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This was organized by men engaged in vari- The greater part of the book work in connecous branches of business, and included in tion with elections in Idaho, including registraits membership by their invitation busi- tion and polling, is done by the women, which ness women and representatives of every gives them a more intimate conception of the woman's civic club. The purpose was to study machinery of government. The polls are quiet measures under debate in the Legislature and maintain somewhat the dignity of a forma with the aim of encouraging good and hin- : social function with men and women present. dering immature and hasty enactment; in- The omens are already in the sky predictsurance men, commission merchants, attor- ing that women may become more informed neys, Mothers' Congress delegates, and as citizens than the men. The women's Federation Club workers co-operated with clubs for civic study and the practical apthe Legislature and gave them the advan- plication which is given their balloting are tage of the more extensive view-point. having a broadening and educational effect.

Where is to be found an organization of men with the purpose of perfecting the members

for the more efficient performance of the Although the Western-trained woman takes duties of citizenship? The history of eduher balloting naturally, the race training which cation, which at first in the annals of manfor generations has endowed men with this re- kind was restricted to the masculine sex, may sponsibility is noticeable in the greater famil- be considered as a precedent, the number of iarity of the men with statutory technicalities. women completing high school and collegiate As yet the conversation and companionships courses now exceeding that of the men. of the average girl do not give her as accurate a civic training as her brother's, although

FEMININITY OF WOMEN AFFECTED ? she is intelligently informed. Mrs. Cynthia Has the ballot affected the femininity of Mann, a teacher at the time of the adoption women ? If the charm of womanhood has of suffrage, and later donor of the Idaho State escaped with the entrance of the ballot, Children's Home site, said in a memorandum both men and women are so blind to the the year following suffrage :

condition as not to know their loss. Rare Another effect that is worthy of notice is indeed would be the person found repining the great interest among the pupils of our for the good old days when women couldn't public schools in the study of political economy. vote. Do the women vote the same as their The girls often felt less interest in this science husbands? Some women vote to the dicbecause they would have no voice in polit- tation of the men, which condition will conical affairs, while most boys said that they tinue until every woman knows how to could vote without studying this science. express her own self. The point is, the Now the girls, like their mothers, look upon woman who is awake to her privilege of this new responsibility as a grave one.

The expression has it, and it is potentially possible boys are not to be outdone, and it is de- to the unknowing one when she awakens. lightful to see the zeal with which they attack Some men still sleep. There has not been this so-called dull study."

a record of the percentage of men and women The average woman grown to maturity voting, but in some precincts it is said that in a non-suffrage State in removing to a suf- more women than men vote. frage State accepts her new privilege as a burden, while it is probable that the daugh

THE OLD AND NEW IDEALS OF CITIZENSHIP ter is abounding in the joy of having a part Twenty years of the ballot in the hands of with her father and brothers in the local women with men in Idaho has developed affairs. But when a question up for election that State along moral and advanced lines, appeals to the mother as one of right or with legislation which has outrun the old wrong, the voting ceases to be a burden and Puritanical States of their forefathers. The becomes a weapon.

temptations of the early days—drink, gamThe training received as clerks and judges bling, and houses of ill repute-are swept of election is valuable to the women. An

away. But it is claimed by some who have Illinois judge has made mention of the effi- watched the change of the past twenty-five cient clerical work of the women in the elec- years that Idaho with statutes, granting them tions of Chicago recently, upon which new enforced, is not as righteous as Idaho withlabor the women of that State are entering. out statutes. The story of the pack-driver




with one barrel of whisky more than he could all aggressive opposition ceased. Those who haul up the hill is told to illustrate the former had been zealous opponents refrained from integrity. Finding it impossible to continue predicting the evil consequences that would his journey so heavily loaded, the driver be the result of women voting, and at all deposited the barrel of drink by the roadside elections held since, primary, municipal, and with two cups, one for the passing travelers school, have vied with the ardent advocates to partake of the contents and the other to of this reform in politics in securing the receive the pay. Later he returned and took presence at the polls of this new element in his cup of coin. No such sense of honor is uni- governmental affairs.” versal to day, say the story-tellers. Yet even they It has continued sane in its operation ; the would hardly want to go back to the old days. leaders among the women are of a high type.

Its inherent policy of educating the general SUFFRAGE SANE IN ITS OPERATION public to its reforms burns out fanaticism in The intense attitude of some of the pro- the long journey of the proposed enactments moters of equal suffrage might have led to the through committees, local discussions, and belief that when the reform went into opera- press reports. The exaggeration of energy tion the commonwealth would be in a state displayed in the fray for suffrage is one of of upheaval and that radical measures would the results of antagonism. When the antagbe enacted to the disturbance of the common onism is withdrawn and suffrage is permitted peace. Its practice, however, has proved to fill its mission, its course has been that it does not carry a destructive tendency. found to be orderly and constructive This Eighteen months after its adoption Mrs. is the inevitable working of the metaphysical Cynthia Mann, quoted above, wrote:

law. For equal suffrage is an expression of “When the Supreme Court of Idaho de- the principle of equality, and, as a principle cided that the equal suffrage amendment had in operation, can produce only harmony and carried, it was pleasing to note how quickly satisfaction in its proper manifestation.



WO years and a half ago the num- improved freshness of quality which the

ber of consumers' co-operative clubs direct-marketing plan affords.

in this country engaged in buying The typical buying club in the East purfood products direct from producers and chases its eggs from producing sections as far big wholesalers was so small as to deserve West as Iowa, and brings them on in quanmerely passing mention. But to-day you will tities of a hundred dozen. Its butter, packed find over two hundred such organizations in easily divisible units of one-pound cartons, flourishing in New York, a hundred each in comes from any of the large creameries of Chicago and Philadelphia, and thousands of Indiana or Ohio. Poultry, beef, pork, and others scattered among the larger cities east lamb in handy lots of fifty or a hundred of the Mississippi—for it is in the Middle pounds are obtained from the mail-order deWest and the East that the need for simplify- partments of large packing-houses of the ing our present system of distributing farm West. And vegetables, honey, fruits, nuts, products is most keenly felt. Community and dozens of other products of the farm and groups of housewives, factory workers, anů orchard are bought in quantity, transported in employees of banks, department stores, and quantity, paid for in advance by the club, and business offices have banded together by the then divided up among its members. The thousand to develop a practical way of buying buying club depends for its success upon the their food supplies at lower costs.

It is no

elimination of all unnecessary middlemen; it longer an experiment with these people ; it is conducts what in reality is a long-distance a weekly practice and thrifty accomplishment, mail-order marketing plan, with the whole for the savings of the modern buying club country for its shopping field. average twenty per cent—to say nothing of Two things are responsible for the buying

24c. "

club idea and its growth : the industrial work ders which were transmitted to fish-producing of the express companies in linking up coun- companies and filled direct to consumers' clubs try producer and city consumer in an effort —as well as for 3,000 dozen eggs and large to recoup traffic losses caused by the parcel consignments of honey, California dried fruits, post, and the extraordinary sudden eagerness and smoked hams and strips of bacon. And of many large producers of meat, butter, and the Easter week (1915) order of a large Fifth other foodstuffs to sell direct to the city Avenue, New York, buying club ran as follows: co-operative club. The transportation com

Retail Price Buying Club panies have brought consumer and producer

Prevalent. Price.

170 pounds bacon..... 250. Ib. into actual commercial touch by the gather

20c, lb. 100 ham.

19c. ing and publishing of specific price quotations,

450 dozen eggs..

40c. doz. 29c. doz. details of quality and packing, and other essen

400 pounds butter.. 40c. Ib. 32c. lb. tials to successful direct marketing. Reputable farmers and large wholesalers anxious to Consideration of the detailed methods of break into the new market have been sought a typical metropolitan buying club in cutting out and educated to standardize their product the living costs of its members will make the and maintain that standard as carefully as the significance of the movement apparent. In corner grocer does this for the city housewife. one lower New York Broadway business firm Weekly bulletins with definite offers by reli- over two hundred employees are organized to able producers have become an institution buy foodstuffs direct. The secretary of the among thousands of consumers' clubs. The club gathers orders from the individual memexpress, with its country agents on the one bers early in the week, lumps them, selects hand and its city agents on the other, has the names of producers with whom he would been able to bring buyer and seller into prefer to deal from the weekly quotation mutual confidence. Coupled with the sales Ists supplied to the buying clubs by the food initiative of producers to go direct to the products departments of the express comkitchen of the consumer--an initiative which panies, and sends in an order. He can ask has meant the invention of new carriers and the transportation company to handle this containers especially adapted to shipping order for him if he desires, leaving it at a direct to consumers' clubs—this industrial branch office, or can himself mail the order work has resulted in the organization of thou- with check. Frequently, after getting in touch sands of city co-operative clubs, the first real with good producers, the buying clubs deal co-operative movement in the country. directly with them. The secretary knows that

The buying clubs range in size from twenty any producers quoted on the weekly bulletin to three hundred members. In a fashion are reliable—that they are better prepared able suburb of New York one large club is than the average farmer for shipping highoperated among more than three hundred quality goods direct to consumers. The bulk families. Its Thanksgiving turkey order runs of his “grocery list” is weekly made up of . over nine hundred pounds. In a single butter, eggs, and meats, although, in season, winter month its “market-basket "amounted vegetables and fruits are popular. to 60 dozen stalks of celery, 1,000 dozen Upon stated days the various products eggs, 700 pounds of poultry, and 2,000 arrive for distribution—butter and eggs one pounds of other products bought direct from day, meats the next, etc.

day, meats the next, etc. Right here the farmers and packers and creameries. A buying club stands or falls. How much large club in Chicago among the employees labor is involved in the distribution to memof a business firm spends nearly $5,000 a bers? Is it too much bother ? For if it month among the producers of Wisconsin, is, no co-operative scheme will succeed in Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri. It reckons its America. The manufacturers—the country savings at twenty-five per cent, and is big producers—have calculated upon this ; they enough to retain the exclusive services of a have seen that the way to make a consumers' salaried clerk to conduct the affairs of the co-operative scheme successful is to make club. The town of Fort Wayne, Indiana, the work at the consumers' end as easy as with 70,000 population, is served by forty- possible--something which has never been odd buying clubs which embrace a member- carefully worked out before. So the lower ship of several hundred families. In a single Broadway club secretary finds the butter, for day the local express agent received orders for instance, packed in sanitary, waxed-cardboard lake fish to the extent of 2,000 pounds-or- cartons of one pound each ; the eggs already




divided into single-dozen boxes; the chickens and vegetables brought into a town through wrapped fit for carrying home; fruit and the newly dredged channel of the buying club vegetables in convenient-sized hampers; and forces upon the retailer the necessity for a hams and bacon strips wrapped neatly enough simplification of the distribution system to lay on your office desk. By snapping up where it is possible to simplify. In some the trifles of packing and shipping the coun- cases it has resulted in the retailers themselves try producer and big wholesaler are finding a turning to the very supply fields drawn upon solution to the direct-marketing problem. It by the buying club, and thus getting their is an office boy's job of an hour or two to stocks direct from producers where before apportion the various orders to the members, they had been buying from jobbers and other wrap them in paper and twine bought by a wholesalers. Buying club competition in the three per cent tax levied on members of the town of Nyack, New York, forced the prices club for that purpose, and have them ready of staples down nearly twenty-five per cent for each man to take home with him at night. for an entire winter, and resulted in the car

That the idea does really work out and pay rying of fresher and more varied stocks in in substantial savings is proved by the rapid several retail stores. growth of the movement and the immense The consumers' end of the buying club popularity of the plan among city workers. movement is profitable, both directly when It is particularly interesting to note that sev- club members save money and indirectly eral large Eastern clubs are fostered by the when a family profits by a regulated price employers of the members to the extent of level. But to the farmer and country the firm carrying the club's bills on its own manufacturer of food products it has been books, paying the producers itself, and debit- even more profitable—to many a man it has ing each member on pay-day for the amount meant a brand-new sort of market with of foodstuffs charged against his account. twenty to one hundred per cent better prices One large Eastern club in a suburban town for his goods than he ever got before. The maintains a delivery service to the homes of creation of thousands of buying club markets its members for approximately five cents per anxious to buy direct from country sources package, and, in spite of the added cost, has has developed a small class of business farmer rapidly increased the amounts of its pur- whose function is really that of a mail-order chases. The margin of saving, even with house. And, as has been suggested, in delivery cost, is enough of an inducement; addition to the clubs themselves, often city for the suburb, like many another town out- retailers have come direct to the country to side of the conventional system of foodstuffs do their buying. An egg gatherer in a small distribution, pays unusually high prices to New York town, by catering specially to the its retailers. Co-operation has saved the buying club trade of New York and Buffalo, members between twenty and twenty-five developed a business of $5,000 a month per cent in their weekly provision bills. within six months. Through quotations on

It is, of course, out of the question to sup- the express weekly bulletins he secured the pose the the large cities of the country will patronage of club after club, until, as is freever dispense with the present chain of mid- quently the case in industrial work, he was dlemen to take up direct marketing via the forced to request the transportation company buying club route. The examples given to withdraw his name from the bulletin, beabove are interesting and sensational in their cause of too many orders received. accomplishment of lowering the cost of food- There are innumerable instances of the stuffs for a comparatively minute portion of creation of wider and more profitable markets our population. But practically nowhere near for farmers through the buying club movetwenty per cent of the city folk will ever try ment. By standardizing their produce at the it and continue it. Yet the buying club sourie—that is, by carefully grading and movement is none the less a movement of neatly packing their foodstuffs for shipmentreal economic importance. It has a regulative lettuce-growers, apple-growers, and honeyeffect. Even within the last few months it producers have found new channels for the has proved its capacity for hammering down disposition of their goods at much better the exorbitant level of prices which have been prices than they received when marketing in imposed upon the public in many centers of the old way. Sixty thousand pounds of honey the densely populated district east of the were marketed via express in small conMississippi. Every ton of butter, eggs, meat, signments during a single season for one Michigan producer. Buying clubs and small Paterson, New Jersey, with forty-odd buying retailers in Eastern cities took the greater clubs, imports” butter at the rate of nine part of his output. He had no transportation thousand pounds per month direct from the charges to pay, no sales overhead expense, creamery:

A little over two years ago no and, besides, he got fifteen per cent higher such direct market was available for the butprices than ever before. Similar cases of profit ter manufacturers. to the farmer by this “ cutting across lots It is of significance that the producer has to market his produce could be cited in found a way to market his stuff direct to conregard to the sale of eggs, maple syrup, sumers in the city, even if it be only a small vegetables, and cheese. For some time portion of his crop. For it tends to break the large creameries of Ohio and Indiana him away from the unfortunate notion that have been receiving orders direct from con- he is wholly dependent on the chain of midsumers' clubs and small retailers at the rate dlemen which looms up between him and what of forty thousand pounds per month-not an he considers a fair profit. If he chooses to enormous figure, considering the immense be a business farmer, a manufacturer of quantities of butter eaten, but none of this country produce with sales relations direct business existed heretofore. It is a direct trade with consumers' clubs or retailers, he has a and has sprung up and increased quickly, due fair chance to “ do it now" under the buying to the buying club movement. The city of club patronage.





AVE you ever seen a man who had
been shot dead? Or, rather, have

you ever entered a house in which a man had been murdered and the body of the victim was still warm ? It is an unpleasant picture to call up, but it is the only way to give some idea of how it feels when you stealthily enter the town of X.

It used to be a flourishing little Austrian city before the war, alive and gay with a civic life and a civic pride of its own. Then came the audacious dash of the Italians for the lower Isonzo, and the Austrian soldiers were driven across the river. There they turned around under cover of their mountain fortresses and shot the little city dead. They might have stopped then, because it is just like a corpse and cannot fight back even if it would ; but they have riddled its body time and again, uselessly, cruelly, wickedly.

I say this because I saw it done when I went to “ view the body " as a sort of neutral coroner, and these are my findings upon an actual inspection.

We had driven from Army Headquarters

past the rear lines and encampments through that zone I have heretofore described as being within reach of the long-range guns of the enemy, and where civilians still prefer to take the chance of an occasional bombardment to the severance of the old home ties.

Now we were leaving all that behind us for more exposed highways. Where there was no shelter of wall or cover of trees on the highroad the military chauffeur would put on full power and the machine covered the open stretch on racing time. It is really wonderful how fast an automobile can be made to go when it is a question of dodging shells ; it is a speed test which our automobile selling agents might consider.

As we drove into the square of the murdered city a strange sensation seized one ; it was very, very still, with houses which were more impressive because of their look of having been absolutely and hastily untenanted than on account of their dismantled appearance.

In all this solitude a lone sentinel presented arms to our colonel as we got out of the car. He was the only fighting man visible, and

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