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given weekly to his people on earth, by the Sabbath, wherein they must lay aside all worldly, things, and be wholly employed in the service of God, and work of heaven: and this is in order both to keep them in mind of, and make them meet for that inheritance of the saints in light.

Quest. 111. What is to be understood by the morality of the Sabbath, or fourth commandment, so frequently spoke of ?

Ans. When we call the Sabbath, or fourth command. ment, moral, we mean that it is one of God's moral precepts, or a part of the moral law, i. e. the perpetual and unalterable rule given us by God, for regulating our life and manners : Also, by calling it moral, we distinguish it from the ceremonial law, which was binding for a time only, and abrogated by Christ's coming. The fourth commandment, enjoining the observation of the Sabbath, is not ceremonial, but moral; that is, it is not temporary, but of standing and perpetual obligation, and which binds all men, in all ages to the end of the world.

But, that we may have a more distinct apprehension of the morality of the Sabbath, we must distinguish betwixt things that are naturally moral, and things positively moral. Moral natural is, when the thing required is so founded upon, and authorised by, the law of nature and right reason, that it is fit and necessary to be done, though there had been no express command for it; such as worshippiny God, obeying parents, abstaining from murder, &c. Moral positive is something enjoined us, which, tho' it be ayreeable to the law of nature. yet carries not such a natu al evidence in it, as to oblige us, without a divine re. velation and express command: but, being once revealed and commanded, it is perpetually binding as well as that which is moral natural Now, the fourth command is commonly called moral positive, though indeed there are several things in it, which are of na:ural equity, and au• thorised by ile law of nature and sound reason ;

1. That there be a due part of our time stated and con. secrated for the solemn worship and service of God, and particularly in public assemblies.

2. That this stated time or day should be universal,

such as,

and the same through all, that one man's business intere fere not with another's devotions.

3. That this day should recur in a due frequency, that it neither be so rare as to hinder our soul's good, or indispose us for the duties of it; nor so frequent, as to deprive us of opportunity for our necessary secular employments.

4. That the holy duties of this day be not marred or interrupted by wordly employments or diversions in regard they tend naturally to draw off the mind from God and divine objects. These four things, included in the fourth commandment, I reckon to be of natural equity, or moral natural.

There are other things in it, which are of positive institution, i. e. binding only by a positive law, and express revelation. Of these again there is something,

1. That is positive moral, i. e. of perpetual and unalterable obligation, viz. that the foresaid stated time for God's solemn worship should be the seventh part of our time, or one day in seven. This, by God's law, is become perpet. ually moral and unalterable; but, if God had not revealed it to us, the law or light of nature could not have determined us to it, nor rendered any solid reason why the seve enth rather than the fifth, sixth, or eighth part of onr time, should have been so consecrated to God: but the Author of nature, who best knows what proportion of time suite best both to men's bodies and spirits, and how oft it should recur, so as to answer best the exigencies both of our present and future life, hath wisely determined it to be a sev. enth part, or one day in seven: And can any man say but it is a most rational and fair determination ?' Had he dealt with us strictly, he might have taken the six days, and left us but one: but since he hath taken but one and allowed us six, we ought to acknowledge that the Lord hath dealt graciously and liberally with us. Nay, had it been referred to ourselves, could we have given less time than this to God, from whom we have all our time, nay, our very being, and all the good things we enjoy.

But, 2dly, Chere is in the fourth commandment something that is positive ceremonial, or mutable, viz

The ob servation of the last day of the seven for the Sabbath. This indeed was enjoined at first, though not directiy aud

principally, as anywise essential to the command for the Sabbath; but only in a secondary way, as a circumstance of the command, which was to be altered when God pleased. It belonged not to the substance of this command, or the great design of the law, in what end of the week the Sabbath should be, whether the first or last of the seven days should be consecrated for it: since the scope of the fourth commandment is only to bind us to consecrate the seventh part of our time, or one day in seven, to the Lord. This is the morality of the command, and what is of sacred and perpetual obligation in it. For, observe how the command runs, " Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy:

-Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord." He saith not, 66 Remember the seventh day” to keep it holy, but, “ Remember the Sabbath day," or " holy rest," whatever day it shall be appointed on. Take the six days for your labour, and let God have a seventh every week for his solemn worship; this is the design of the law: for when it is said, " The seventh is the Sabbath of the Lord,” it is not precisely meant of the seventh in the order, but the seventh in number ; not the seventh day after the creation, but the day following the six days allowed men to labour; that day is the Lord's, whatever day in the week it fall on. And though it be told in the end, that “God rested the sev. enth day," which indeed seems to be the seventh from the creation ; yet it is said, “ He blessed the Sabbath day," not the seventh day. So that it is plain, that, both in the beginning and end of the command,the Lord puts a remarkable difference betwixt the Sabbath, or dav of holy rest, and the seventh day of the week, the day of his own rest; implying, that the scope of the command is to bind us to sanctify one day in seven, whatever seventh the Lord pleases to choose, whether it be the first or last day of the week; and that the observation of the seventh day from the creation, is to be distinguished from the sta ding law of the Sabbath. For “ Remember the Sabbath day to keep . it holy," is the fourth command, and would have bound us, though it had stopt there, and said no more.. Though yet I grant that the observation of the seventh or last day of the week for the Sabbath, is so enjoined by the fourth command, that none could have altered it from that day to another, but he that is Lord of the Sabbath.

such as,

Phus you see in what sense the fourth command is mo. Eal, and of unalterable obligation; and how it perpetually binds all Christians as well as Jews, to sanctify one day in seven for a weekly Sabbath unto the Lord. And now the day being changed by divine authority, from the last to tho first day of the week (of which afterwards, the substance, scope, or morality of the fourth command is nowise in: fringed ; and it still retains its authority, and obligatory force as much us ever, binding Christians to sanctify the first day of the week, as much as it did the Jews to sanctity the last: Even as a law, commanding the keeping of an anniversary day for the Sovereign's birth, doth equally apply itself to the birth-day of each succeeding prince.

Quest. IV. How may the morality of the Sabbath, or the perpetual obligation of the fourth command, be demonstrated against those who deny it

Ans. There are many reasons which prove that the fourth command is noral, binding us by a sacred and perpetual law, to keep holy one day in seven, to the end of the world;

I. If the law for the Sabbath was given to man, and binding upon him in a state of innocency, before there was any ceremony or type of Christ instituted : (for then men did not need a Redeemer, nor any rite or type relative to him) then consequently this command was not ceremonial, nor abolished by Christ's coming, but is of moral and per: petual obligation ; but the former is true; and therefore the latter. The consequence of the first proposition is certain, for the reasons mentioned ; and also from this, that the Sabbath was appointed to Adam on a moral ground, which obliges all his posterity, viz. That he might have freedom and opportunity ter the solemn worship of God, without any diversion from worldly things. For Adam, in his best estate, being but a finite creature, could not be intensely taken up with spiritual and temporal things both at once'; his ordinary employment of dressing the garden, would in some measure have diverted his mind, that he could not wholly give himself to devotion, and the solemn worship of his Maker: wherefor God saw it fit he should have a day set apart, wherein he might have an uninterrupted freedom for it. Now, if Adam needed a Sabbath for the grounds above mentioned ; much more do we need

one, who are not only finite creatures. but corrupt also ; and have so little grace and strength for spiritual employments, and so many corruptions, temptations and allure. ments, to draw our hearts from God through the week, which he had not.

Philip Limbroch and other anti-sabbatarians, have no way to answer his argument, but by denying such an early institution of the Sabbath, and asserting, that it was not appointed till the time of Moses, when the ceremonies were instituted. But the contrary is evident from several texts.

1. From Gen. ii. 3. where we are told, before man's fall, or any word of it, that “God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, because that in it he had rested from all his work.” Now, the scripture notion of sanctifying any thing, is to separate and set it apart from common to sacred uses and purposes. And so it is plain from this text, that God from the beginning of the world, did sanetify and set apart one day in seven to be observed by all mankind, as a day of sacred rest, a day solemnly consecrated to his worship and service: and to lay a tie on us to observe it, we have God's example, of resting this day from all his werk, set before our eyes. And seeing God from the beginning of the world had a church in it, who would certainly join together in performing public worship and service to him; they behoved to have set times for it, and consequently a Sabbath : And what day so fit for that purpose, as the day which God hath sanctified for sacred rest? That this was the ancient practice, may be inferred from Gen. iv. 3, 4. where we read of Cain and Abel bringing their offerings to the Lord, which was an instance of public worship. And ver. 3. it is said, In process of time, they brought offerings, &c. Now, these words, In process of time, may be as well rendered from the Hebrew, At the end of days, and so it is in the margin of bibles. Now, by the end of days, must be meant the period of working days, which we call a week : and so it was on the seventh day, when solemn worship was (according to divine institution) to be performed, that men brought their offerings to the Lord. That God's rest on this day was examplary to all mankind, appears from his taking six several days to perform his works of crea. tion, and the distinct recording of each day's work, and his resting upon the seventh day. Certainly it had been

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