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God's glory, or hinder the humblest spirit in its heavenward course, we shall have our reward in our own integrity of purpose, although we may be sometimes misconstrued.

There is a state of mind often found in biblical inquirers which we consider to be a disease, and shall do all we can to counteract. We allude to a restless and constant attempt to unsettle current interpretation, and introduce new theories. This morbid activity is often found in young students of the Bible, and indicates a want of reverence and faith which, instead of being promotive, is destructive of improvement. The whole tendency of our labours will be to produce a more healthy tone of mind than is thus indicated; but we think we shall best accomplish our object, not by stigmatizing freeness of thought as German rationalism and heterodoxy (stones which the hand of ignorance is skilled to throw), but by discerning between the results of an earnest search after truth on the part of a pious and learned inquirer, and the crude speculations of the pedant and the novice.

We trust that in every case it will be remembered that the Editor only holds himself responsible for the tendency of the articles admitted into the JOURNAL, in the enlarged sense in which orthodoxy may be predicated of them. It is obvious that he could be more strictly responsible than this only by making the work the channel for his own opinions, instead of the general views of the religious public, and thus turning his office into an instrument of inquisitorial tyranny. The article in this number, On the Inspiration of the Gospels, will illustrate what is here meant. The Editor does not agree with the writer of that thoughtful essay in his minor details, thinking that they border too much on the fanciful; but he would on no account, for this reason, have excluded a composition the tendency of which is so good, and which may be, after all, nearer the truth than he imagines in the particulars mentioned.

Such are our views on entering upon our labours. How far we shall be able practically to apply them must depend upon others. The JOURNAL can only carry out its professed objects by the cordial co-operation of gentlemen whose literary tastes, combined with a love of biblical knowledge, dispose them to become contributors, and by the patronage of the reading public. Its past history has been one of great patience and persevering efforts on the part of the late Editor and his coadjutors. It is satisfactory to know that


its circulation has largely increased of late, and its pages no doubt are extensively read; still it requires a larger measure of support to place it on a firm footing, and to enable it fully to realise its objects. We appeal therefore to all who may read this address to do something to enlarge its circulation, and thus add to its useful

No pains shall be spared on our part to make it subserve the interests of true religion and piety, to make it a blessing to the Church and the world. May He without whom nothing is wise or holy direct our minds into the truth by His Holy Spirit, that all we do may tend to the glory of His great name!

To the late Editor, Dr. Kitro, the thanks of the Christian public are greatly due for having, in the midst of many discouragements, brought the JOURNAL to its present position of honourable usefulness. His retirement, rendered necessary by his numerou and important literary engagements, will not deprive the JOURNAL of his best wishes, nor of his valuable advice and occasional contributions. His successor, who ranks his friendship among his greatest privileges, enters on his duties with his full sanction and concurrence; and begs to express a hope that, while the energies of his learned friend are given to works which adorn and benefit our country and the world, he may still see the JOURNAL, brought by his fostering care to the verge of manhood, attain to a ripe and

full age.

* The readers of the JOURNAL who take an interest in its prosperity will be gratified by the following extract from a letter to the Editor, which he is permitted to publish by Dr. Kitto :-. It cannot but be a great satisfaction to me that the interests of a publication which has for many years been an object of deep solicitude to me, and for which I shall always cherish a paternal regard, should be intrusted to the hands of one with whom I have been privileged to form relations of personal friendship, and in whose judgment I have entire confidence. I regard the editorship of the JOURNAL as a position of great honour and distinguished usefulness. I retire from it with great reluctance, and even with grief. And this would be doubly intense were I not thus assured that its future management will devolve upon one so competent as yourself to meet the serious and often delicate responsibilities the trust imposes, and to discharge adequately the various duties it involves. I shall be ready to do all that I can to facilitate your proceedings, by affording you all the information that may be needful at the commencement of your onerous undertaking. Write to me freely when such need arises; and rest assured that you have not only the “concurrence” which you have the consideration to ask, but that I am exceedingly gratified with the prospect your letter opens.'



Drawn up by E. ROBINSON, D.D., of New York. EVER since the publication of my work on Palestine, I had cherished the desire of once more visiting that interesting country; partly for the purpose of examining some points anew; but still more in the hope of extending my researches into those portions which had not yet been explored.

In March of the present year (1852) I arrived at Beirût, on my way to carry these plans into execution. Here I was detained for some time ; at first by the unsettled state of the weather, which continued variable much later than usual—some of the most violent storms of the season having occurred after


arrival; and then in order to be present at the Annual Meeting of the American Mission in Syria, which was held this year at Beirût. I desire here to express my deep feeling of obligation to the Mission, for the interest manifested by them in my undertaking, and for the arrangements adopted to secure to me the aid and company of some one of the Missionaries during the whole journey.

It had already been arranged, that, before the meeting, I should accompany Mr. Thompson to Hasbeiya, and from thence visit the region of Bâniâs and Phiala. But just at that time the movements of the Druzes to evade the threatened conscription made those districts insecure. I was therefore obliged to content myself with short excursions to the mouth of the

Nahr el-Kelb, with its Egyptian and Assyrian tablets; to the remarkable temple at Deir el-Kūl’ah ; and to Abeih, the seat of the Boys' Seminary belonging to the Mission.

To the latter place, under the guidance of Dr. De Forest, we took a less usual road; and visited a spot on a rocky ledge between two valleys, where there are many ancient sarcophagi cut in the scattered rocks. Their huge lids have been removed, and lie mostly near by. The place is utterly lonely, and almost desolate; a few patches of wheat only being interspersed among the rocks.

On the 5th of April the Rev. Dr. E. Smith and myself found ourselves once more on the way from Beirût to Jerusalem. On the 26th of June, 1838, we had together arrived at Beirût from our former travels ; and we were now setting off from the same point to

a This paper was found in type by the Editor, intended for insertion in an earlier number. It has appeared in print in America, but its value is too great to allow of its being excluded from the JOURNAL on that account.

It was

continue our explorations. We encamped for the night at Neby Yûnas (Porphyrion), more than half way to Sidon. After the tent was pitched, the beds arranged, and the frugal meal ended, it was with an overpowering feeling that we compared the present with the past. Here we were, in our tent, not the same indeed as formerly, but yet so like it as hardly to be distinguished; the furniture and all our travelling apparatus were similar; several things were the very same; and our places in the tent were as of old. The intervening fourteen years seemed to vanish away, as if we were but continuing a journey of yesterday. And when we reverted to the reality, we could not but gratefully acknowledge the mercy of God in preserving our lives, and permitting us once more, after so long an interval, to prosecute together the researches which we had together begun. We could not but regard it as a high, and certainly an unusual privilege, thus after fourteen long years again to take up the thread of our investigations.

Under other circumstances we might, perhaps, have regarded it as an unpropitious omen, when, during the night, a violent sirocco wind arose, and blew down our tent upon us as we slept. pitched upon the sand, the only foundation which the neighbourhood afforded. At first we tried to sleep on beneath the fallen tent; but the flapping of the canvas compelled us to rise ; and as the day was already breaking in the east, we decided to make an early start. This we did, and, fording the Auwaly, near its mouth, reached Sidon soon after 7 o'clock. The observations we made along the coast were not many ;

but they serve to correct the maps in a few particulars. We were now more struck with the remains of the ancient Roman road, traces of which are visible from near the river Dâmûr for most of the way to the Auwaly. It is singular that no regular survey has ever yet been made of the Syrian coast; and it therefore gives us the more pleasure to learn from the highest authority, that such a survey will probably be undertaken by order of the British Government during the next year.

From Šidon we turned eastward towards Lebanon ; and after a ride of more than two hours, pitched our tent at Kefr Fâlûs. For some distance on the N. and E. of Sidon the mountains retire; and the interval is an open, uneven, rolling tract, highly cultivated, and abounding in the finest fruit. From Sidon to the roots of Lebanon is about three hours; and then the mountain ridges rise by degrees.

The next day our plan was to have kept on to Rûm and the high conical point of Ruweiset Rûm; then to have ascended and travelled along the high ridge of Jebel Rîhân, south of the angle of the Auwaly, until

, reaching the road from Jezzîn to Jerjû’a, we could descend to the latter village, situated high up on the flank of the mountain on the N.W. brink of the great gorge of the river Zaherâny. We accordingly sent off our baggage-mules by the direct road to Jerjû'a, there to await our arrival. But we had proceeded hardly an hour on the way to Rûm, before it began to rain ; and after waiting for a time in a peasant's house at Rûm, we were compelled to forego our purpose and take the nearest way to Jerjû'a. We reached that place, by way of Jebâ’a, after a long and dreary ride in the rain, and took refuge for the night and next day in a dark and smoky room in one of the hovels of the town. This was the only time that our plan of travel was frustrated by bad weather.

While lying next day at Jerjû’a, we descended into the chasm of the Zaherâny, and visited its highest perennial fountain. Here we were surprised to find the remains of an ancient channel cut in the rock, and connected with an aqueduct further down, by which the water of this fountain was carried below the village around the flank of the mountain, and so to Sidon; many remains of such an aqueduct having alçeady been known along the way to Sidon, though its beginning had not been found. The Sidonians had aqueducts from the Auwaly much nearer, for irrigation ; but they must have preferred this water for drinking. Even now water for drinking is brought to the city from fountains an hour or more distant. From Jerjû'a, Sidon bore N. 42 W.

From this high position the whole country W. and S.W. was visible quite to the sea. It is rolling, uneven, and sometimes rocky, made up of hills and valleys and plains, but no mountains.

The gorge of the Zaherâny here runs S.W. and turns nearly S. just below, along the W. base of Jebel Rîhân, for a short distance, when the river suddenly breaks through the low ridge which there forms its western bank, and runs off W. to the sea. But the valley along the base of Rîhân continues on, as Wady Jermûk, quite down to the Lîtâny; and one might be almost tempted to suppose that the Zaherâny once kept on its course to the latter stream. On the right bank of the Lîtâny, just below the entrance of Wady Jermúk, on a high cliff, in no connection with Lebanon, stands the magnificent but deserted fortress, Kūlăt esh-Shûkîf, the Belfort of the crusaders. It was in sight from Jerjû’a, bearing directly S.; and a visit to it was included in our plan.

The next day (April 9th) we proceeded through a fertile and well-cultivated region, by way of the market-town Năbâtîyeh, to Arnûn, a poor village below the ridge of the castle. Here are a few ancient sarcophagi cut in isolated rocks. The ridge on this side is neither very steep nor high; we rode the distance in twenty minutes from the village, half of it being level ground. But on

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