būcólicon, bucblicồn.
Greek nouns in eŭs admit certain forms of the third declension : Or. pheus ; G., Orpheos ; D., Orphei ; A., Orphea ; V., Orpheu.—Panthūs has Voc. Panthū, and pelăgus, Plur. pelăge.
47. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER.
1. Feminine: (1) See 35, II., but observe that many names of countries, towns, islands, and trees follow the gender of their endings. (2) Most names of gems and ships are feminine: also alvus, belly; carbīsus, sail; còlus, distaff; hūmus, ground; vannus, sieve. (3) Many Greek feminines.
II. Neuter : pelăgus, sea ; vīrus, poison ; vulgus (rarely masc.), common people.
O or on:
48. Nouns of the third declension end in
a, e, i, o, y, c, 1, n, r, s, t, x.
I. MASCULINE ENDINGS:
0, or, os, er, es increasing in the genitivc.
II. FEMININE ENDINGS :
as, is, ys, x, es, not increasing in the genitive, s preceded by
III. NEUTER ENDINGS :
a, e, i, y, c, 1, n, t, ar, ur, us. 49. Nouns of this declension may be divided into two classes :
I. Nouns which have a case-ending in the nominative singular. These all end in e, s, or x.
II. Nouns which have no case-ending in the nominative singular.
50. Class I-WITH NOMINATIVE ENDING.
I. Nouns in es, is, s impure, and with stem unchanged in nominative. Nubes, f. Avis, f.
Urbs, f Rex, m. cloud. bird. city.
* In class II. the Nom. Sing. is either the same as the stem, or is formed from it by dropping or changing one or more letters of the stem: consul, Gen. consălis; stem, consul, a consul; leo, leonis, stem, leon (Nom. drops n), lion; carmen, carminis, stem, carmin (Nom. changes in to en), song.
2 Impure, i. e., preceded by a consonant.
3 X in rex = 98,-9 belonging to the stem, and s being the nom. ending; but in judex, x = cs,-c belonging to the stem, and 8 being the nom, ending,
4 Sometimes ari.
II. Nouns in es, is, s impure, and with stem changed in nominative. Miles, m. Lapis, m. Ars, f. Judex, m. and f. soldier.
N. milites lapides
judicēs G. milităm lapidăm artiúm
judicům D. militibús lapidựbės artibús judicibis A. militēs lapides
judices V. militēs lapides
judicēs A. militibús. lapidibús. artibús. judicibės.
III. Nouns in as, os, us, and ethose in as, os, and us with stem changed, those in e with stem unchanged. Civitas, f. Nepos, m. Virtus, f. Mare, n.
state. grandson. virtue.
i See foot-note 3, page 11. 2 Sometimes mare in poetry. 8 Sometimes civitatiūm.