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world has never seen the like. But this cannot be all: there must be more behind. Every one knows the famous Stuart portrait of Washington. The last effort of the artist's cunning is there employed to paint his great subject for posterity. How serene and beautiful it is It is a noble picture for future ages to look upon. Still it is not all. There is in the dining-room of Memorial Hall at Cambridge another portrait, painted by Savage. It is cold and dry, hard enough to serve for the signboard of an inn, and able, one would think, to withstand all weathers. Yet this picture has something which Stuart left out. There is a rugged strength in the face which gives us pause, there is a massiveness in the jaw, telling of an iron grip and a relentless will, which has infinite meaning.

“Here’s John the Smith's rough-hammered head. Great eye. Gross jaw, and griped lips do what granite can To give you the crown-grasper. What a man!” In death as in life, there is something about Washington, call it greatness, dignity, majesty, what you will, which seems to hold men aloof and keep them from knowing him. In truth he was a most difficult man to know. Carlyle, crying out through hundreds of pages and myriads of words for the “silent man,” passed by with a sneer the most absolutely silent great man that history can show. Washington's letters and speeches and mes. sages fill many volumes, but they are all on busi. ness. They are profoundly silent as to the writer himself. From this Carlyle concluded apparently that there was nothing to tell, -a very shallow conclusion if it was the one he really reached. Such an idea was certainly far, very far, from the truth.

Behind the popular myths, behind the statuesque figure of the orator and the preacher, behind the general and the president of the historian, there was a strong, vigorous man, in whose veins ran warm, red blood, in whose heart were stormy passions and deep sympathy for humanity, in whose brain were far-reaching thoughts, and who was informed throughout his being with a resistless will. The veil of his silence is not often lifted, and never intentionally, but now and then there is a glimpse behind it; and in stray sentences and in little incidents strenuously gathered together; above all, in the right interpretation of the words, and the deeds, and the true history known to all men, – we can surely find George Washington “the noblest figure that ever stood in the forefront of a nation's life.”

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To know George Washington, we must first of all know the society in which he was born and brought up. As certain lilies draw their colors from the subtle qualities of the soil hidden beneath the water upon which they float, so are men profoundly affected by the obscure and insensible influences which surround their childhood and youth. The art of the chemist may discover perhaps the secret agent which tints the white flower with blue or pink, but very often the elements, which analysis detects, nature alone can combine. The analogy is not strained or fanciful when we apply it to a past society. We can separate, and classify, and label the various elements, but to combine them in such a way as to form a vivid picture is a work of surpassing difficulty. This is especially true of such a land as Virginia in the middle of the last century. Virginian society, as it existed at that period, is utterly extinct. John Randolph said it had departed before the year 1800. Since then another century, with all its manifold changes, has wellnigh come and gone. Most important of all, the last surviving institution of colonial Virginia has been swept away in the crash of civil war, which has opened a gulf between past and present wider and deeper than any that time alone could make. Life and society as they existed in the Virginia of the eighteenth century seem, moreover, to have been sharply broken and ended. We cannot trace our steps backward, as is possible in most cases, over the road by which the world has travelled since those days. We are compelled to take a long leap mentally in order to land ourselves securely in the Virginia which honored the second George, and looked up to Walpole and Pitt as the arbiters of its fate. We live in a period of great cities, rapid communication, vast and varied business interests, enormous diversity of occupation, great industries, diffused intelligence, farming by steam, and with everything and everybody pervaded by an unresting, high-strung activity. We transport ourselves to the Virginia of Washington's boyhood, and find a people without cities or towns, with no means of communication except what was afforded by rivers and wood roads; having no trades, no industries, no means of spreading knowledge, only one occupation, clumsily performed; and living a quiet, monotonous existence, which can now hardly be realized. It is “a far cry to Loch-Awe,” as the

Scotch proverb has it; and this old Virginian soci-
ety, although we should find it sorry work living in
it, is both pleasant and picturesque in the pages of
history.
The population of Virginia, advancing toward
half a million, and divided pretty equally between
the free whites and the enslaved blacks, was densest,
to use a most inappropriate word, at the water's
edge and near the mouths of the rivers. Thence
it crept backwards, following always the lines of
the watercourses, and growing ever thinner and
more scattered until it reached the Blue Ridge.
Behind the mountains was the wilderness, haunted,
as old John Lederer said a century earlier, by mon-
sters, and inhabited, as the eighteenth-century Vir-
ginians very well knew, by savages and wild beasts,
much more real and dangerous than the hobgob-
lins of their ancestors.
The population, in proportion to its numbers, was
very widely distributed. It was not collected in
groups, after the fashion with which we are now
familiar, for then there were no cities or towns in
Virginia. The only place which could pretend to
either name was Norfolk, the solitary seaport,
which, with its six or seven thousand inhabitants,
formed the most glaring exception that any rule
solicitous of proof could possibly desire. Wil-
liamsburg, the capital, was a straggling village,
somewhat overweighted with the public buildings
and those of the college. It would light up into
life and vivacity during the season of politics and

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