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had to guard a dead Empress and the body of an Em- flowing from it? Is it not a wiser course, since reconperor who had been strangled thirty years ago.

ciliation has come in so many instances, still to hope for Paul I., on the day of his accession to the throne, un- it, still to go on with our new truths, trusting that they able to avenge the death of his father Peter III., resolved also will in time be found harmonious with all others ? at least to make amends for the injuries done to his

Whatever may be thought of the writer's particular memory. It was known that this Emperor, after a tragical end, was privately buried in the church of St. views, it will be allowed that his exposition of them is Alexander-Newski. Paul went thither immediately, clear and logical. We had marked for extract some of accompanied by Bezborodko and only one of his aides- his gradually advancing steps in the progress of creation, de-camp. There was but one monk who knew the but must be contented with very little, though that little place where the body had been deposited. Paul descended with him into the vault, caused the coffin to be may give an idea of the work. opened, and saw nothing but ashes and some remains of

ERA OF THE PRIMARY ROCKS. uniform, buttons and boots. Moved to tears he gave The interior of the globe has now been inspected in orders for a state-bed like that of his mother, to be im many places, and a tolerably distinct notion of its geuemediately erected in the same church, and appointed ral arrangements has consequently been arrived at. It officers of his court to do duty there as in the palace ; appears that the basis rock of the earth, as it may be then, he went twice a-day, in the morning and evening, called, is of hard texture, and crystalline in its constituto worship the dead, as they call it, bowing respectfully tion. Of this rock, granite may be said to be the type, three times before them, and kissing his mother's hand. though it runs into many varieties. Over this, except in The Empress, princes and princesses, courtiers, and after the comparatively few places where it projects above the them all persons decently dressed, were admitted to this general level in mountains, other rocks are disposed in honour. The same ceremony was performed at Cathe- sheets or strata, with the appearance of having been de. rine’s coffin as at that of Peter III., with this difference, posited originally from water; but these last rocks have that as there was nothing to be kissed at the Emperor ́s, nowhere been allowed to rest in their original arrangea genuflection was made instead. The air of weakness

ment. Uneasy movements from below have broken and emotion with which Zubow prostrated himself be them up in great inclined masses, while in many cases fore the body of his late mistress was really a curious there has been projected through the rents rocky matter, sight. It was, doubtless, the first time that he had

more or less resembling the great inferior crystalline kissed that hand gratuitously ; formerly, it was always mass. This rocky matter must have been in a state of the more open to him the more he pressed it.

fusion from heat at the time of its projection, for it is Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Post oc- often found to have run into and filled up lateral chinks tavo. Pp. 390. London: Churchhill.

in these rents. There are even instances where it has

been rent again, and a newer melted matter of the same The anonymous author of this ingenious treatise character sent through the opening. Finally, in the might have designated himself a philosophical phreno- crust as thus arranged, there are, in many places, chinks logist. He seems to labour under a consciousness of containing veins of metal. Thus, there is first a great having, in some of his hypotheses, broached doctrines inferior mass, composed of crystalline rock, and probably questionable by the orthodox, and he not only deprecates of the interior : next, layers or strata of aqueous origin;

resting immediately on the fused and expanded matter their censure, on very fair grounds, but contends that his next, irregular masses of melted inferior rock, that have system of creation is in truer harmony with the Mosaic been sent up volcanically and confusedly at various record than that generally received. He ought in pru- times amongst the aqueous rocks, breaking up these into dence to have been contented with his final plea, which masses, and tossing them out of their original levels. is thus urged.

This is an outline of the arrangements of the crust of the

earth, as far as we can observe it. It is, at first sight, a My sincere desire in the composition of the book, was most confused scene; but after some careful observation, to give the true view of the history of nature, with as we readily detect in it a regularity and order from which little disturbance as possible to existing beliefs, whether much instruction in the history of our globe is to be de. philosophical or religious. I have made little reference rived. to any doctrines of the latter kind which may be thought inconsistent with mine, because to do so would have been

HYPOTHESIS OF THE ORIGIN OF ANIMATED TRIBES. to enter upon questions for the settlement of which our A candid consideration of all these circumstances, can knowledge is not yet ripe. Let the reconciliation of scarcely fail to introduce into our minds a somewbat difwhatever is true in my views, with whatever is true in ferent idea of organic creation from what has hitherto other systems, come about in the fulness of calm and been generally entertained. That God created animated careful inquiry. I cannot but here remind the reader of beings, as well as the terraqueous theatre of their being, what Dr. Wiseman has shown so strikingly in his lec- is a fact so powerfully evidenced, and so universally retures, how different new philosophic doctrines are apt to ceived, that I at once take it for granted. But in the appear after we have become somewhat familiar with particulars of this so highly supported idea, we surely them. Geology, at first, seems inconsistent with the au- here see cause for some reconsideration. It may now be thority of the Mosaic record. A storm of unreasoning inquired-In what way was the creation of animated indignation rises against its teachers. In time, its truths, beings effected? The ordinary notion may, I think, be being found quite irresistible, are admitted, and man- not unjustly described as this,-that the Almighty aakind continue to regard the Scriptures with the same re- thor produced the progenitors of all existing species by spect as before. So also with several other sciences. some sort of personal or immediate exertion. But how Now, the only objection that can be made on such does this notion comport with what we have seen of the ground to this book, is, that it brings forward some new gradual advance of species, from the humblest to the hypotheses, at first sight, like geology, not in perfect highest? How can we suppose an immediate exertion harmony with that record, and arranges all the rest into of this creative power at one time to produce zoophytes, a system which partakes of the same character. But another time to add a few marine mollusks, another to may not the sacred text, on a liberal interpretation, or bring in one or two conchifers, again to produce crusta. with the benefit of new light reflected from nature, or ceous fishes, again perfect fishes, and so on to the end ! derived from learning, be shown to be as much in har. This would surely be to take a very mean view of the mony with the novelties of this volume, as it has been Creative Power-to, in short, anthropomorphize it, or rewith geology and natural philosophy? What is there in duce it to some such character as that borne by the orthe laws of organic creation more startling to the candid dinary proceedings of mankind. And yet this would be theologian, than in the Copernican system, or the natural unavoidable ; for that the organic creation was thus formation of strata ? And if the whole series of facts is progressive through a long space of time, rests on evitrue, why should we shrink from inferences legitimately I dence which nothing can overturn or gainsay. Some

other idea must then be come to with regard to the mode general types, to which we are about to come. Electriin which the Divine Author proceeded in the organic city we also see to be universal; if, therefore, it be a creation. Let us seek the history of the earth's for principle concerned in life and in mental action, as mation for a new suggestion on this point. We have science strongly suggests, life and mental action must seen powerful evidence, that the construction of this every where be of one general character. We come to comglobe and its associates, and inferentially that of all the paratively a matter of detail, when we advert to heat other globes of space, was the result, not of any imme- and light; yet it is important to consider that these are diate or personal exertion on the part of the Deity, but universal agents, and that, as they bear marked relaof natural laws which are expressions of his will. What tions to organic life and structure on earth, they may be is to hinder our supposing that the organic creation is presumed to do so in other spheres also. The consideraalso a result of natural laws, which are in like manner tions as to light are particularly interesting, for, on our an expression of his will ? More than this, the fact of globe, the structure of one important organ, almost unithe cosmical arrangements being an effect of natural law, versally distributed in the animal kingdom, is in direct is a powerful argument for the organic arrangements being and precise relation to it. Where there is light there so likewise ; for how can we suppose that the august will be eyes, and these, in other spheres, will be the Being who brought all these countless worlds into form same in all respects as the eyes of tellurian animals, by the simple establishment of a natural principle flow. with only such differences as may be necessary to acing from his mind, was to interfere personally and spe- cord with minor peculiarities of condition and of situation. cially on every occasion when a new shell-fish or reptile It is but a small stretch of the argument to suppose that, was to be ushered into existence on one of these worlds ? | one conspicuous organ of a large portion of our animal Surely this idea is too ridiculous to be for a moment en- kingdom being thus universal, a parity in all the other tertained.

organs-species for species, class for class, kingdom for It will be objected that the ordinary conceptions of kingdom-is highly likely, and that thus the inhabitants Christian nations on this subject are directly derived of all the other globes of space bear not only a general, from Scripture, or, at least, are in conformity with it. but a particular resemblance to those of our own. If they were clearly and unequivocally supported by The Reformers before the Reformation. The Fifteenth Scripture, it may readily be allowed that there would be a strong objection to the reception of any opposite

Century. John Huss and the Council of Constance. By hypothesis. But the fact is, however startling the pre- Émile De Bonnechose, Author of Histoire Française, sent announcement of it may be, that the first chapter Histoire Sacrée, &c. &c. Translated from the French of the Mosaic record is not only not in harmony with

by Campbell Mackenzie, B. A. Trin. Coll. Dublin. 2 the ordinary ideas of mankind respecting cosmical and organic creation, but is opposed to them.

vols. post octavo, pp. 703. Edinburgh : William

Whyte & Co. We must leave this to the curious reader, merely

Though the title is somewhat large, or not sufficiently stating that the writer's reasonings are far from being specific, this is an excellent book, and one which we are conclusive. He had better have rested on his philoso- glad to see in an English dress. The preface, or preliphical deprecation of rash judgments on matters upon minary essay, is itself an admirable work. The Frenchwhich nature has not yet fully revealed her laws.-Our man writes in the spirit of Milton and of Channing. His next extract embodies what is, at least, an ingenious discourse is an able and eloquent argument for the funconjecture about the systems of other globes.

damental principles of the Reformation,-namely, freeUnprepared as most men may be for such an an- dom of conscience, freedom of inquiry, and freedom from nouncement, there can be no doubt that we are able, in the sacerdotal yoke. It is, in one word, written in this limited sphere, to form some satisfactory conclusions as to the plants and animals of those other spheres the spirit of the most Catholic Christianity. which move at such immense distances from us. Suppose

We have said that the title is not sufficiently cific. that the first persons of an early nation who made a ship | We were led to expect at least a full account of Wycliffe, and ventured to sea in it, observed, as they sailed along, a the great reformer of his own age, and we have a brief set of objects which they had never before seen-namely, reference to him ; but the work is in substance a memoir a fleet of other ships-would they not have been justi- of John Huss, and a historical retrospect of the ecclesified in supposing that those ships were occupied, like their own, by human beings possessing hands to row and astical affairs of his era ; with an account of the sects steer, eyes to watch the signs of the weather, intelli- which sprang from his doctrine, which is continued down gence to guide thein from one place to another-in short, to so late a time as the origin of the United Brethren or beings in all respects like themselves, or only showing Moravians. We regret that we have not the power of such differences as they knew to be producible by difference of climate and habits of life. Precisely in this man speaking of this work with the fulness due to its merits, ner we can speculate on the inhabitants of remote and can only cull a few pithy sentences from the Preface, spheres. We see that matter has originally been dif- and take a brief extract from the body of the work. fused in one mass, of which the spheres are portions. Consequently, inorganic matter must be presumed to be

OBJECTS OF THE WORK. every where the same, although probably with differences This work, in an historical point of view, is intended in the proportions of ingredients in different globes, and to make the great religious movement which took place also some difference of conditions. Out of a certain num- in Europe a century before the Reformation, better ber of the elements of inorganic matter are composed or- known and more justly appreciated. It embraces a peganic bodies, both vegetable and animal; such must be riod of seventy years,-- from the beginning of the Great the rule in Jupiter and in Sirius, as it is here. We, there- Schism of the West in 1378, to the end of the war of the fore, are all but certain that herbaceous and ligneous Hussites, towards the middle of the following century. fibre, that flesh and blood, are the constituents of the The principal doctrines which divided Europe during organic beings of all those spheres which are as yet seats that memorable period are exposed to view, and the of life. Gravitation we see to be an all-pervading prin- illustrious men who originated or defended them are ciple; therefore, there must be a relation between the carefully depicted. spheres and their respective organic occupants, by vir- We shall describe the famous quarrels of the Schism; tue of which they are fixed, as far as necessary, on the the struggle of the Popes with each other; that of the surface. Such a relation, of course, involves details as Emperor, the Kings, and the Councils against the Ponto the density and elasticity of structure, as well as size, titfs; the proceedings of the Gallican Church and of the of the organic tenants, in proportion to the gravity of University of Paris ; the persevering and, for a time, the respective planets-peculiarities, however, which victorious efforts of the men who represented both one may quite well consist with the idea of a universality of land the other against the partisans of the Papal omni


potence; and the scenes for ever to be deplored, in the last time recommended him to retract. But he, which the great doctors of Bohemia perished.

looking up to heaven, said with a loud voice : "I call Theological differences were then accompanied by the God to witness, that I have never either taught or writflames of funeral piles, and the shock of arms. A place ten what those false witnesses have laid to my chargeis reserved in the work for these gloomy pictures; the my sermons, my books, my writings, have all been done reader will there find the combats of words to be suc- with the sole view of rescuing souls from the tyranny of ceeded by those of the sword; and men of learning and sin ; and, therefore, most joyfully will I confirm with my piety, the Husses, D'Aillys, and Gersons, to be followed blood that truth which I have taught, written, and by men of blood and war, the Ziskas and Procopiuses. preached ; and which is confirmed by the Divine Law

and the holy fathers.” Historian of John Huss, i am well aware, that whilst The elector and the marshal then withdrew, and fire I gain for his name the admiration of many, I also ex- was set to the pile! " Jesus, Son of the living God," pose it to outrage. But to any person who should me- cried John Huss,“ have pity on me !" He prayed and ditate insulting his memory, I would say—“John Huss sung a hymn in the midst of his torments, but soon after, was condemned because he refused to believe that a man, i the wind having risen, his voice was drowned by the for any motive whatever, ought to stifle the voice of his roaring of the flames. He was perceived for some time conscience, and to act contrary to his internal persuasion. longer moving his head and lips, and as if still praying What he did not believe, do you believe? Examine his life, --and then he gave up the spirit. His habits were peruse his letters-his touching letters--where the most burned with him, and the executioners tore in pieces the candid soul is laid open, and the most holy fervour ma- remains of his body and threw them back into the funenifested! See what a love of good, what a horror of ral pile, until the fire had absolutely consumed every thing; evil, what devotedness to truth, are there displayed! the ashes were then collected together and thrown into Consider how he lived, and how he died. Having done | the Rhine. this, place your hand on your heart, and say, 'I am a Thus perished, at the age of five-and-forty, one of the better Christian than this man !'-Then insult him!” men whose character throws most honour on the Chris

tian church; and it is not easy to discern, at the first The object of this work is not to convert believers words are found in an old manuscript copy of his works:

glance, the real causes of his death. The following to engage in proselytism at the expense of any churchto draw away the living members of one communion to rices of the seculars, every one said that he was inspired

As long as John Huss merely declaimed ayainst the the bosom of another. No creed will be presented here with the Spirit of God; but as soon as he proceeded as the only true one-no particular formula will be ad against ecclesiastics, he became an object of odium, for ks vanced as the sole real expression of the truth, out of then really laid his finger on the sore.” which there is nothing but error and falsehood; for we believe that it is, before all things, important to serve

Although we have never seen the original of this the Universal Church; and there is one religion in our work, we can judge, from internal evidence, that the eyes higher than all particular forms of worship,-above translation is executed with accuracy and spirit. Roman Catholicism as above Protestantism,-and that religion is CHRISTIANITY.

Memoir of Thomas Harrison Burder, M.D. By John The history of spiritual courts has no blacker record Burder, M.A. London: Ward & Co. Pp. 168. than the trial of Huss, nor the annals of martyrdom a This little biography is written by an affectionate bromore pathetic page than that which traces the closing ther, who, not without reason,concludes that it will chiefly scenes of his life. His persecutors showed demoniac in- interest the relatives and personal friends of its subject. genuity in heaping ignominies upon him,-all of which Dr. Burder was a pious and amiable man, a son of the he bore with the patient meekness of the divine Master author of“ Village Sermons.” He was born in 1789, rein whose cause he suffered. His final examination be- ceived a good education, and studied medicine at Edin fore the council and all the dignitaries of the empire is burgh,—where he graduated, before commencing practice full of the highest interest, but too long to extract. It | in London, though he afterwards settled at Tunbridge would make an admirable subject for a historical painter. Wells. The memoir, which is written with great moWe give the last scene of all.

desty, consists mainly of extracts from Dr. Burder's The place of punishment was a meadow adjoining the letters, from childhood to the close of his life. gardens of the city, outside the gate of Gotleben. On They all display a serious, mild, and affectionate chaarriving there, Huss kneeled down and recited some of racter, which is farther confirmed by the testimonials of the penitential Psalms. Several of the people, hearing his instructors and personal friends, many of them perhim pray with fervour, said aloud—“ We are ignorant of this man's crime ; but he offers up to God most ex

sons of eminence and science. Originally of a delicate cellent prayers.”

constitution, Dr. Burder, throughout life, suffered much When he wished to address the crowd in German, the from deranged health, though he lived until the summer Elector Palatine opposed it, and ordered him to be forth of 1843. He married a cousin of his own, after settling with burned. “ Lord Jesus !” cried John Huss, “I shall in life, who survived him for only five months. The ex. endeavour to endure, with humility, this frightful death which I am awarded for thy Holy Gospel ! Pardon all

tract of a family letter, written by Dr. Burder while a my enemies !"

student at Edinburgh, and a letter of consolation, writHis body was then bound with thongs, with which he ten by Dr. Abercrombie of that city, to his widow, is all was firmly' tied to a stake, driven deep into the ground. that our space permits us to select from a volume which When he was so affixed, some persons objected to his face being turned to the east, saying that this ought not presents a really interesting record of a good man's to be, since he was a heretic. He was then antied and life, and picture of an attached Christian family:bound again to the stake with his face to the west. His My father's kind letter gave me heartfelt pleasure, head was held close to the wood by a chain smeared and your own, my dear sister, was peculiarly acceptable. with soot, and the view of which inspired him with The domestic incidents you allude to, transported me at pious reflections on the ignominy of our Saviour's suffer- once to the Grove; and to be with you in imagination ings.

merely, is no small pleasure. This kind of journey I often Fagots were then arranged about and under his feet, perform, and in various ways. Sometimes I hum a tune and around him was piled up a quantity of wood and which Phæbe has often played to me, the air of which is straw. When all these preparations were completed, inexpressibly delightful. At other times, and especially the Elector Palatine, accompanied by Count d’Öppen on a Sunday, I repeat to myself that sweet hymn of our heim, marshal of the empire, came up to him, and for | infancy

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When, 0 dear Jesus, when shall I

lively short tales and sketches of every-day characters and Behold thee all serene ?

manners, and some legendary serious extravaganzas, as The latter expedient never fails to succeed. In an the Behemoth, who is in character, deeds, and destiny, instant I am seated at the fire-side, and make one of close akin to those fiery dragons and “ Laidly Worms” the domestic circle. My mother's countenance beams that flourish in British legends. There is, moreover,a good with sympathy and kindness; my father's with benignity; many copies of verses, with some vigour and likelihood and my sister's with attentive affection. The scene is about them; and a comedy,“ The Politicians,” which shows sometimes too touching ; and yet I love to indulge the tender illusion. When shall it be exchanged for reality? the way in which“ political capital” is sometimes made

in America. A very dirty way it is, no doubt, though by From John Abercrombie, Esq., M.D.

no means worse than that with which we are all famiEdinburgh, August 22, 1843. liar at home, either as actors or spectators. A better My Dear MADAM,—I do not attempt to express the idea could not be obtained of the present character of the feelings with which I have received the letter of Mr. American Magazines than by the perusal of this“ various" Burder, intimating the heavy bereavement with which it volume; though its contents may be above their fair has pleased your heavenly Father to visit you. It is a be- average. As a specimen, we give an extract from an reavement which will be felt most deeply by the numerous and attached friends of Dr. Burder, and by none

article in the New York Review, entitled New Ethics of more than myself, to whom he was endeared in a pecu. Eating. It must be remembered, that a sect in America, liar manner, both by an old and warm friendship, and not content with giving up the use of wine and spirits, by the various excellent and amiable qualities which met have also given up eating animal food, including, we bein his character. It seemed to those who knew his ta- lieve, eggs, milk, and butter, and also tea and coffee. lents and his worth, a mysterious dispensation, that one so calculated for usefulness should be so long laid aside There is no longer sufficient distinction in mere in the prime of his days ;-but“ He, whose ways are not perance,” or yet in “ total abstinence.” as our ways, nor his thoughts as ours," had his own great purposes to answer; and among these, we cannot

In every age there has existed some favourite theory doubt one was to prepare our beloved friend in a peculiar for the regeneration of the race ; some grand discovery manner for the enjoyment of himself, and for occupying about to be made), which was to be universal, ubiquia high place in that blessed assembly, who have “come

tous in its influence and success. At one time the phiout of great tribulation, and have washed their robes losopher's stone ; in the next age a short passage to the and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." He East Indies ; and now, in a third and less romantic penow understands the whole, and perceives in the clearest riod, all the great objects of amelioration and amendmanner, that no one step could have been wanting. The ment are to be accomplished by the substitution of unall-wise and all-merciful One, who has visited you with bolted flour in the place of pure wheat and solid animal the dispensation, alone is able to give the support and food. The authors of these miraculous discoveries beconsolation under it, which may enable you to say: " It lieve that the human race is to be regenerated solely is well.” This, I doubt not, will be bestowed in abun- through the medium of the palate ; that the channels of dant measure, in answer to your prayers, and to the access to the human head and human heart are not, as prayers of the numerous affectionate friends, who par- but through the alimentary ducts. Instead of winding

of old, through the understanding and the affections, take in your sorrow. And while their sympathies are not useless, there is a Friend who is afflicted in all the along the shore of the Mediterranean and over the shoals afflictions of his people--one to whom all power is given of the Indian ocean, they strike boldly across the Atin heaven and on earth, and there is the mighty gift of lantic, and find the country for which they are in the Holy Spirit the Comforter, imparting a peace which search. They take for granted that man has no imagithe world cannot give. My daughters desire to unite nation, no heart, no nerves, no soul, nor arteries ; but with me in our expressions of deep sympathy and affec- that he is a creature all stomach; that one mighty tionate wishes and regards.

abdomen is the badge and property of human kind; And I am, my dear Madam, very sincerely yours,

and that in it centres the machinery, from it spring the

movements, which build up and overturn states and emJohn ABERCROMBIE.

pires--the strong fancy which moulds itself in epics and

histories--the gentle pathos which melts us from the Upton's Physioglyphics. London : Fisher, Son, & Co.

pulpit or in the elegy-the fierce wrath and “energy This work relates to certain discoveries in language divine” which shake the stage ; all hold their court in and science which only dawned upon the author a few this vast subterranean cavern, and from it rush forth months since, after many years of study; and which,

upon the world.

The first great canon of this code of living, is, that the as we do not pretend to understand them, it will be filesh of beasts be banished from the table. Unholy pig, time enough to speak about when they are fairly placed nor stupid veal, nor silly mutton, corpulent roast-beef before the public. The author solicits the means of nor presumptuous sirloin, must not appear before these doing this ; and, among other remarkable things, asserts chaste, dietetic vestals. Calf, sheep, ox, fowl, partridge that he has discovered the method of Trisecting an

--they know them not in animated nature. They have

revised the edible universe, and from it stricken these Angle, or Arc of a Circle, and can give a strict mathe- blots and monsters. Tender-souled philanthropists ! matical solution of the Quadrature of the Circle. His They would know why these should not run rampant, challenge to men of science is as singular as it is bold; and fly on the earth and in the air harmless ? They are —and farther we cannot say.

joint denizens here ; fellow-citizens of ours, are these

good friends! The Various Writings of Cornelius Matheus ; complete

These natural feeders have “a touch that makes in one volume, octavo, double columns. Pp. 370. New them kin” with us. Let them grow and multiply. Let York : Harper & Brothers.

them fatten in our meadows, and spread their pinions in

our woods. Like us, they are for an equitable division Cornelius Mathews is a kind of American Boz, or of property ; they, too, are humble agrarians; their Jerrold, or Titmarsh, with more earnestness than the desires are moderate. Till your fields until the sweat latter, and a manner of his own, the result of his Trans- pearls upon your forehead ; you need not chaffer with atlantic surroundings. The “writings” are extremely hands. Gay creatures, they will frisk and eat for you.

customers--they will take the crop of grain off your “ various.” We have, in Puffer Hopkins, a clever novel, They have made us their stewards ; if we plough and descriptive of middle-class and workie Americans, many plant, they will, most willingly, gather the increase.

my use!

“The hog that ploughs not, nor obeys thy call, the world a faithful, full, and correct edition, so far as Lives on the labours of this lord of all; While man exclaims, “See all things for

he has had the means. There may still be abundant "See man for mine,' replies a pampered goose.” room left for the literary critic and the antiquary to

cavil; but as we neither belong to the latter fraternity, Yes, these prodigal Pythagoreans, these vegetable philosophers, would give the earth up to the undisputed nor, to own the truth, are as much impressed as might be possession of Messrs. Ox, Hog, and Company. They desirable with the value of such labours as those in would hand the title-deeds over to that firin. It has, which Mr. Rogers has engaged, we raise no objections perhaps, never entered the heads of these anti-carnivor- to one who certainly brings the fit enthusiasm to his ous gentlemen, these minor omnipotents, who would task-who magnifies his office. Mr. Roger seems to have change mankind into so many Nebuchadnezzars, and send the world to eat grass, what disposition they would awakened the entire university from its slumbers, and make of their fourfooted rivals in the event of a general fired it with the ambition of co-operating in his labour adoption of their principles. We would have to turn of love and reverence, in doing all honour to the first back into heathenism, and offer up a hecatomb to each Scottish poet who wrote pure English : for this disone of the forty thousand gods of antiquity, to reduce the tinction is claimed for Sir Robert Aytoun. A memoir cattle market within reasonable limits.

But the worst of it is, that these attenuated apostles of Aytoun is prefixed. He was the son of a Fife Laird, of bran bread and water-cresses, whose worn-out organs and, while still a young man, followed in the train of can assimilate no strong meat, cannot be content with James the VI., on the accession of that monarch to the feeding their own way (which, if it be best for them, throne of England. He was, moreover, an accomplished they have our free leave to feed as they list), nor be scholar and courtier, who wrote very elegant occasional contented with simply proselyting by example and doc.

verses in the taste of his age. A Latin panegyrie, trine men of their own kind, but they insist upon imposing all the pains of moral excommunication upon us, written upon King James, after Aytoun returned from who have healthy digestions and cheerful spirits, unless his travels in France, first drew upon him the gracious we will follow their examples, swear by their names, regards of the classic monarch ; and he spent his whole and feed by their rules.

subsequent life at the English court, where he was at The Poems of Sir Robert Aytoun. Edited by Charles tleman of the Bed-Chamber, a Privy Councillor, Master

different periods, Private Secretary to the Queen, GenRoger, from a MS. in his possession, and other authen- of Requests, and Master of Ceremonies

. He appears to tic sources, pp. 154. Edinburgh: Adam & Charles have been a general favourite, and in good odour, not Black.

only at court, but with Ben Jonson and the wits of the These "ancients” had all the luck: not only have time; though very little is known about his personal they forestalled the best thoughts and brightest fancies history. He died in the palace of Whitehall in 1638, at of their posterity, but even in their graves they continue an advanced age, and his nephew erected a handsome to monopolize the general ear, to the detriment of as monument to him, which is still to be seen in excellent good men, and much better poets. Who, for example, preservation in Westminster Abbey. We are glad to see would have cared one fig for, or bought one copy of, the that the learning and respectability of Fife have come forpoems of Sir Robert Aytoun, save, in his own day, a few ward to patronize this attempt to resuscitate the classic of his friends about the court, had he not died some two poet whom they claim as a fellow county-mar. The hundred years ago, and that comparatively very few song to which we have alluded, is that so well-known people knew any thing about compositions now enamelled from its appearance in nearly every miscellaneous colby the blue mould of centuries? Many of his verses, lection of English lyrics, indeed, according to the belief of his editor, have never

“I do confess thou 'rt smooth and fair." before appeared in print. This, however, is not satisfactorily shown; and the best have certainly been We shall give a few stanzas of another song, which preserved in different miscellaneous collections. The it is said appears now with many more for the first residue have fallen into well-merited oblivion : not that time ; and though that may be a mistake, they are to the poems of Aytoun are without merit, for he is the the present generation quite as good as MS. author of at least one song that will live for another couple of centuries, and many of his compositions pos

Wrong not, sweet Empress of my scul,

The merit of true passion, sess elegance of diction. The present publication owes

Pretending that he feels no smart, its existence to a fortunate accident. At the sale of

Who sues for no compassion. the books of Miss Hadow, a venerable spinster of St. An

Since if my plaints come not to prove drews, and the daughter and granddaughter of professors

The conquests of thy beauty, in the University of that city, an old manuscript volume

They come not from defect of love, fell into the hands of Mr. Charles Roger, a young stu

But from excess of duty. dent. It was found to contain the poems of Sir Robert Aytoun. This MS. volume, it is conjectured, must have

I'd rather choose to want relief, been copied by a boy, (whom the editor rather fancifully

Than venture the revealing ; conjectures to have been John, the youngest son of

Where glory recommends the grief, Archbishop Sharp,) from another MS. volume in the pos

Despair distrusts the healing. session of some of the family of Sir James Balfour of

Thus those desires which aim too high Denmyln, the friend and fellow-courtier of the poet. It

For any mortal lover,

When Reason cannot make them die, is nearly all guess-work ; and the editor's anxious

Discretion doth them cover. inquiries on this and other points connected with Sir Robert Aytoun, seem to have been attended with little or no success. Indeed, it would appear that only a part

Silence in love bewrays more woe of Aytoun's previous poems were copied into the MS. of

Than words, though ne'er so pith y

A beggar that is dumb, you know, Miss Hadow. But the editor has done his best to give

Doth merit double pity.

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