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Origin of certain Cufioms.

93 May the 17th, 1711, and printed in among the ancients, who knowing fale the news-papers at London, May 31, was incorruptible, made it the symbol 1711, mention is made that an English of friendship, and if it casually fell, Thip arrived at Barcelona, April the they accounted their amity would be of 17th, with corn from Barbary, and no duration. that the master caught that day in sight The custom of giving corals to chilof the land an eagle which perched dren, and fastening it about their necks, upon one of the maits of the ship, which thereby to rub their gums, and make an he presented to king Charles III and as easier passage for their teeth, is a practhe

emperor died the same day, they tice believed to be superstitiously founcook this as a good omen for his Catho- ded, as presumed, an amulet or defence lic Majesty. See in the treatises of against fascination. For the same is deAstrology, Magic, and Dreams. Aus- livered by Pliny, lib. xxxii.

Q. AvisPICIUM, was taken The refraining to kill swallows (it from the fight of birds, either on the being esteemed unlucky to destroy them) right hand or on the left; and hence is has no other reason for its origin, than the proverb, AVI SINISTRA, good luck, that anciently those birds were sacred because in giving or going, the right unto the Penates, or houshold gods of hand is opposite to the receiver's left. the ancients, and therefore were pre

Burbury, in the relation of a journey ferved, as also they were highly homade by the lord Howard to Conítan- noured for being the Nuncios of the tinople, says, at Musan-Balha-Palanka, spring ; for which reasons the Rhothe Bulgarian women ftrewed little bits dians had a solemn song to welcome in of butter and falt in the way before the swallows. See Ælian. him, presaging and wishing them a The opinion that it is good to have a prosperity to their journey and affairs. wolf cross the way, and bad to have a Vide Burbury, p. 126.

hare cross it, although it be ancient, had And here it may not be improper to no other reason for its original, than note something of the practice and anti- that it may be esteemed fortunate to quity of several superstitious custos escape the first, and a loss to let the seand sayings now in use.

cond escape us. The custom of pairing nails, and The custom of decking houses with cuttivz off our hair at certain times, is ivy at Christmas, is only because ivy was a relic of ancient superstition ; for the anciently dedicated to Bacchus the god Romans feared to pair their nails upon of wine, a liquor which is plentifully the Nundinæ, observed every oth day, drank at that time. and other certain days in the week, ac- The custom of breaking the egg

3-Theil cürding to that of Ausonius, Ungues, after the meat is out, hath been an anMercurio, &c.

cient practice, and the intent was to The conjecturing on future events by prevent witchcraft, left witches should spots in our nails, is no modern prac. draw or prick names therein, and theretice; Cardan afirming to have disco. by do mischief to mankind, as Dalevered a property in himself of finding campius has observed. therein Tome signs of most events that The making a True Lover's Knot, is ever happened unto him. The fpots still retained in presents of love, ard in the top of the nails fignify things might have originated from Nodus past; in the middle, things present, and Herculanus, or that which was called at the bottom, events to come; white Hercules's Knot, resembling the snaky specks are supposed to prelage our feli. complication in the Caduceus, or Rod city ; blue ones, our misfortunes, and of Hermes; and in which form the the like.

zone, cr woollen girdle of the bride, in To observe the falling of salt, pro- ancient times, was fastened, as Turnebus ceeds from a particular omination oblerves in his Adverfaria.


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Astrologi al Biography. The saying, They are unbless’d, 1:n- of Pliny:

-Nævos in facie tondere reli. til they have put on their girdle, may 'giofum habent rinc. have, indeed, no ordinary consideration The practice we have to determine for its original, fince by a girdle or doubtful matters by the opening of a

cincture, are fymbolically implied truth, book; and letting full a staff, are ancient refolution, and readine's unto action, fragments of Pagin divinations. which are parts and virtues required in The cuítom of receiving the climacthe service of God. According ishereto terical year of 63. as a very dangerous we find then the Ifraelites did eat the year, is a very ancient beliet; Philo, the Pascal Lamb with their loins girded; Jew, having filled up several pages with and the Almighty challenging Job, bids things relating to this number; and him gird up his loins like a man. Pythagoras and Plato have been great

The cuitom to fay, Somebody is maintainers thereof in their Numerical talking of us when our cheek burneth or Considerations. The opinion arises from gloweth, appears to be an ancient con- that belief, that the days of men are uluceit, being ranked among fupcrslitious ally cast up by feptenaries, and every opinions by Pliny; but the first rise of seventh year conceived to carry

fome al it is as unknown, as the occasion of such tering character with it; as also the a fignifying genius.

Moon, which governs man’s body, is The cuitom of nourishing hair upon fupposed to be measured by fevens. And the moles of the face, is the perpetua- io the number seven and nine, whicky tion of a very ancient practice, and multiplied into theinfelves, do make 634 though now innocently used, may have is comisioniy esteemed the great climac. a superititious original, according to that terical of our lives.




colours. Thus she painted upon vel lum, all the insects she could find

Francfort and Nuremberg. Some curi SHE was the daughter as it is thought ous persons having teen her perfcrinance of Math. Merian, an ingenious Gere detired her to impart it to the public man Engraver, who has given Topo- At fait she yielded to their solicitations graphical Collections, in 31 vols. fol. and published the firit part of her figure Florilegium, Francf. fol. 1641.

She in 1679, in 4to. and the second in was born at Francfort in 1647, and 1683, engraved with her own hands, made herself famous from her youth by Atterwards she went into Friezland and her ingenuity and accurateneis in delic Holland, ivhere the continued to make neating flowers and infects in water co- new obfervations upon insccts. Being lours.

in Holland, me admired the vaft num. She began with filk-worms at Franc- ber of animais brought into that counfort, where he was born; and then try from the East and Weit Indies. Her perceiving that much finer infects iprung admiration increased, when she was adfrom other worms, the dllected as ma- initted into the curious cabinets of M. ny as the could get, to observe their Nicolas Witfen, M. Jonas Witfen, Dr. several metamorpholes. The better to Ruiích, M. Vincent, and several others. fucceed in her delign, fhe resolved to At the fight of such a prodigicus num. live in a perfect recirement; and being ber of intečts, the reloved to make a wholly intent upon those observations, voyage into Surinam; from whence the undertook to inake by that means a those infects were conveyed into Holnew progress in painting; and to repre- land. She arrived there in June 1699. {ent her discoveries in natural and lively Whilft Mrs. Merian was in Ameka,



ber 1701.



Life of Liliyi she wholly applied herself to make ob-, and “Defectio Geniturarum,” who was, servations upon the insects of that coun- perhara, himself, the greateit Englislz try. The great heat of Surinam not, Profcficr of this science in the last con agreeing with her constitution, the left tury. that country fooner than the intended, and returned into Holland in Septem

A FAMOUS ENGLISH AND POLITICAL She made some other voyages, and died at Amsterdam, 1717. The best edition of her Metamorphosis Infecto- William Lilly, an eminent English rum Surinamenfium, is that of Amit. Astrologer, in the seventeenth century, fol. 1705. Sir Hans Sloane gave 6ool. carried the art of the fiderial influx to for the original manuscript of this book, fuch'a height, and the temper of the and it is now among the curiosities in 'times favouring the celestial icience, thit the British Museum.

no material itep) was taken by the Court, without firit consulting Mr. Wm. Lilly, His “ Merlinus Anglicus Junior," the

Supernatural Sight," and the “ White

King's Prophecy,” contributed much ta Placidus De Titus, from the best in- his fame, in the aittracted time of Charles formation, appears to have been an Ita- I. While that king svas at Hamptonlian monk, and an inhabitant of Bo- court, about July or August, 1647, he logna. He was a man of considerable was consulted, whither his majesty inight. genius, and much application and indu- retire for safety; and in 1648, he was Atry. It is difficult to fix the precise time consulted for the same purpose, while the of his birth or death, but it is certain he king was at Carisbrook-castle, in the Ille lived at the tịme of the revival of Letters of Wight. The same year, he published in Europe. He was a great scarcher into his “ Treatise of the Three Suns," seen the abstruse, and latent fecrets of Nature; the preceding winter; as allo an altrsand, if we may judge by what he has logical judgment upon a conjunction of left behind him, he must have lived to Saturn and Mars. This year, the Coun- ! ar advanced age. His book on the cil of State gave him, in money, fifty " Elementary Philosophy of the Uni- pounds, and a penfion of an hundred verse,” is far superior, in every part, to pounds per annum. In 1648 and 49, many others of cotemporary writers up- he publicly read and explained the firit on the same subject, and has been lo part of his Chriftian Altrology, for the scarce, that fifty guineas have been re- improvement of young students in that fused for a copy. The late Mr. Benja- science. In 1651, he published his min Bishop, master of Sir John Çals's Monarchy or no Monarchy. During School, Aldgate, caused this work to be the fiege of Colchester, he and John translated from the original Latin into Booker were sent for, to encourage the English; but he unfortunately died be- soldiers, alluring them that the town fore the book was quite finished; and the would soon be taken, as indeed it was. MS. falling into the hands of a rapacious In 1652, he published his “ Annus Te and less learned editor, it has been pub. nebrofus.” In his Almanack for next lished in a more incorrect manner than year, he aflerted, that the parliament would have happened, had the life of stood upon a tottering foundation ; upon that ingenious liderial artist been of a which he was confined for thirteen days. longer date.

In 1654, he had a dispute with the We are beholden to this piece, in the learned Mr. Gataker, who, in his Anoriginal, for the most judicious and notations on Jeremiah X. 2. had reflected learned remarks, made by the famous on Mr Lilly. In 1655; he was indicted Partridge, in his “ Opus Reformatum," at Hick's-ball, for giving judgment upon



Life of James Czanam.

on ac

ber that year.

ftolen goods, but was acquitted. In 1659, mily, and designed for the Church by Captain Cox brought him, from the his father, who had given him an exKing of Sweden, a gold chain and a cefient education. He studied Divinity medal, worth about fifty pounds, four


rather out of obedience than count of Mr. Lilly's having mentioned inclination; but upon his father's death that King with respect, in his Almanack he quitted that study, and applied himof 1657. In June 1660, he was taken felf wholly to the Mathematics, for into custody by order of the Parliament, which he had a singular genius. He afby whom he was examined concerning terwards taught that science at Lyons, the person who cut off the head of King and was, for his generosity to two foCharles I. The same year, he fued out his reigners, his scholars, by them recompardon under the great feal of England. menuled to Mr. Daguereau (father of The plague raging in London, he re- the Chancellor) who fent for him to moved with his family to his estate at Paris, with a promise to affif him to Hershain ; and in October 1666, was the utmost of his power. Our author, examined before a Committee of the therefore, came and settled at Paris, House of Commons, concerning the fire where he abandoned his inclination to of London, which happened in Septem- gaming, to which he had been very

much addicted, and devoted himself enHis last publication was his “Guide tirely to the Mathematics. He met with for Altrologers,” translated from the La- pretty good encouragement at Paris, till tin of Guido Bonatius, a good piece; the war (which was occafioned foon af. } but his principal work is the “ Christian ter the year 1701, by the Spanish sucAstrology," a book, than which there is cession) deprived him of all his scholars, not a better extant upon the subject in and reduced him to a very melancholy any language.

state. It was at that time he was adAfter his retirement to Hersham, he'mitted in the Royal Academy of Sciapplied himself to the study of Physic, ences, in quality of an Eleve. He had and, by means of his friend Mr. Ahh- such a presentiment of his death, though mole, obtained from Archbishop Shel- without any sickness, that he refused to don a license for the practice of it. A accept of some foreign noblemen for his little before his death, he adopted for scholars, alledging that he should soon his son, by the name of Merlin Junior, die; as he actually did, April the 3d, one Henry Coley, a taylor by trade, and 1717, of an Apoplexy, in less than two at the same time gave him the impression hours, being tren 77 years old. of his Almanack, after it had been printed It is not without reason that considerfor 36 years. He died in 1681, of a pile knowledge in Astrology has been dead palsy. Mr. Ashmole set a monu- ascribed to him, and the foreknowing ment over his grave, in the church of his death seems to confirm it: but, perWalton upon Thames. Mr. George haps, like Dryden the Poet, he chose not Smalrids e, then a scholar at Weitmin- to affect any scientific display. His steralchool, afterwards Bishop of Bristol, works, which are very numerous, have wrote tivo elegies, one in Latin, the met with the approbation of the learned other in English, upon his death. of all countries, particularly his “Ma

thematical Recreations,” which remain an'uncontrovertible proof of his great ingenuity. Mons. Guyot has made

much use of this work, though neither James Ozananı, an eminent he- him, nor Dr. Hooper, his transfator, matician, was born in 1640. He was have had the candour to acknowledge the youngeit son of a very opulent fa- it.






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Answers to the Queries in N° 1.

97 Kirg of Denmark, gave him the Isle of Ween, with a large pension.

Here he The celebrated Ticho Brahe, or Bra- built his wonderful observatory of Stelche, was born in Denmark, in 1546. leburg, besides a seat, to which he gave At the age of fourteen, seeing a solar the name of Uranienburg, which, with eclipse happen at the very moment fore. his several inftruments and machines of told by the Astronomers, it enflamed his own making, were the admiration him with a desire of learning that ici- of all who came to see him; and among ence : he was sent to Leipfic, to study these were, James VI. of Scotland, and the law, but, unknown to his masters, Christian, King of Denmark. He inhe employed a great part of his time in vented a new System of the World, astronomical observations. Having loft which bears his name, and was a long his nose in a nocturnal fray, he made while adopted by most Divines, being himself another, composed of gold, filc free from the inconveniences of that of ver and wax, with such skill, that stran- Ptolomy, but yet supposes the Sun to. gers thought it natural : on his return turn round the earth. Some courtiers, into Denmark, he married a country. envious of his great favour, did him such girl, which drew on him the resentment an ill turn with the King of Denmark, of all his family, till the King of Den- that his pension was taken from him; mark interposed his authority for a re- on which he removed into Holland; conciliation. In his travels through but, at the pressing invitations of the Italy and Germany, the Emperor and Emperor Rodolph II. he repaired to several other Princes made him very Prague, where, in the year 1601, he considerable offers, but he chose rather died by suppreiling his urine too long to settle at home; where Frederic II. at an entertainment.




them. Besides, if a man has more than QUERY 1. NO 1. in one wife, he cannot follow the direction

of the next verse, where St. Paul exJ. H. B,

horts the husband and wile mutually to

render each other due benevolence. He IN answer to the first question which also says, in Ephesians 8th and 31st, the Querist puts for folation.“ Did The man shall be joined to his wife, not St. Paul give leave to Laymen to and they two shall be one flesh-Timarry, or have more wives than one, mothy iii. 2. ; for the Apostle is there when he says, Let a Bishop be the hus- speaking only of the affirınative qualities band of one wife only ?”—He certainly and duties of the Bishop, and says, He never meant any such thing; for he must be blameless, the husband of one taught the duties of man and wife, in wife; vigilant, sober, of good behathe seventh chapter of his firit Epistle to viour, given to hospitality, apt to teach. the Corinthians ; in the second verse In the next verse, he teaches the negawhereof he says, Let every man have tive duties and qualities of the function. his own wife, and every woman have So that I take it to be St. Paul's meanher own husband. Now, if every wo- ing, that a man must be the husband of man ought to have her own husband, one wife, before he can take upon himthe wives of that man who has a plural- self the exercise of the duties of a Biity, cannot say they have each their own hop. And this is again confirmed in husband, for they have but one amongst his Epistle to Titus, i. 6. VOL. I.



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