Bioengineering in Cell and Tissue Research

Cover
Gerhard M. Artmann, Shu Chien
Springer Science & Business Media, 09.04.2008 - 693 Seiten
The idea of publishing this book on “Bioengineering in Cell and Tissue Research” was originated by Gerhard M. Artmann, with the goal of writing about our dreams and making the reader dream with the authors and be fascinated. The book is meant to have life and spirit, and to become a pioneer in technology and sciences, es- cially the life science. The chapters in this book are written by excellent scientists on advanced, frontier technology and address scienti?c questions that need consid- able thinking in terms of engineering. The aims are to provide the readers, including students, faculty, and all scientists working in academia and industry, new infor- tion on bioengineering in cell and tissue research to enhance their understanding and innovation. This book is composed of six sections that cover a broad hierarchy from genes to the universe. These sections are Genes, Genome and Information Network; Cell and Tissue Imaging; Regenerative Medicine and Nanoengineering; Mechanics of Soft Tissues, Fluids and Molecules; Bioengineering in Clinical Applications; and Plant and Microbial Bioengineering.
 

Was andere dazu sagen - Rezension schreiben

Es wurden keine Rezensionen gefunden.

Inhalt

136 Closure
343
References
345
How Strong is the Beating of Cardiac Myocytes? The CellDrum Solution
349
142 The CellDrum Technique
353
1421 The Measurement Principle
354
1422 The Steady State Measurement a Useful Modification
355
1432 Visualization of Location and Orientation of the Cells Inside the Gel
358
1433 Example Cardiac Myocytes
360

111 Cell Based Assay Formats in ultra High Throughput Screening uHTS
13
112 Reporter Genes in uHTS
15
113 Photoprotein Readouts and CellBased Assay Development
16
114 Multiplexing Reporter Gene Readouts
17
115 Ultra High Throughput Screening
18
References
20
Gene Arrays for Gene Discovery
22
22 Data Processing
24
23 Gene Discovery by Gene Clustering
26
24 TGFβ1 Signaling in Dendritic Cells Assessed by Gene Expression Profiling
28
241 Linking Gene Expression Data to Knowledgebased Databases
31
References
34
Physical Modulation of Cellular Information Networks
36
32 Cellular Responses to Physical Stimulation
37
321 Electrical Potential
38
322 Hydrostatic Pressure
41
323 Shear Stress
42
324 Heat Shock
43
33 Electrically Controlled Proliferation Under Constant Potential Application
44
333 Electrical Modulation of Cellular Proliferation Rate
46
35 Electrically Modulated Gene Expression Under Alternative Potential Application
49
352 Electrically Induced Differentiation of PC12 Cells
51
36 Cellular Engineering to Enhance Responses to Physical Stimulation
53
37 Concluding Remarks
56
References
58
Cell and Tissue Imaging
61
Fluorescence LiveCell Imaging Principles and Applications in Mechanobiology
62
42 Fluorescence Proteins
65
422 Derivatives of GFP with Different Colors
66
423 Fluorescence Proteins Derived from DsRed
67
424 Small Molecule Fluorescence Dyes
68
433 Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy TIRF
69
44 Applications in Mechanobiology
70
442 Spatiotemporal Quantification of Posttranslational Modifications
73
45 Perspective in Cardiovascular Physiology and Diseases
77
References
79
Optical Coherence Tomography OCT An Emerging Technology for ThreeDimensional Imaging of Biological Tissues
84
52 Optical Coherence Tomography OCT
86
522 Image Formation
89
523 Figure of Merits for the Performance of OCT
90
524 Functional Imaging
93
53 Applications in Tissue Engineering
94
531 Visualization of Cells in Scaffolds
95
533 Measurement of Tissue Function
96
54 Conclusion
97
References
98
Ultrasonic Strain Imaging and Reconstructive Elastography for Biological Tissue
102
62 Ultrasound Elastography
104
621 Theory for Static Deformations
106
622 Imaging Tissue Strain
108
623 Displacement Estimation in Strained Tissues
109
625 Block Matching Methods
112
63 Reconstructive Ultrasound Elastography
113
631 Tissuelike Material Phantoms
114
632 Solution of the Inverse Problem
115
633 Simulation and Experimental Results
118
64 Medical Results of Elastography
122
65 Results of an Intravascular Ultrasound Study
123
66 Summary and Conclusion
126
References
128
Regenerative Medicine and Nanoengineering
132
Aspects of Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Somatic Cell Therapy of Degenerative Diseases
133
72 Rationale for the Cardiac Tissue Engineering
135
73 Embryonic Stem Cells as an Unlimited Source for Cardiomyocytes
136
74 Therapeutical Cloning of Embryonic Stem Cells
139
75 Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes
142
76 Cardiac Tissue Slices
144
77 Bioartificial Heart Tissue Based on Biomaterials
146
78 Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering
147
79 The Ideal Cell
150
Cell Permeable CreloxP System
151
711 Outlook
153
References
155
Collagen Fabrication for the Cellbased Implants in Regenerative Medicine
158
82 The CellBased Implants
159
83 Requirements of Materials for the CellBased Implants
160
84 Biomaterials in the CellHybridization
161
85 Characteristics of Collagen
162
86 Fabrication of Collagen
164
87 Collagen in the Cellbased Implants
169
872 Bone Reconstruction
174
873 Esophagus Replacement
176
874 Wound Healing promoting AntiAdhesive Matrix
181
875 Liver Regeneration
183
88 Discussion
186
References
189
Tissue Engineering Combining Cells and Biomaterials into Functional Tissues
192
92 The Cells
193
922 Stem Cells
194
923 Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells
195
924 Adult Stem Cells
197
925 Perspectives
200
93 The Material
201
933 Scaffold Material Influences Cell Behaviour
202
934 Commercial Tissue Engineered Products
205
References
208
Micro and Nano Patterning for Cell and Tissue Engineering
214
102 Regulation of Cell Functions by Matrix Patterning
215
1022 Cell Proliferation and Survival on Micropatterned Matrix
217
1023 Cell Migration on Micropatterned Matrix
218
1024 Cell Differentiation on Micropatterned Matrix
219
103 Topographic Regulation of Cell Functions
220
104 Engineering 3D Environments with Micro Features
221
105 Nano Patterning for Cell and Tissue Engineering
224
106 Perspective
226
References
227
Integrative Nanobioengineering Novel Bioelectronic Tools for Real Time Pharmaceutical High Content Screening in Living Cells and Tissues
229
1112 Followup Monitoring After Therapy Therapeutical Control
231
113 Outlook and Future Aspects
244
References
245
Mechanics of Soft Tissues Fluids and Molecules
249
Soft Materials in Technology and Biology Characteristics Properties and Parameter Identification
250
122 Material Description
254
1222 What is Rheology and What is the Task of This Discipline?
255
1223 Macromolecular Substances
257
1224 Phenomenological Behavior of Soft Substances
259
1225 Simple Model Formulation of Soft Materials
261
1226 Basic Tests
263
1227 Remarks
270
123 Basics of Continuum Mechanics
271
1232 Stress State
273
1233 Balance Equations
274
1234 Material Equation
275
1235 Constraints
276
124 Basics of Material Theory
277
1242 Necessity of Asymptotic Representations
280
1243 Principle of Fading Memory
281
1244 Asymptotic Representation of the Hysteresis Term
282
1245 Examination of the Static Term
284
1246 Considering Phenomenological Thermodynamics
285
1247 Equibiaxial Loading
290
125 Material Laws for Technical and Biological Polymers
293
1252 Biological Polymers Collagen
296
126 Volume Change in Biopolymers
302
127 Summary and Outlook
309
References
311
Modeling Cellular Adaptation to Mechanical Stress
315
132 A Brief Review of StretchInduced Cell Remodeling
316
1322 Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling in Response to Different Modes of Stretch
318
133 Measurements Modeling and Mechanotransduction
321
1331 Mechanical Testing of Adherent Cells
322
1332 Nonadaptive Constitutive Models of Adherent Cells
324
1333 Adaptive Constitutive Models of Adherent Cells
325
1334 Mechanotransduction
330
134 A New Approach for the Study of the Mechanobiology of Cell Stretching
331
1341 An Adaptive Microstructurebased Constitutive Model for Stretched Cells
332
1342 Biaxial Loading Traction Microscopy
334
1343 Mechanotransduction Experiments
337
135 Illustrative Examples
340
Effect of Frequency on the Cell Stress Fiber Organization and Mechanotransduction
342
1434 Beating of Cardiac Myocytes
361
1435 Medical Application in Future
364
References
366
Mechanical Homeostasis of Cardiovascular Tissue
369
152 Shear Stress and Scaling Laws of Vascular System
371
1523 Mechanism for Murrays Minimum Energy Hypothesis
372
1524 Uniform Shear Hypothesis
373
1532 Definitions of Stress and Strain
374
1534 Dynamic Variations of Stress and Strain
375
1542 Axial Prestretch
376
155 Perturbation of Mechanical Homeostasis
377
1552 FlowReduction and FlowOverload
378
1553 PressureOverload
379
1554 Simultaneous Hypertension and FlowOverload
380
1555 Changes in Axial Stretch
381
1557 Implications for Atherosclerosis
382
156 Limitations Implications and Future Directions
383
1562 Strain Homeostasis
384
1564 Other Possibilities
385
References
386
The Role of Macromolecules in Stabilization and DeStabilization of Biofluids
391
1611 Macromolecules as a Determinant of Blood Cell Interaction
392
1612 The Impact of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on Blood Flow
394
162 The Effects of Macromolecules on the Stability of Colloids
395
163 Macromolecular Depletion at Biological Interfaces
396
164 CellCell Interactions Mediated by Macromolecular Depletion
400
1642 Depletion at Soft Surfaces
402
1644 Cell Surface Properties as a Determinant of Depletion Interaction
405
166 Destabilization of BioFluids via Macromolecular Binding
407
167 Conclusion Outlook
408
References
410
Hemoglobin Senses Body Temperature
414
172 Physiological Aspects of Thermoregulation in the Body
417
173 Red Blood Cells
419
175 The Molecular Mechanism of the Micropipette Passage Transition
420
176 Hemoglobin Viscosity Transition
422
177 Circular Dichroism Transition in Diluted Hb Solutions
423
178 A RBC Volume Transition Revealed with Micropipette Studies
425
179 Micropipette Passage Transition in D2O Buffer
427
1710 NMR T1 Relaxation Time Transition of RBCs in Autologous Plasma
428
1711 Colloid Osmotic Pressure Transition of RBC Suspended in Plasma
431
1712 The Temperature Transition Effect so Far
432
1713 Strange coevals Ornithorhynchus anatinus and Tachyglossus aculeatus
433
with Body Temperatures Different from 37C
434
1715 Molecular Structural Mechanism of the Temperature Transitions
437
1716 Physics Meets Physiology
439
References
442
Bioengineering in Clinical Applications
447
Nitric Oxide in the Vascular System Meet a Challenge
448
183 Key Questions
452
185 From the InVivo and ExVivo Detection of NO Effects to Biochemical Assessment of NO
454
Is Nitrite a Candidate?
455
187 More Information About NO Interactions in the Blood
457
188 Intravascular Sources of NO
458
1810 Outlook
461
References
464
Vascular Endothelial Responses to Disturbed Flow Pathologic Implications for Atherosclerosis
468
192 Endothelial Dysfunction is a Marker of Atherosclerotic Risk
469
193 Correlation Between Lesion Locations and Disturbed Flow Regions of the Arterial Tree
470
194 In Vitro Studies on the Effects of Disturbed Flow on ECs
472
1942 Effects of Disturbed Flow on EC Morphology Cytoskeletal Organization and Junctional Proteins
475
1943 Effects of Disturbed Flow on EC Proliferation and Migration
477
1944 Effects of Disturbed Flow on EC Permeability
478
1945 Effects of Disturbed Flow on EC Signaling and Gene Expression
480
195 In Vivo Studies on the Effects of Disturbed Flow on ECs
482
196 Summary and Conclusions
484
References
487
Why is Sepsis an Ongoing Clinical Challenge? Lipopolysaccharide Effects on Red Blood Cell Volume
496
201 Introduction
497
202 Physiopathological Events During Sepsis
498
204 Microcirculation and Sepsis
499
206 Activated Protein C
500
208 New Perspective
501
References
506
Bioengineering of Inflammation and Cell Activation Autodigestion in Shock
508
211 Introduction
509
212 Inflammation in Shock and MultiOrgan Failure
510
213 The Pancreas as a Source of Cellular Activating Factors and the Role of Serine Proteases
511
214 Blockade on Pancreatic Digestive Enzymes in the Lumen of the Intestine
512
215 What Mechanisms Prevent Autodigestion?
514
217 Intestine as Source of Inflammatory Mediators in Shock
515
219 Cytotoxic Factors Derived from the Intestine
517
2110 Removal or Blockade of Intestinal Cytotoxic Mediators
518
2111 Conclusions
519
References
521
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty A Review of Two Intraoperative Complications
525
Minimally Invasive and CostEffective Solution
527
Excessive Delivery Pressure
528
Risk of Extravasation
530
225 Injectable Biomaterials
532
226 Discussion
533
References
535
Plant and Microbial Bioengineering
539
Molecular Crowding A Way to Deal with Crowding in Photosynthetic Membranes
540
232 Macromolecular Crowding
544
2322 Reaction Equilibria and Aggregation
546
2323 Reaction Rates
548
2324 Evidence for Consequences of Crowding in Living Systems
549
233 Photosynthesis in a Crowded Environment
551
2332 The Problem of Fast Electron Transport in Thylakoids
555
234 Crowding Effects in Photosynthetic Membranes
557
2342 Occupation of Binding Sites
563
2343 Reaction Mechanisms in Crowded Thylakoids
564
235 Summary and Outlook
569
2352 Treatments of Molecular Crowding In Vivo In Vitro and In Silico
571
References
573
Higher Plants as Bioreactors Gene Technology with C3Type Plants to Optimize CO₂ Fixation for Production of Biomass and BioEnergy
579
242 The C3 and C4 CO₂ Fixation Mechanisms 2421 The C3 CO₂ Fixation Pathway the Calvin Cycle and Photorespiration
582
2422 The C4 Photosynthetic Pathway
584
243 The Metabolism of Glycolate in Escherichia coli and in Some Green Algae
586
2432 The Metabolism of Glycolate in Green Algae
587
244 Increased Biomass Production in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Containing the E coli Glycolate Pathway in the Chloroplasts
588
2442 Establishment of the E coli Glycolate Pathway in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts
589
245 Analysis of the GTDEF Transgenic Plants DNA RNA Proteins Physiology Growth and Production of Biomass
593
2451 Enhanced Biomass Production in DEF and GTDEF Plants
595
246 Summary
596
References
598
Controlling Microbial Adhesion A Surface Engineering Approach
600
252 Biotechnological Potential of Adhered Microorganisms and Its Limitations
603
253 Physicochemical Aspects of Microbial Adhesion
606
254 Biological Aspects of Microbial Adhesion
608
255 Surface Conditioning as a Tool Facilitating Microbial Adhesion
611
2551 Adsorption Facilitation by Transition Metal Ions
613
2552 Surface Preconditioning with Watersoluble Charged Polymers
616
References
620
Air Purification Technology by Means of Cluster Ions Generated by Plasma Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure
623
262 Characteristics of Positive and Negative Ions
625
263 Effect of Removing Airborne Bacteria
626
264 Effect of Removing Floating Fungi Mould
629
265 Effect of Deactivating Floating Viruses
630
266 Virus Deactivation Model Using Cluster Ions
632
267 Allergen Deactivation Effect
633
2672 ELISA Method
634
2673 ELISA Inhibition Method
635
268 Conclusion
636
References
637
Astrobiology
639
272 Origin and History of Life on Earth
641
273 Impact Scenario and Interplanetary Transport of Life
645
274 Strategies of Life to Adapt to Extreme Environments
646
275 Signatures of Life
648
276 Criteria for Habitability
650
277 Planets and Moons in Our Solar System That are of Interest to Astrobiology
652
278 Planetary Protection
657
279 Search for Life Beyond the Solar System
660
2710 Outlook
661
References
663
Authors
666
Index
680
Urheberrecht

Andere Ausgaben - Alle anzeigen

Häufige Begriffe und Wortgruppen

Beliebte Passagen

Seite 35 - Bolstad, BM, Irizarry, RA, Astrand, M., and Speed, TP (2003) A comparison of normalization methods for high density oligonucleotide array data based on variance and bias.

Bibliografische Informationen