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jor WASHINGTON took a horse, and on the 16th of January, 1754, reached Williamsbury, and made report of his proceedings.
The fatigue and danger of this embassy are not easily conceived by persons in the bosom of civilized life. From the 1st to the 15th of December," says Major Washington," there was but one day in which it did not rain or snow incessantly, and through the whole journey there was but one continued series of cold, wet weather.” The journal composed for the perusal of Governor Dinwiddie, was published, and the enterprise, judgment, and perseverance displayed in the execution of this service, exalted Mr. WASHING ton in publick opinion; and gave his country an earnest of his future services.
The embassy to the Ohio, not having induced tho French to withdraw from that country, the assembly of Virginia adopted measures to maintain the claims of the British crown. They empowered the executive of the colony to raise a regiment to consist of three hundred men. Mr. Fry, a gentleman acquainted with the western country, was appointed to command it, and the commission of Lieut. Colonel was given to Major WASHINGTON. Enterprising and patriotick, Col. WASHINGTON requested and obtained permission to march first, early in April, 1754, with two companies to the Great Meadows. The reasons which led him to this measure, were to be early in active service, to learn the designs of the enemy, to afford protection to the English settlements, to cultivate the friendship of the Indians, and to acquire a knowledge of the coun. try, which promised to be the scene of military opera tions. Scarcely had he taken possession of his ground, when some friendly Indians informed him that the French had driven away a working party, sent by the Ohio company to erect a fort on the southeastern branch of the Ohio, and were themselves building a fortress on the very gi bund, which he had recommend
ed to the Governor for a military post. They also gave the intelligunce, that a force was then marching from that place to the Great Meadows. Although hos tilities had not commenced, yet it was considered that the French had invaded the English territory; and many circumstances rendered it probable, that a force was approaching with hostile views. It appeared that the party nad left the direct road, and had encamped in a valley, a few miles to the west of the Great Meadows, as a place of concealment. Colonel Washington, under the guidance of the Indians, set out in a dark, rainy night, and surrounded the encampment. At day break his men fired, and rushed upon the French, who, being completely surprised, surrendered One man only made his escape, and Mr. Jumonville, the commander, alone was killed.
The other companies of the regiment were, at this time, in march to join those in advance; before these reached the camp Colonel Fry died, and the command devolved on Lieutenant Colonel WASHINGTON. Two companies of British troops, one from South-Carolina, and the other from New York, also joined the regiment at the Great Meadows, making a force of four hundred effective men. The regular captains reluctantly placed themselves under the command of a provincial officer ; but pressing circumstances induced them for the time, to wave dispute about rank, and to act under the orders of Colonel WASHINGTON.
For the security of their stores he erected a small stockade, and then marched towards Fort du Quesne, to dislodge the French. At the foot of Laurel Hill, thirteen miles on the way, he was met by a number of friendly Indians, who informed him, that the enemy were hestily approaching with a strong detachment. A confidential chief assured him, that he had seen a reinforcement arrive at du Quesne, which place he left two days before, and had learned that a body con
pbing of eight hundred French and four hundred In
dians, would immediately march to attack the English. The previous information of deserters from the enemy confirmed the Indian's report. The troops had been already six days without bread, and had but a small quantity of meat in store. The French might approach by water carriage, within five miles of their present encampment; and then pass them by a different route and starve them into a surrender, or fight them with a great superiority of numbers.
In this critical situation Colonel Wash. JUNE 28.
8. Ington called a council of war. 1754.
The unani*** mous advice of which was, to return to their position at the Great Meadows; because the two roads at that place united, and the country did not allow an cnemy to pass them unperceived; and at this place they might wait the arrival of a supply of provisions, and reinforcement of men. The Colonel approved the advice of his officers, and immediately carried it into effect. (July 2) His first care was to sink a ditch round the stockade, which he now named Fort Necessity; but before it was completed, the enemy attacked him, (July 3) under the command of Monsieur de Viiiler, whose force consisted of fifteen hundred men. The assault was gallantly made, and bravely repelled. Part of the garrison fought within the fort, and part in the ditch, which was almost filled with mud and water. Colonel WASHINGTON, during the whole action, remained without the fort, by his presence and example animating his men. The attack began at ten in the morning, and was continued without intermission as long as the light of day remained. Early in the even. ing Monsieur de Villier demanded a parley and mentioned the terms of capitulation which he was willing to grant. These were rejected; but in the course of the night, articles were agreed upon and signed. By these, the fort was to be surrendered, the garrison al. lowed the honours of war, to retain their fire arms and baggage, and unmolested to march to the inhabited part of Virginia. The capitulation was the work of haste, and written in the French language, with which neither Colonel WASHINGTON nor any of his officers were acquainted, and unfortunately contained an expression, which the translator, at the time, construed to Colonel WASHINGTON to imply, that Mr. Jumonville, in the first action was killed ; but which literally would bear the translation, was assassinated. In answer to a publication of Monsieur de Villier, Colonel WASHINGTON, soon after the event, made it fully appear that he did not understand the import of the word ; but during his presidency, an enemy had the audacity to call him, upon the strength of this capitulation, an assassin.*
The killed and wounded in the Virginia regiment, on this occasion amounted to fifty-eight. The enemy were stated to have had about two hundred killed and wounded.
The publick gave to this brave band, merited praise ; and the assembly of Virginia expressed their sense of the resolution and judgment displayed in the above action, by a vote of thanks to Colonel WASHINGTON and his officers, and by a donation of three hundred pistoles to the soldiery.
The regiment fell back to Winchester to recruit. At this place, the companies from North-Carolina and Maryland joined the Virginia force; the wholo commanded by Colonel Innes of North-Carolina.
Governor Dinwiddie, with advice of council, ordered the troops to march over the Alleghany mountains; either to drive the French from du Quesne, or to erect a fort in a favourable position. The forces were in number much inferiour to thcse of the enemy, and were totally unprovided with articles of ciothing and pruvisions, essential to a winter's campaign. Orders wcre also given immediately to fill up the regiment,
* In an infamous publication in the Aurora, under the sig nature of JASPER Dwight.
although no money was voted for the recruiting 801vice. Colonel WASHINGTON pointedly remonstrated against these measures; but being adopted, did all in his power to carry them into effect. The Legislature soon rose, without providing effectual means for active service, and the troops did not march.
During the succeeding winter, regulations from the war office were published in America, which provided, that general and field officers of provincial troops, when serving with general and field officers commissioned by the crown, should have no rank; and, consequently, that senior provincial officers shoula be commanded by their juniors belonging to the regular troops.
The military ambition of Colonel Washington had been excited by his experience, and by the applause of his country; but he possessed the spirit of a soldier, and refusing submission to these degrading regulations, lie indignantly resigned his coumission. At the same time he declared, that with high satisfaction he would obey the commands of his country, when her service should be consistent with his honour.
1755. Colonel WASHINGTON had at this time succeeded to the estate of his eldest brother, on the Potomack, called Mount Vernon, in compliment to the British Admiral of that namo. On this estate he resolved to devote his life to agricultural and philosophick pursuits, a resolution that he did not long retain.
In the spring, General Braddock, who MARCH.
1. commanded two British regiments, and a 1755.
• few corps of Provincials, was making preparation for an expedition to the Ohio. He invited Cclo nel Washington to join his arm,, as his volunteer Aid de camp. The opportunity of making a campaign with a gentleman of his professional knowledge and experience was with pleasure embraced. When the General, in April, left Alexandria, Colonel WASHINGtos entered his family, and attended him to Will's