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As foon as they were arrived, the Form of Henry II. the Church was fettled according to that of 1558. Pope Geneva, by the Advice of Villegagnon, the Paul IV. Holy Supper was adminiftred, and Villegagnon himfelf received it; but as there was a Sorbonist along with him, namely, John Conțat, fome, difpute arose between him and the two Minifters. about fome Ceremonies, for he pretended that unleavened Bread was neceffary, and to mix Water with the Wine; Chartier was fent back to France, to know Calvin's Opinion upon the Subject. But in the mean while, great heats arose between Vi legagnon, the Sorbonist, and Richer, with thofe who fided with him, occafioned by thofe difputes. M. de Thou fays, that it was rumoured that that Gentleman had received fome Letters from the Cardinal of Lorrain, who admonished him; however, according to M. de Beze, Villegagnon having got notice that the Reformed were more hotly perfecuted in France than before, he diffembled no longer, but forbad them to preach any more, declaring that he would ftand by the de

termination of the Sorbonne.

Therefore, Richer, Du Pont, Leri, and a few others, to the number of twenty, feparated themfelves from him, and refolved to come back to Europe; they agreed with the Mafter of a Ship of Britany, who was ready to fail, but Villegagnon, being not able to hinder them from going, in order to moleft them as much as he could, and to ftarve them at Sea, gave fuch orders as hindered the Mafter of the Ship from getting any more than the quarter part of the Provifions which he wanted for his Voyage.

Few days after they had put to Sea, the Ship being very leaky, five of the Company, more timorous than the reft, were put in a Boat, and carried back to the Ifland, being in hopes to


Henry II.
Paul IV.

mollify the heart of Villegagnon, fince they had not offended him in any thing.

But all the mercy they met with from him, was, that three out of the five, having made an excellent. profeffion of their Faith, that cruel Tyrant caufed them to be caft down head-long into the Sea, where they were drowned. As to the fifteen who had remained in the Ship, after many great Dangers and Perils, they landed at Blavet in Britanny the latter end of May 1558, almost starved with Hunger, having been upon the Sea about five Months together. M. Leri afterwards Minifter at Geneva, who was an Eye-witnefs of all thefe Tranfactions, published a Relation of them, quoted with an Encomium by M. de Thou, and to which M. de Beze refers his Readers (t).


XCI. The Lieutenant-Civil Munier, who had been Munier's one of the chief Tools which Cardinal Bertrandi Condemna made ufe of the last Year, for condemning feveral of the Prisoners taken in the Affembly of St. James-Street at Paris, being convicted of Falfhood, and Bribery in the Tryal of the Countess of Senignan, charged with having procured the Efcape of the Duke of Arfchot, was, by Sentence of the Court, deprived of all his Offices, and declared unworthy to hold any in the Kingdom for the future. Furthermore, he was fentenced to be fet in the Pillory in the Market-Hall, to make Amende Honorable, to pay a large Fine, and to be banished into the Ifland of Rhé (u).



Mary Queen of England died the 15th of NoThe Death vember. By her Death the Kingdom was deliof Mary vered of a cruel Perfecution which had lafted Queen of England. during her whole Reign. The lofs of Calais, the coldness of Philip her Hufband to her, together with her own Infirmities fhortened her Days. Cardinal

(t) Beze liv. ii. p. 158, &c. Thuani Hift. lib. xvi p: 500. (u) Beze liv. ii. p. 145. Thuani Hift. lib. xx. p. 612.

Cardinal Poole died about feventeen hours after Henry II. that Princefs. The Reftauration of the reformed 1559. Pope Religion followed of courfe the Restauration of Paul IV. Elizabeth to all the Rights of her Birth.

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrefis fo prejudicial and fhameful to the Kingdom, which loft by it 198 ftrong Holds, for three only which were furrendered, though Daniel takes it to have been advantageous enough; that Treaty, I fay, was concluded on the part of Henry, not only to procure the Liberty to the Conftable, and the Marfhal of St. Andrew, but especially to be in a better condition of executing the defigns laid against the Reformed by the Cardinal of Lorrain, and the Bishop of Arras, for their utter extirpation. For there was an Article by which that was exprefly ftipulated.

But for all that, the Reformed Churches were XCIII. ftrengthened and comforted, and their Number The great increased daily. Mezeray fays, that there was the reformincrease of no Town, no Province, no Trade in the King- ed Chardom, wherein the new Opinions had not took ches in root. The Lawyers, the Learned, nay, the Ec- France. clefiafticks, against their own Intereft embraced them. The Executions were only a means to fpread them and give them a new Life; infomuch that feveral Members of the Parliament, fome out of a meek and merciful nature, others because they had embraced them already, thought that thofe too rigorous Penalties ought to be moderated (v).

The King hotly preffed the Execution of the Edict of Chateau-Briant: He fent new Orders on that account to the Parliament of Paris; and as it happened that four Prisoners for Religion were discharged by the Sentence of the Chamber called La Tournelle, of which Meffieurs Seguier and du

(~) Mezeray Abr. Chr. Tom. iv. p. 720.

Henry II. du Harlay, who countenanced the Reformed Re1559 ligion, were Prefidents. Thofe of the Great Pope Paul IV. Chamber, being averfe to that Lenity, endeavoured to hinder fuch an example fhould be followed for the future: To that end, they fent to all their Acquaintances who had any credit at Court, and defired them to come to Town, to threaten and fright those Counsellors.

XCIV. The Mercuriale.

Finally, the King's Sollicitor and Attorneys fhewed forth, that if the Advice of Prefident Seguier was followed, there would be a contradiction betwixt the Chambers, fince the Great Chamber was used to condemn to Death thofe which the Tournelle had abfolved by the last Decrec. Therefore they defired to know, which of the two was to be followed, left the Courts fhould be divided in their Proceedings; upon which Remonftrances of the King's Council, a Mercuriale was refolved (w).

They call in France Mercuriale, a general Convocation of all the Chambers of the Parliament to confider about the concerns of that auguft Body, to find out Remedies to cure the growing Evils, and to reprove one another, as the occafion requires it. But I do not think, (though I would not be positive) that there has been any fuch like Convocation in France, fince that of this Year 1559, of which M. de Thou gives us fuch a full Account, that I think I fhall oblige my Reader in abstracting out of the 22d Book of his Hiftory, the following Relation.



The Dutchefs of Valentinois, fays he, to' which the forfeitures of the Goods and Eftates of those condemned for Herefy belonged by the King's Conceffion, and the Guifes who ingratiated themfelves into the People's Affection, by the Condemnation and Executions of

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(z) Beze lib. i. p. 171.

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Book I. Reformed Churches in FRANCE.





the Sectaries, filled the King's Ears with Henry II. ,, this Opinion, that the venom of Herefy spread 1559. itfelf all over the Kingdom; that he reigned Paul IV. ,, not truly in thofe Provinces wherein that Evil reigned; that the audacioufnefs of thofe plagued ,, with it, was fuch, that they concealed not themfelves any longer, but spoke openly and publickly all over the Kingdom; by which the ,, name of God was opprobriously defamed, and the King's Majefty without doubt leffened; for wherever the Divine Rights are confounded,. ,, certainly every thing comes to Subverfion and ,, Ruin:




The better to perfuade the King, they employed the Prefident Giles le Maitre, John St. Andrew, Anthony Minart, all Presidents of the Court; and Giles Bourdin the King's Attorney; by whofe Artifices, particularly thofe of Giles le Maitre, the King's Patience, who was inticed by the cheat of others, rather than by his own Opinion, was put to a Nonplus: for they fhewed forth, that it was to little purpose to have Peace abroad, if the Kingdom was rent by a Domes tick War much more cruel than a Foreign one; that the Evil was come to that degree, that if it was diffembled any longer, it would be impoffible to cure it by the authority of the Magiftrates, or any Civil Laws, but it would require strong Armies on foot under the Royal Banner, as it had been the Cafe in the time of the Albigenfes; that the feverity of the Sentences given against the Common People till then, had produced no better effect, than to make the Judges obnoxious to the hatred of all, very few having took a Warning by thofe Severities: That it was neceffary to begin by the Judges themfelves, amongst whom there was fome who fecretly countenanced the Sectaries, and others were work'd upon to Mer


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