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** * * * * *, *. o - The design of this Third Part of the Grammatical Institute of the English Language, is to furnish schools with a variety of exercises for Reading and Speaking ; and I have endeavoured to make such a collection of essays as should form the morals as well as improve the knowledge of youth. In the choice of pieces, I have been attentive to the political interest of America. I consider it as a capital fault in all our schools, that the books generally used contain subjects wholly uninteresting to our youth ; while the writings that marked the revolution, which are perhaps not inferior to the orations of Cicero and Demosthenes, and which are calculated to impress interesting truths upon young minds, lie neglected and forgotten. Several of those masterly addresses of Congress, written at the commencement of the late revolution, contain such noble sentiments of liberly and patriotism, that I can
not help wishing to transfuse them into the breasts of the rising generation.
- Observe the Stops, and mark the proper Pauses, but make
no pause where the sense requires none. . "
words to be closely connected in pronunciation. - ... • - - - o –
'* See First Part of the Institute, where the proportion of the comma, semicolon, colon, and period, is fixed at one, two, four and six, .
RULE III. Pay the strictest attention to Accent, Emphasis, and Ca- dence. Let the accented syllables be pronounced with a proper stress of voice; the unaccented, with little stress of voice, but distinctly. The importan: part of a sentence, which I call naturally emphatical, have a claim to a confiderable force of voice; but particles, such as of, to, as, and, &c. require no force of utterance, unless they happen to be emphatical, which is rarely the case. No person can read or speak well unless he understands what he reads; and the sense will always determine what words are emphatical. It is a matter of the highest consequence, therefore, that a speaker should clearly comprehend the meaning of what he delivers, that he may know where to lay the emphasis. This may be illustrated by a single example. This short question, Will you ride to town to day f is capable of four different meanings, and consequently of four different answers, according to the placing of the emphasis. If the emphasis is laid upon you, the question is whether you will ride to town or another person. If the emphasis is laid on ride, the question is, whether you will ride or go on foot. If the emphasis is laid on town, the question is, whether you will ride to town or to anoider place. If the emphasis is laid on to day, the question is whether you will ride to day or some other day. Thus the whole meaning of a phrase often depends on the emphasis; and it is absolutely necessary that it should be laid on the proper words. Cadence is a falling of the voice in pronouncing the elosing syllable of a period”. This ought not to be uniform, but different at the close of different sentences. But in interrogative sentences,the sense often requires
* We may chserve that good speakers always pronounce upon a certain key; for altho they modulate the voice according to the various ideas they express, yet they retain the same pitch of voice. Accent and Einphasis,rcquire no elevation of the voice; but a more Horcible expression on the same key. Cadence respects the last syllable only of the sentence, which syllable is actually proncunccd with a lower tone of voice; but, when words of several syllables cause a period, all the syllables but the last are pronounced in
he same key as the rest of the sentence. .