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other her lap-dog, he bears her train majestically along by sticking it in the waistband of his breeches.

Adieu.

LETTER LXXXI.

FROM THE SAME.

A DISPUTE has for some time divided the philosophers of Europe; it is debated, whether arts and sciences are more serviceable or prejudicial to mankind. They who maintain the cause of literature, endeavour to prove their usefulness from the impossibility of a large number of men subsisting in a small tract of country without them ; from the pleasure which attends the acquisition, and from the influence of knowledge in promoting practical morality.

They who maintain the opposite opinion, display the happiness and innocence of those uncultivated nations who live without learning; urge the numerous vices which are to be found only in polished society, enlarge upon the oppression, the cruelty, and the blood which must necessarily be shed, in order to cement civil society, and insist upon the happy equality of conditions in a barbarous state preferable to the unnatural subordination of a more refined constitution.

This dispute, which has already given so much employment to speculative indolence, has been managed with much ardour, and (not to suppress our sentiments) with but little sagacity. They who insist that the sciences are useful in refined society are cer. tainly right, and they who maintain that barbarous VOL. IV.

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nations are more happy without them, are right also ; but when one side for this reason attempts to prove them as universally useful to the solitary barbarian as to the native of a crowded commonwealth ; or when the other endeavours to banish them as prejudicial to all society, even from populous states, as well as from the inhabitants of the wilderness, they are both wrong ; since that knowledge which makes the happiness of a refined European, would be a torment to the precarious tenant of an Asiatic wild.

Let me, to prove this, transport the imagination for a moment to the midst of a forest in Siberia.

a There we behold the inhabitant, poor indeed, but equally fond of happiness with the most refined philosopher of China. The earth lies uncultivated and uninhabited for miles around him; his little family and he the sole and undisputed possessors. In such circumstances Nature and Reason will induce him to prefer a hunter's life to that of cultivating the earth, He will certainly adhere to that manner of living which is carried on at the smallest expense of labour,

, and that food which is most agreeable to the appetite ; he will prefer indolent though precarious luxury to a laborious though permanent competence; and a knowledge of his own happiness will determine him to persevere in native barbarity.

In like manner his happiness will incline him to bind himself by no law: laws are made in order to secure present property, but he is possessed of no property which he is afraid to lose, and desires no more than will be sufficient to sustain him ; to enter into compacts with others, would be undergoing a voluntary obligation without the expectance of any reward. He and his countrymen are tenants, not riyals, in the same inexhaustible forest; the increased possessions of one by no means diminishes the expec In every

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tations arising from equal assiduity in another; there are no need of laws therefore to repress ambition, where there can be no mischief attending its most boundless gratifications.

Our solitary Siberian will, in like manner, find the sciences not only entirely useless in directing his practice, but disgusting even in speculation. contemplation our curiosity must be first excited by the appearances of things, before our reason undergoes the fatigue of investigating the causes. Some of those appearances are produced by experiment, others by minute inquiry; some arise from a knowledge of foreign climates, and others from an intimate study of our own. But there are few objects in comparison which present themselves to the inhabitant of a barbarous country; the game he hunts, or the transient cottage he builds, make up the chief objects of his concern; his curiosity therefore must be proportionably less; and if that is diminished, the reasoning faculty will be diminished in proportion,

Besides, sensual-enjoyment adds wings to curiosity, We consider few objects with ardent attention, but those which have some connexion with our wishes, our pleasures, or our necessities. A desire of enjoyment first interests our passions in the pursuit, points out the object of investigation, and Reason then comments where Sense has led the way. An increase in the number of our enjoyments therefore necessarily produces an increase of scientific research ; but in countries where almost every enjoyment is wanting, Reason there seems destitute of its great inspirer, and speculation is the business of fools when it becomes its own reward.

The barbarous Siberian is too wise, therefore, to exhaust his time in quest of knowledge, which neither curiosity prompts, nor pleasure impels him to pursue. When told of the exact admeasurement of a degree upon the equator at Quito, he feels no pleasure in the account; when informed that such a discovery tends to promote navigation and commerce, he finds himself no way interested in either. A discovery which some have pursued at the hazard of their lives, affects him with neither astonishment nor pleasure. He is satisfied with thoroughly understanding the few objects which contribute to his own felicity, he knows the properest places where to lay the snare for the sable, and discerns the value of furs with more than European sagacity. More extended | knowledge would only serve to render him unhappy, it might lend a ray to show him the misery of his situation, but could not guide him in his efforts to avoid it. Ignorance is the happiness of the poor.

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The misery of a being endowed with sentiments above its capacity of fruition, is most admirably described in one of the fables of Locman the Indian moralist.“ An elephant that had been peculiarly ~ serviceable in fighting the battles of Wistnow, was “ ordered by the god to wish for whatever he thought

proper, and the desire should be attended with im“ mediate gratification. The elephant thanked his « benefactor on bended knees, and desired to be en6 dowed with the reason and the faculties of a man. u Wistnow was sorry to hear the foolish request, and « endeavoured to dissuade him from his misplaced 6 ambition ; but finding it to no purpose, gave

him at “ last such a portion of wisdom as could correct even " the Zendavesta of Zoroaster. The reasoning ele“ phant went away rejoicing in his new acquisition, " and though his body still retained its ancient form, " he found his appetites and passions entirely alter* ed. He first considered that it would not only be “ more comfortable, but also more becoming to wear clothes; but unhappily he had no method of mak" ing them himself, nor had he the use of speech to “ demand them from others, and this was the first “ time he felt real anxiety. He soon perceived how “ much more elegantly men were fed than he; there“ fore, he began to loath his usual food and longed 6 for those delicacies which adorn the tables of prin

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ces; but here again he found it impossible to be « satisfied ; for though he could easily obtain flesh, yet

he found it impossible to dress it in any degree 6 of perfection. In short, every pleasure that contri66 buted to the felicity of mankind, served only to ren« der him more miserable, as he found himself utter56 ly deprived of the power of enjoyment. In this “ manner he led a repining, discontented life, detest“ ing himself, and displeased with his ill-judged am“ bition, till at last his benefactor Wistnow, taking “ compassion on his forlorn situation, restored him to " the ignorance and the happiness which he was ori“ ginally formed to enjoy."

No, my friend ; to attempt to introduce the sciences into a nation of wandering barbarians, is only to render them more miserable than even Nature designed they should be. A life of simplicity is best fitted to a state of solitude.

The great law-giver of Russia attempted to improve the desolate inhabitants of Siberia, by sending among them some of the politest men of Europe. The consequence has shown, that the country was as yet unfit to receive them; they languished for a time with a sort of exotic malady, every day degenerated from themselves, and at last, instead of rendering the country more polite, they conformed to the soil, and put on barbarity.

No, my friend ; in order to make the sciences useful in any country, it must first become populous; the in

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