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apparatua which acts as a wedge or inclined plane, be thoroughly tested bofore it is adopted to any conEditorial Notices, &c.....+17 Foreign Intelligence.. New York and Erio Rail Home Affairs-Legislative

with a horizontal movement, under the rails.- siderable extont. road......

418 billo respecting Con. When the draw is to be opened, the apparatus is with. Stockton sad Darlington gressional representa

HAERLEM RAILROAD.-In taking a short walk this Railroad.

418 tion, and Preservation drawn from its position until those parts of the rails morning up town, we passed the scene of operations Continuation of Extracts of the Pulslic Health..425 which fill its space fall below the other parts of from Wood's Treatise...419 Congress

upon this work; and we were gratified to find that Sloam-Carriages on Com Legislature of New York.428 the rails, then they also partake of the horizon. the rails, or rather the stone sills for the reception

mou Roads, from Report Indian War, kc... to House of Commons...419 Miscellany...

cal movement until the space designed for the pas of the iron rails, are laid between 14th and 12tlı Railroad Advocate, Poris Poelry, Marriages, Deaths, of the vessel is clear. After the vossel has streets, and that they will, in a very short time, be mouth & Roanoke Rail.

&c.... road, Central Railroad..421 Summary, Price or Stocks, passed, and the draw is to be closed, a counter move completed as far down as Prince street; when our Licorary Notices.... .422 &c...

ment of the rails and apparatus takes place until the citizens will have an opportunity of witnessing the The AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL is pub moveable rails have regained a position directly manner of laying rails along paved streets, as well lished at 35 Wall-stroot. New-York, ac $3 a year, in advance under that which they are to occupy, their hori.

as the greater safety of using carriages on a Railzontal motion then ceases and a perpendicular one road in eities, than in any other way, as they move AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL.

follows, -caused by the continued horizontal move- directly forward, and are entirely under the control NEW YORK, JUNE 30, 1832.

ment of the inclined plano beneath it—until tbe rail of the driver, who can check his horse with ono

has regained the level of the road, where it is fitm- hand, and move his leder, which stops the carriage, THE PATERSON RAILROAD, to which we referred ly supported by the frame on which it rests, and witb the other. There will be no racing, and, in in our last,is, perhaps,less known to this community the cars will pass over it with as little difficulty as truth, no danger to be apprehended. Those who than any other of equal importance in the country. over any other part of the road.

are desirous to see the manner of laying the rails, This arisos probably from the circumstance that tho After passing the Bergen ridge, the marshes, and as well as the ease with which thoy are crossed by stook is principally owned by those who projected the Hackensack river, there will be a high embank.carriages and carts, may do so by a visit to the the enterprize, and who choose to retain the control mont, of considerable extent, formed from the exca.corner of the Bowery and 121h street. of tho road ; hence the stock has been loss in mar. vation, to the depth of 25 or 30 feet, of the summit The work on tho line of the road, we understand, kot, and of course los interest has been excited up. of Berry's hill. There will also be a corresponding gous bravely on; and we hope it will not be many on the subject. There cannot be a doubt, however, embankment on the west side of Berry's hill to the months before the thousands who are impatiently we think, but that it will ere long be duly apprecia. Passaic river. These rivers must be passed by draw waiting, may have an opportunity to enjoy the tod. It will opon an oasy communication between this bridges, in order to permit vessels to navigate then pleasure of a trip to Haerlem on a Railroad. city and one of the first, if not the very first manu. as usual ; und here it is that Mr. Winans' newly in.

STEAM CARRIAGES UPON COMMON ROADs. We have facturing village in ito vicinity, and greatly facili. vented draw bridge is to be lested. The work on in previous numbers given extracts from the examina. uto its business. It will, when completed, enable these heady onibankments and deep excavation is tions taken bofore a Committee of the House of Com. lbousands of our citizens—who have not weeks of progrossing rapidly, yet they will somewhat retard mons, and we now give in part, and shall complote leisuro opon their hands, to spend in the country-tho completion of the work, as a large force cannot in our next number, the report of that committee up. to pan a loisura day occasionally, at a very small be brought to boar upon them. After crossing the on the above subjoct. We find it has bocome in Eng. ospense, in the enjoyment of as pure air and as en. Passaic, the ascent is graduat until the point is at. land a subject of much interest, and we shall, there. chenling sconery as can be found either at Saratoga tained to which tho road is already completed, near fore, hereafter make further extracts from tho exa. Bprings, at Trenton or Niagara Falls.) Aquackanonk.

mination of other gentlonien who havo heen ongaged Another attraction will be found in the crossing of the plan of laying the rails on this road varies in io similar experiments. It would be a little singular dsvigablo rivers, (tbo Hackensack and Passaio both some measure from any other within our knowlodge. if steam carriages on common roads should treat orpusing its lino,) a circumstance of which, by any Aftor the road is prepared for receiving the rails, Railroads with as little ceremony as Railroads are otbor Railroad we have soon no account. There parallel rows of square pits or holes, of 18 inches

treating Canals. must of course be draw.bridges—usually construct. in diameter, and 2 1.2 or 3 feet in depth, and 3 feet We are authorized to state, thal lhe Philadelphia, ed, we boliovo, so as to form two inclined pladeo from centre to centre, are dug and Alled with bro. Gormantown and Norristown Railroad Company, -which would greatly intorsore with Railroad ken stone, of an inch or inch and a half in diameter, the opening of their Road, a sum considerably ex

have received for tolls during the short period since trarsling; but this difficulty has been entirely, and, closely rammod, which forms a compact mass, ceeding three thousand dollars. We have further as we have been informed, very ingeniously obviated across which sloopers of cedar or locust are laid, authontic information that the company are in daily by a draw.bridge upon an entirely new principle, upon which, at right angles, rest the pine rails, 6 expectation of receiving a first rato locomotive en. invented by Ross Winans, Esq., already favorably hy 8 inches, with a plate of wrought iron, 5-8ths by

gine from England, which will inmediately be put

in operation on the road, arrangements having been koown as the invontor of the improved car, spo. 2 1.2 inches on the surface. This mode of pre-made for the employment of a first rate steam en kon highly-of by the Chief Engineer of the Baltimore paring the foundation is new, and we were in- gineer. We learn, also, that the road in a very short and Ohio Railroad and others who have used it. formed that it was proof against the severity of the time will be completed to the Germantown main We are not familiar with the plan adopted, but be. past winter, as scarcely any injury was sustained

street, and that the located line to the Wissahicon

will forthwith be put under eontract, the company lieve that instead of being raised, it is lowered, still from frost. It is deemed superior to the blook of iraving on hand all the materials for the extent of retaining its horizontal position, by means of an stone for the support of the rails. It however should the route.— [Obio Gazetto, 26th inst.]

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[From the Oswego Gazette.)

Iload was 16 tons gross each, at the rate of three : The total cost of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail. RAILRƠAD Meeting.--At a meeting of the Corpor. miles per hour. On this line there is a suspension road is stated in the last annual report at $27,128 ators of, and citizens friendly to the New York and bridge, supported by iron chairs.

por mile from the city to the Point of Rocks, (being Erie Railroad Company, held at L. Manning's, in the Many writers have stated that this was the first 73 miles, including the branch of 3 1.2 miles to village of Oswego, Tioga county, on the fin day of Railroad intended for the purpose of general trade: Frederick,) although the Editor has reasons for be. June, 1832, pursuant to notice given, the lion. this is a mistako, Several Railroads of ownsiderable lieving that the ultimate cost will le, at loast, 830,Philip Church, of Allogany county. we wou fextent were made in Great Britain mony years pre. 1990. The main road is composed of a double line Chairman, and 'J. 1. Dooke, or Tioga county, Sec viously. The Suprey, the Sirhoway, the Cardigand of tracts. It is well known that much unnecessary rotary.

Merthyr Tydvill, and several other Railroads, were es penditure has been bestowed on this work-par: Resolved, That a committee of three be appcintod intended to accommodate a general trade, and the ticularly on the first division of 13 miles. Great to correspond with the proper officers of the General tolls on them specified accordingly in the several extravagance has been displayed in the construction Governmont in relation to the Survey of a Railroad acts of Parliament; although the articles conveyed of the bridges on every part of the line. With one route from New York to Lake Erie, and that J. R. on them, as well as on the Stockton and Darlington exception, ihey are constructed, at an enormous exDrake, J. H. Avery, and S. B. Loonard, bó said coin. Railroad, are chiefly minerals and other heavy goods.perise, of masonry: Moreover, the physical diffi. mittee.

culties encountered on the ruute aro unusual, and, Resolved, That the above named gentlemen be a * This includes the profit of the contractors, oil, for the first 13 miles are unparalleled in the Union. conuinilloe for devising and recommending the ne. &c.; they also draw back the empty wagons without When the Editor proposed the execution of a Rail. cessary measures for effecting a survey or explora any charge. The prime cost of the wagons wasde road from Baltimore to the Ohio, in the year 1804, tion of the said Railroad route. frayed by the Company.

ho' was well aware that the line would necessarily Resolved, That a committee be appointed for the

traverse a country abounding in unusoal difficul. purpose of applying to the Holland Land Coinpany


ties, which would increase the cost to a sum greater and to the Pouliney and Flornby Estates, and others, In resuming tho subject, which has boon interrop-than would be required for the Railroad from Phila. for a subscription to aid in the above survey and ex-ed by this digression, the cost of wooden Rail. delphia to Pittsburg, which he at that time urged on ploration; and also for the purpose of creatingoo roads, resting on wouden sleepers, provided with the public attention. In soveral of his pamphlets fund to be offered as premiums for useful informa ron rails, will next be given.* One of those on Railroads, published in the year 1825, he stated tion respecting the construction and use of Railroad: Railways has cost about $3062 por mile for a single that the greater cost of the Baltimore road would and Railroad machinery: and that Philip Church !ine composed of the best materials, and the dimen). render it less beneficial than the proposed rival road be said committee; said promiuins to be awarded as sions, strength, and arrangeinent being adapleu tu la. in Pennsylvania. Subsequent investigation and ex. as the company shall hereafter designale.

comotive engines. The timber rails veing imported perience have confirmed ihese views. Nevertheless, Resolved, That this meeting adjourn to meet in :rom Carolina (the size 5 by 9, the iron 2 by 4.10 the cost of the foriper road will, la ila farther prothe city of New York, on the first Tuesday in July inch) and conveyed nearly 560 miles, to their place gress to the west, be much less than that already next, at 4 o'clock P. M., at the Exchange,--and al of destination, on the line of the Schuylkill Rail incurred, which has already been stated at $27,128 Erwin's Hotel at Painted Post; Steuben county, on road. The cost of the Railway alone, is here allu. per mire. The graduation and masonry, alone, of the third Tuesday of July next, at four o'clock P. M. ded to, as the Road Formation, &c. is not at present the first 13 miles, has cost $46,334 56 cents per Gentlemen inierested in, and friendly to the said the subject of investigation.

mile; whilst on the remainder of the lino, extend. Railroad, are invited to attend the above inecting. The cost of no single line of this species of Rail. ing 54 5.8 miles, it has been only $8,532 16 cents

Philir CHURCH, Chairman. way in Pennsylvania has been as great as the sum per mile! (This also includes the bridge across the John R. Drake, Secretary.

montioned, (with one exception ;) but this work has Monocacy river.) The cost, therefore, has been in

been selected in consequence of its superior charac. the proportion of about 51.2 to 1 for the road forma. (From the Philadelphia edition of Wood's Treatise ter. The cost of the Railroad, including every item tion, including bridges, &c. The total cost of the on Railroads.]

for a double line, is estimated at $11,751 per inile : latter 54 5.8 miles of this Railroad, including every We commence this week Mr. Sunith's account of the cost, therefore, of the whole work, which ex. item, has been $20,168, ( peluding the cost for fin. the different Railroads in Europe, by giving that ut lend: 22.1.2 miles, is not as much as lho cost of aishing the second track, which is yet to be added on the Stockton and Darlington Railroad.

single bridge (the Sankey Viaduct) on the Manches part of the line.) Tho' directors have stated their

1er and Liverpool Railroad! (See the description conviction, that the average expense on the remain. Stockton and Darlington Railroad. in the Appendix.)

der of the line will not exceed this sum. This road extends from Stockton, on the river The grea: South Carolina Railroad (which is the The Pennsylvania Rajlroad has unfortunately, Tees, to the coal mives, which are 12 miles distant longest in the New World, and has bui une rival in and inost injudiciously, been adopted only from Phi. from Darlington. The length of the main line is this respect in the Old) is founded on piles, and thriadelphia to the Susquehannah, a distance of 81 6.10 about 25 milos; and there are several branches which wooden string.pieces and accompanying iron rails miles: thence to Holidaysburg, the line is continued extend in the aggregate 15 miles. The lino traverses are adapted to locoinotivo ongines, which have för by a Canal extending 172 58.100 miles: the road is an undulating and hilly country, and the annount of some time been in use on it. The cost has been then resumed, and passes over the Allegbany excavation and embankment was enormous. Sonhoebout $4000 per mile : the line is ringle, (with oc mountain, by means of nine inclined planos, to of the cuttings and oinbankments are 30 and even 40 casonal double tracks for side lines,) and extend-Johnstown, a distance of 36 69.100 miles, i le riso feet froin the surface. The curves on this road are 135 miles.

and fall being 2570.29 feet on the Alleghany port. abrupt, and causing much friction, the repairs oi'the The road formalion of this work required only o age: and thence to Pilisburgh, a distance of 105 rails and wagons require unusual expense. The snall sum for its executiva. The embankments, les, the remainder of the line is a Canal: from profile of that part of the road, where stationary which are usually adopted cisow here, are supersed Pittsbury to the town of Beaver, the Ohio rivor eon. power is not employed, is undulating--varying frou. 4d by the great elevation of the piles which sustain Linues the line: from the latter town, the canal is a level to an inclivation of 1 in 104 nearly, or 51 the rails. If the cuslomary plan had been adopted continued in a direction to Lake Erie and the Ohio fset in a milo; the average is 1 in 246. There art for Road Formation, the oxponge of these piles, and Canal, 24 3.4 miles, to the lown of Newcastle. Its Lwo summits, the Etherley ana Brusselton, which of the superstructure, or Railway, would have been further progress depends, it' tbe phrase may be used, are passed by means of a stationary engine on euch, less than the sum just mentioned. The total cost of on the wisdom of the Legislaturo. which works lho two inclined planes on each side of the Railroad, including every item, hos been $4500 The Railroad portions of this extensive line-the the summit. The Ethorley north plane is one hall per milo. (For a description of this road, 800 the longest in the world—have been confined to tho most of a milo in length, and the ascont is 180 feet. The Appendix.)

difficull parts of the route. The nature of those dif. engine is estimated a 30 horse power. The Etherly The first cost of Railways, composer of iron ficulties will bo apparent from an examination of the south plane is rather more than 1760 yards in length, rails, resting on wooden string-pieces, which are description of the Railroad which is given in the Ap: and the descent is 312 fect. From the foot of the supported by stone piers or blocks, is, of course pendix. Theundulating surface of the route, which, latter plane to the foot of the west Brusselton plane sualiy groater. The cost on the Baltimore and moreover, passes over three mountains, required is four fifths of a mile. This plane is one milodong, Ohio Rulroad for such Railways has been about onormous embankments and excavations, whilst a and the ascent is 150 feet; the steam engine oo this $10,500 per inilo for a double sei of tracks, includ. tunnel through solid rock increased the unusual cost: sumınit is estimated at 60 borse power. The easi ing every expense of construction and purchase of the numerous streams, the impetuous torronts, and Brusselton plane is one half of a milo in length, and materials. On the Newcastle and Frenchtown several broud rivers, rendered the cost for bridges desconds 90 feet. Thirty-two tons (including the Railroad the cost of a single line of Railway, rost. and other works enormous. Nevertheless, the cost weight of the wagons) are drawn up those planes, inling on stone blocks, has been nearly $6,000 per of the whole road, with the exception of the man ono trair., at the rate of 8 or 10. miles per hour.-mile. On the high embankmonts of each of these chinery, and the superstructure or Railway, will be This Railroad is a single line, with four turn outs, roads, wooden sleepers, &c. are, of course, adop:- only $12,000 per mile for the 81 6.10 miles, and each of 100 yards in lengưh, in a mile ; 'width be ed. The cost, where wooden sleepers are usod, $16,860 per mile for the remaining 36 69.100 miles. tween the tracks 4 feet 6 inchos. The rails are chief. has been a small iraetion less than the preceding The greater portion of this work is already finished, 'y ofinalleable iron, 15 feet long, 2 1.4 inches wide sums.

and the present year will witness tho completion of a tha top, and weigh 28 lbs. per yard, (the foris of Tho total cost of the latter Railroad, which is the whole road formation, and of a large portion of Birkenshaw's patent.) The cost of the iron was even supurior: in profile, and equal in plan to the the Railway. The cost of the latter will, in future, ore than twice the present price of that article.- Manchestor and Liverpool line, was $22,810 per depend on the deeision of the Legislature, respect. C'ho expense attending their charter was £12,000, nile. It is now in operation, and is admirably ing the materials and dimensions to be adopted. nd the land cost more than this sum. . Without in. adapted to rapid travelling and transportation. It Bui, even if the most durable, eficient, and expen, luding these items, the cost of the main line was is graded for a double track.

sive mode be adopted--a modo far moro costly and Aarly £5,100 per mile, being a much larger sum

substantial than that of the hitherto unrivallod van any single Railroad in Europe had cost. The * The first Railroad, of any description, executed Manchestor and Liverpool Railway—if the supercomotive engines on this road weighed twelve in the Union, was in Pennsylvania.' It was made structure be continued in the same manner as the Ds, and this enormous and improper load material. entirely of wood. Several others, of small extent, portion now in progress, the cost will be $16,000 injured the rails, wliich were of the lightest pat. were subsequently established. The Editor sugges per mile; or, the total cost of the whole Railroad rn. The cost of traction, with these imperfect ted to the proprietor of one of these Roads, to cover will be less than $30 000 por mile—a som less than id antiquatod engines, was one-fourth of a 'penuy it with wrought iron nails. This was offected. It would be requisite for the construction of the locka ir ton for goods por mile ;* the cost and repairs of has often been erroneously slated that the Quincy and tunnel, alone, on the Canal-if it were even c engines were one-eighth of a penny additional. Railroad, made in the year 1826-7, was the first in possible to construct a Canal on this route. morses were formerly employed on this road; their the United States.

'Tho plan and profile of this line, located in



roagod country, could not be expected to equal these most consolidation of the banks. Canals, recently the rate of toll actually levied upon such coaches foatures of the Manchester and Liverpool road; constructed, are, of course, more subject to these or other vehicles under any acts of Parliament but, in these rompacte, the lino is far superior to any aceidents; but all are liable to them: even the Eu now in force; and who were instructed to inquires other important Railroad in the British dominiona. ropean works are not exempt The burrowing of generally into the present state and future pron. Tho far.famed Stockton and Darlington, or Crom. vermin, the growth of some plants, &c. occasion pects of land carriage by means of whicoled vehicles ford and High Peak Railroads, are decidedly infe. sometimes serious injury. A inuskrat, a few years propelled by steam er gas on common roads; and rior to it in every respect.

since, notwithstanding the laws in such cases made lo report upon the probable utility which the pubIt will be absolutely necessary in a few years tu and provided, set at defiance tho State of Now !ic may derive therefrom; and who were ompow. extend this Railroad so as to form a continuous York, and for soveral days put an effectual stop to ered to roport the minutes of the evidence taken lino from the Ohio to Philadelphia. The mere trans- the navigation of hor great Canal. The leaks and before them, to the House ; have examined the portation of passengers a d light merchandize, and breaches, and dealruction of dams, on some of our matiors referred to thein, and agroed to the followihe winter trade, will justify the expense. The im- American canals, havo occasioned (as every person ing report; portance of reaching the waters of the wost, when is aware) the most serious embarrassment, and stop. The commitee proceeded, in the first instance, to ihoy are high in the latter part of the winter, when page of the trade sometimes for several wecke, and inquire how far the science of propelling carriages the canals will be closed by ice, is an additional argu- even months. lo some soils the former cannot be on common roads by means of steam or mechanical mont in favor of the proposed measure.

foreseen; and no effectual renody bas beon, or power, had been carried into practical operation ; The Railroad from Camden to Amboy, 61 miles sometimes even can be, provided. These repairs are and whether the result of tho experiments already in length, is composed of a doublo ret of tracks; the expensive, and require much time, during which the made had been sufficiently favorable to justify their odgo rails of wrought iron possess unusual strength; navigation is suspended, and great loss of tolls, and recommending to the House that protection should they weigh 36 1.3 lbs. to the yard, and rest on blueks extensive injury to inerchants and others, are ex. be extended to this mode of conveyance, should the of stone two feel square; the plan and profile adroit perienced. Several millions of dollars have already tolls imposed on steam carriages, by local acts of of the passage of locomotive engines al the most ra-beon expended on the mere repairs of the Ca. Parlianient, be found prohibitory or excessive. pid velocity. The total cost will be only $18,550 per nals in Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Maryland In the progress of their inquiry, they have exten. milo, (exclusive of land, wagons and steamboats :) and Virginia :- a very large suin will be for ever re. ded their examination to the following points, on the ling is alavost mathemalically straight. The quired for this purpose annually, although improve. which the chief objoctions to this application of road formation of the division, in the valley of the inents, which time and skill have effected in them, steam have been founded, viz. the insecurity of Delaware, exlends 27 miles, and will cost only two. will render the cost, probably, less onerous in future. carriages so propelled, from the chance of explosion thirds of the remainder of the line which crossce Some of the materials, however, have been iu use of the boiler, and the annoyance caused to travel. tho ridges which separate the waters of the Dela. but a short time, and, consequently, have been hithers, on public roads by tho peculiar noise of the maware from those of the Rarican. On the latter di erto loss affected by decay than they will be in a few chinery, and by the escape of smoke and wasio vision, the embankmenle and excavations have been. years.

sleam, which were supposed to be inseparable acas in all similar cases, proportionally inore expen. The embankment of Railroads are also consolidated companiinents. sive. It 18 paruly finished, and the remainder will by age, and to a greater extent than the embankments It being also in charge to the committee “ to rebe in operation during the present year. (See the on canals: loaks and breaches are not to be dreaded; port upon the proportion of tolle which skould be doscription in the Appendix.)

and the passage of vehicles, in lieu of injuring them, imposed upon steam carriages," they have examined The Railroad from Baltimore to the Susquehanna actually renders them more firm. Their ruins are several proprietors of those already in use, as to the has cost about $6800 for the graduation, and mason. not liable to be carried away by a breach, and to be effect produced on the surface of the roads by the sy per mile. 21 1.10 miles are finished and pr-pared strewn over the surface of the adjoining fields, and action of the propelling wheels. for a double track: the Railway has cost $4000 per thereby reduce lo sterility valuable land.

As this was too important a branch of their inmile for a single track-the rails are of wood, pla When Railways are made with durable materials quiry to rest entirely on the evidence of individuals, led with iron, and rest on wooden sleepers. (See the iron rails aro, indeed, subject to wear; and the whose personal interest might have biassed their the description in the Appendix.)

various excavations, embankments, bridges, and opinions, the commillee also examined several very From an examination of the list of Railroads and other works, are, like all the works of man, tending scientific engineers, by whose observations, on the Canals which has been presented to the reader, it is to decay : vevertheless, experience proves that thoy causes of the ordinary wear of ronds, they have been manifest that the cost of construction, of even the require less exponditure for repuirs than the most greatly assisted. inost expensive and difficult of the former, (which durable canal: and, of course, less than the flimsy The committee were directed also to report "on are comparatively few in number,) has been greatly canals in this country. It is important to observe, the probable utility which the public may derive from exceeded by many of the latler; and that the usual, chal the recent improvements, in almost every de. sloam carriages." On this point thoy have exaror average cost of the latter, has, in almost every tail of Railways and of their carriagos, render ihem ined a member of the committee, well known for instance, been greater. The circuitous courses of inore durable, and that every year additional im. his intelligence and research on subjects connected Canals greatly increases their aggregate cost, oven provements continue to be discovered.

with the interests of society, and they feel that they when the cost per mile is equal to the cost per mile When Railways are constructed with less durable cannot fulfil this part of their insiractions better of Railroads.

malerials, (which may be frequently expedionly) the than by merely referring the House to the evidenco The repairs and maintenance of Railroads and annual cost for repairs may be considerable ; but, in or Col. Torrens. Canals are next to be considered. The cost of keep. such cases, these will be balanced by the diminished These inquiries have led the committee to believe ing Canals in repair is well known to be enormous. capital which will be required for their construction. that the substitution of inanimate for animal power, even in Great Britain, where the utmost expendi. The cheapest species of single Railway, made even in draught on common roads, is one of the niost imture has been lavished on them, and where the entirely of wood, would, in some cases, cost less portant improvements in the means of internal commost durable materials and modes of construction (even if it would require a total renewal every few munication ever introduced. Its practicability they are adopted, the expense of repuiro has been ståled, yoars) than tho mere average repairs on the canals consider fully established ; its general adoption will by every engineer who has written, or been consult. of Pennsylvania and New York.

take place more or less rapidly, in proportion us tho od on the subject, as greater than the sum requisite The repairs on canals frequently occasion a tota! attention of scientific men shall be drawn, by pub. to maintain Railways in repair; and espocially when stoppage of the trade on them-sometimes for long lic encouragement, to further improvement. horse power, or moderale velocities, are employed. veriods—and the time when such stoppage may oc Many circumstances, however, must retard the If the velocity on thein bo increased to twice or cur, or the duration of it, cannot often ba torescen or general introduction of steam as a substitute for evor len times the rate which is custoinary on Ca- provided for. On Railwayy little embarrassineni, horse power oa roads. One very formidable obsła. nals, of course, some additional expense will be in. and no delay of any moment, occurs when repair: cle will arise from the prejudices which always be. currod ; the beneficial result inay, however, in such are required. If there be two sets of tracks, both set a new invention, espocially one which will it case justify lhe increased expondilure; and even in will not he out of order at the same place ; conse. first appear detrimental to tho interests of so many au extremo case, as such velocity is not practicable quently, one of them can be used when the other is individuals. This difficully can only be surmouni. on. Canale, it would be idle to compare the relative injured. If only one track exists, a tow planks, &c. ed by a long course of successful, though probably expenditure for repairs. Canals would be speedily will form a temporary Railway at the injured place; unprofitable, experiment. The great expense of the destroyod is the boats wero permitted to be drawn or the wagons may be drawn separately for a shori engines must retard the progress of such experat tho ralo of six, or even four miles per hour. distance, even on the natural surfaco of the ground :iments. The projectors will, for a long periol, some of tho opponents of Railroads have assert. this, in fact, is sometimes done.

work with cautinn, fearing not only the expense in. od that every year they deteriorate, whilst Canals The salaries of lock-keepers (if locks be in the curred by failure, but also that 100 sudden an oxpobecome moro permanent; that the only parts of the usual proportion) is much greater than the salaries bure of their success would attract the alten. lattor which are exposed to decay, are the gates of of the few attendants at the inclined planes of Rail. tion of rivals. It is difficult to exemplify to the the locks. All experionce, as well as the least re roads : and many Railroads do not require inclinod House how small and apparently uniinportant an Postion, ovince the fallacy of the latter statement: planos, and in this respoct requiro no expenditure.- adaptation of the parts of ihe machinery, or of the The wooden aqueducts, the road and other bridges, The supply of water which is required for the use of mode of generating or applying the steam, the waste weira, dams, and planking, when the lat. canals is, strictly speaking, as much a part of their the cause of the most rapid success : yet he who, tor is used, and other works of which wood is a cost for repairs. as the supply of iron to repair the by a long course of exporiment, shall have first component part in this country, are peculiarly sub- wear of the ra's of Railways. The expense of con. reached this poin', may be unable to conceal the ject io decay, from the combined action of moje-structing foeders, danis, or pumping apparatus, for improvoment, and otherwise will at once roap the ture and the air. The locks, culverto, &c. are con. this purpose, has already buen discussed. The an. benefit of it. stantly exposed to tho filtratioą of water, to the nual cost of maintaining such apparatus will be soine. The committee are convinced, that the real merits shock of boats, &c. The slope wall, which is times enormous, and it always will be attended with of this invention are such, thai it may be safely loft sometimes uned to line the interior of the banks, is some expense.

to contend with these and similar dificulties; there expoand to some injury from the passage of every

are others, however, from which the legislature can boal; and the banks are constantly slipping in, and Extract from a Report to the House of Commons alone relieve

it. Tolls, to an amount which would loosening the depth of the Canale. The streams bring printed for the House of Representatives U.S.

utterly prohibit the introduction of stean carriages, in their deposit of mud and sand: the action of ice and The Select 'ommittee appointed to inquire into, and have been imposed on some roads; on others, the froshels, on the exposed portions of the banks, is al. to report upon, the oportion of tolls which trustees have adopled modes of apportioning the waya injurious, and sometimos vory destructive. ought to be imposed upon coaches and other vehi. charge which would be found, if not absoluiely pro. Lorks and broaches are constantly occurring, even eles propelled by steam or gas, upon turnpike bibitory, at least to place such carriages in a very on the oldest Canalo, wbore time has effected the ut. roads; and also, to iøquire into, and report upon, unfair position as compared with ordinary coaches,

may lo

Two causes may be assiged for the imposition of Mr. James Stono states that “thirty six persons) These boilers exposo a very considerable surface such excessivo tolls upon sleam carriages. The first, have been carried on one sleum carriage." to the fire, and steam is generated with the greatest a determination on the part of the trustees, to ob. * That the engine drew five times its own weight rapidity. From their peculiar form, the requisite struct, as much as possible, the use of steain as a pro- nearly at the rate of from five to six miles per hour, supply of steam depends on its continued and rapid pelling power; the second, and probably the more parily up an inclination."

formation; no large and dangerous quantity can at frequent, has been a misapprehension of their weight T.:e sev«ral witnesses have estimated the probable any time be collected. Should the safety valve be and effect on roads. Either cause appears to ihe saviog of expense to the public, from the substitution stopped, and the supply of steam be kept up in a committee a sufficient justification for their recom- of sieam power for that of horses, at from one halt greator abundance than the engines require, explo. monding to the House, that legislative protection to two thirds. Mr. Farey gives, as his opinions that sion may take ploce, but the danger would be com. should be extended to steam carriages with the least slean coaches will, very soon after their first ostab paratively tritting, from the small quantity of steam possible delay.

lishment, be run for one third of the cost of the pre- which could act on any ono portion of the boilers. It appears froin the evidence, that the first ex. sontstage coaches."

As an engine, invented by Mr. Trovithick, has not tensive trial of steam as an agent in draught on Perhaps one of the principal advantagos resulting been as yet app!ted to carriages, the comun ttee can coinmon roads, was that by Mr. Gurnoy, in 1829, from the use of steam, will be, that it may be emp.oy do no more than draw the attention of the House who travelled from London to Bath and back iu his ed as cheaply at a quick as at a slow raie ; "this is to the ingenuity of its contrivance. Should it in steain carriage. He states, that although a part of one of the advantages over horse labor, which be practice be found to answer his expectation, it will the machinery which brings both the propelling comes more and more expensive as the speed is in- removo entirely all danger from explosion. In each wheels into action when the full power of ihe encreased. There in every reason to expect that, in of the carriages described to the committee, the boi. gine is required, was broken at the onset, yet that, the end, the rate of traveling by steam will be much lers have been proved to a considerable greater pres. on his return, he performed the last eighty-four miles, quicker than the utmost speed of traveling by horses; sure than they can ever have to sustain. from Melkshamn lo Cranford bridge, in ten hours, in short, the safety of travelers will become the Mr. Farey considers that the danger of explosion including stoppages. Mr. Gurney has given to the limit to speed." In lorso draught the opposite res is less than the danger attendant on the use of horcommiltee very full details of the form and power sult takes place ; “in all cases horses lose power ses in draught; that the danger in these boilers is of bis engine, which will be found in the evidence. of draught in a much greater proportion than they less than in those employed on the railway, although

The committee have also examined Messrs. Sum- gain speed, and hence the work they do becomes there oven, the instances of explosion have been mors & Ogle, Mr. Hancock, and Mr. Stone, whose more expensive as they go quicker." "On this, and very rare." The danger arising to passengers from steam carriages have been in daily use, for some other points referred to in the report the committee breaking of machinery, need scarcely be taken into months past on common roads. It is very satisfac. have great pleasure in drawing the attention of the consideration. It is a mere question of delay, and lory to find that, although the boilers of the several House to the valuable evidences of Mr. Davies Gil can scarcely exceed in frequency the casualties which engines described, vary must materially in form, bert.

may occur with horses. yet that each has been found fully to answer the ex Without increase of cost, then, we shall obtain a It has been frequently urged against these car. pectation of its inventor. Su well, in fact, have power which will insure a rapidity of internal com riages, that wherever they shall be introduced, they their experiments succeeded, that in each case inunication far beyond the utmost speed of horses in must effectually prevent all other traveling on the whore the proprietors have ceased to use them, it draught; and although the porforinunce of those no horse will bear quietly the noise and smoko has only been for the purpose of constructing more riages may not have hitherto attained this point, of the engine. perfoot carriages, in order to engago more exten. when once it has been established, that at equal speed The committee believe that these statements are sively in the business.

we can use steam more cheaply in draught ihan unfounded. Whatever noise may be complained of When wo consider that these trials have been horses, we may fairly anticipate that every day's in. arises from the present defective construction of the made under the most unfavorable circumstances-au creased experience in the management of the en machinery, and will be corrected as tho inakors of great expense-in total uncertainty-without any gines, will induce greater skill, greater confidence, such carriages gain greater experience. Admitting of those guides which experience has given to other and greater speed.

even that the present engines do work with some branches of engineering ;--that those engaged in The cheapness of the conveyance will probably noise, the effect on horses has been greatly exagge. making them aro persons looking solely to their be for some time a secondary consideration. If ai rated. All the witnesses accustomed to travel in own interest, and not theorists altompting the per present it can be used as cheaply as horse power, the these carriages, even on the crowded roads adjacent fection of ingenious models ;-when we find them competition with the former modes of conveyance to the Metropolis, have stated that horses are very convinced, after long esperience, that they are in- will first take place as to speed. When once the seldom frightened in passing. Mr. Farey and troducing such a mode of conveyance as shall tempo superiority of steam carriages shall have been fully Mr. Macneil have given even more favorablo ov. the public, by its superior advantages, from the use established, competition will induce economy in the idence in respect to the little annoyance tliey creato. of the admirable lines of coaches which have been cost of working them. The evidence, however, of No smoke need arise from such engines. Coke gonerally established—it surely cannot be contended Mr. Macneil, showing the greater efficiency, with is usually burned in locomotive enginės on railways that the introduction of steam carriages on common diminished expenditure of fuel, by locomotive en to obviaie this annoyance; and those stram carria. roads is, as yét, an uncertain experiment, unworthy gines on Railways, convinces the committee that ges which have been hitherto established also bura of legislative attention. •

experienco will soon teach a better construction of it. Their liability to be indicted as nuisancor will Besides the carriages already described, Mr. Gur. the engines, and a less costly mode of generating sufficiently check their using any offensive fuel. ney has been informed, that froin “twenty to forty the requisite supply of steam.

There is no reason to fear that waste steam othors are being built by different persons, all of Nor are the advantages of steam power confined will cause niuch annoyance. In Mr. Hancock's which have been occasioned by his decided journey to the greater velocity attained, or to its greater eugine it passos into the fire, and in other locomo. in 1829."

cheapness than horse draught. In the latter, dan. tive engines it is used in aid of the powor, by crea. The committee have great pleasure in drawing ger is increased, in as large a proportion as expense ting a quicker draught and more rapid combustion the attention of the House to the evidence of Ms. by greater speed. In steam powor, on the contrary, of the fuel. In Mr. Trevithick's engine it will be re. Farey. His opinions are the inore valuable from there is no danger of being run away with, and turned into the boiler. his uniting, in so great a dogree, scientific knowldge that of being overturned is greatly diminished. It The cominitttee not having recoived evidence that to a practical acquaintance with the subject under is difficult to control four such horses as can draw a gas has been practically employed in propelling car. consideration. He states that he has " no doubt heavy carriage ten miler per hour, in caso they are riages on common roace, have not considered it expo. whalever but that a steady preservance in such friginlened or choose to run away; and for quick dient to inquire as to the progress inade by several trials will lead to the general adoption of steann traveling they must be kept in that state of courage, very scientific persons who are engaged in making carriages :" and again, that what has been done that they nre always inclined for running away, par. experinents on gases, with the view of procuring proves to his satisfaction the practicability of impell. ticularly down hills and at sharp torns of the road. a still cheaper and more efficient power than stea:n. ing stage coaches by steam) on good common roads, In stean, however, there is little corresponding dan. The committee having satisfied themselves that in tolerably level parts of the country, without ger, boing porfectly controllable, and capable of ex. steam has been successfully adopted as a substitute horsos, at a speed of eight to ten miles per hour.” erting its power in reverse in going down hills."- for horse power on roads, proceeded to examine

Much of course, must remain to be done in im. Every witness examined bas given the fullest and whether tolls have bcon imposed on carriages thus proving their efficiency; yet Mr. Gurney states that most satisfactory evidence of the perfect control propelled. so excessive as to require legislative inter. he has kept up steadily, the rate of twelve miles per which the conductor has over the movement of the ference, and also lo consider the rate of tolle by hour; that. The extreme rate at which he has run carriage. With the slightest exertion it can bo stop. which steam carriages should be brought to contri. is between twenty and thirty miles per hour.” ped or turned, ander circumstances where horses bute, in fair proportion with other carriages, to the Mr. Hancock « reckons that, with his carriage, would be totally unmanageable.

maintenance of the roads on which they may be he could keep up a speed of ten miles per hour, with. The committee have, throughout their examina. used. out injury to the machino."

tions, been most anxious to ascertain whether the They have annexed a list of those local acto in Mr. Oglo states that his experimental carriage apprehension very commonly entertained, that an which tolls have been placed on steam, or mochani. went from London to Southampton, in some places, exionsive use of ihese carriages on roads would be cally propelled carriages. at a volocity' of from thirty two to thirty five miles the cause of frequent accidents and continued an. Mr. Gurney has givon the following specimens of

noyance to tho public, were well founded. the oppressive rates of tolls adopted in several of “That they have ascended a hill rising one in The danger arising from the use of steam car these acts: On tho Livorpool and Prescot road, six, at sixtoon and a half miles per hour, and sour riages, was stated to be two fold ; that to which pas. Mr. Gurney's carriage would be charged £2 8. miles of the London road at the rate of twenty sour sengers are exposed from explosion of the boiler, and while a loaded stage coach would pay only 4s. On miles and a half per hour, loaded with people.". the breaking of the machinery, and the effoct pro.the Bathgate road the samne carriage would be char.

That his engine is capaple of carrying three tone duced on horses by the noise and appearance of the god £1 7s. 1d., while a coach drawn by four horses weight, in addition to its own." engine.

would pay 58. On the Ashburnham and Totness Mr. Summiers adds, "that they have travelled in Šteam has been applied as a power in draught in road Mr. Gurney would havo to pay £2, while a the carriage at the rate of fifteen miles per hour, two ways: in the one, both passongers and engine coach drawn by four horses would be charged only with nineteen porsons on the earriage, ap a bill one are placed on the same carriage ; in the other, the 3s. On the Teignmouth and Dawlisb roads the pro. in twelve."

ongine carriage is merely used to draw the carriage portion is 129. to 28. " That he has continuod, for four hours and a in which the load is conveyed. In either case, the Such exorbitant tolls on stean carriages ean only half, to travel at the rate of thirty miles per hour." probability of danger from explosion has been ren. be justified on tho following grounds :

" That he has found oo difficulty of traveling dered infinitoly small, from the judiclour construc. First, because the number of passengers conveyed over the worst and most hilly roads," tion of boiler which has been adopted.

op, or by, a stearu carriage will be so great us to di.

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