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volvea che inhabitants of Nova Scotia, who engaged in it, in the predicted ruin.

Some of the American cruisers, acting without publick orders, brought three of the principal inhabitants of the Island of St. John into General WASHINGTON'S camp;, he treated them with the greatest tenderness, and permitted them immediately to return to their distressed families.

In the course of the Autumn, gradual approaches were made towards the British posts. The army being strengthened by the arrival of Morgan's Riflemen from Virginia, and a number of regiments from Connecticut and Rhode Island, General Washington de

tached Colonel Arnold, with a thousand men, SEPT. 1575: by the rivers Kennebeck and St. Francis, to

co-operate with General Montgomery in Canada; and, if possible, to surprise Quebeck, the capital of that Province. Arnold, and about six hundred of his men, actuated by unconquerable resolution, with inconceivable fatigue reached Quebeck. The situation of the garrison corresponded with the presumptions on which the expedition was founded; but a number of circumstances, not open to human foresight, nor controllable by human prudence, rendered it unsuccessful.

Through the season, the highest endeavours of the Commander in Chief were exerted to procure arms and ammunition for his troops, and partial success at tended the measures adopted in every part of the union to accomplish this important purpose. A successful voyage was also made to Africa, and every pound of gunpowder for sale in the British factories on that coast was obtained in exchange for NewEngland rum. Capt. Manly, in the privateer Lee, captured a British ordnance ship, laden with military stores, so completely adapted to the wants of the American army, that had Congress made out an in. voice, a better ussortment could not have been pro. cured. Considerations respecting the re-enlistment of the army lay with immense weight on the mind of General WASHINGTON, and he repeatedly invited the attention of Congress to this subject. In September, Congress appointed a Committee of their own boay to repair to Head Quarters, to consult with the Commander in Chief, and the Executives of the New-England Provinces," on the most effectual method of continuing, supporting, and regulating a Continental ar my.” The result of their deliberation was, that the new army should consist of twenty thousand three hundred and seventy-two inen; but unhappily, the men were to be enlisted only for one year. The evils resulting from short enlistments were severely felt at the close of the next campaign, even to the utmost hazard of the independence of the country.

Various causes operated to lead Congress to the almost fatal plan of temporary military establishments. Among the most important of these, was a prospect of accommodation with the parent state. Want of experience in the management of war upon an extensive scale was another. The revolutionary conflict placed the people of America in a situation in which all the energies of the human mind are brought into action, and man makes his noblest efforts; the occasion called upon the publick theatre statesmen and warriours, who, by the wise and honourable execution of the complicat ed duties of their new characters, surprised the world; still from them errours of inexperience were to be expected. The fear of accumulating expense, which the resourcos of the country could not discharge, had a leading influence to deter the American Government from the adoption of permanent military establishments; although the recommendations of Congress, and the regulations of State Conventions had, in the day of enthusiasm, the force of law, yet the ruling power thought it inexpedient to attempt to raise large sums by direct taxes, at a time wher, the commerce of

the country was annihilated, and thą cultivators of the ground were subjected to heavy services in tbe. field of war. The only recourse was to a paper medium, without funds for its redemption, or for the support of its credit, and therefore of necessity subject to depreciation, and, in its nature, capable of only a tem. porary currency ; Congress, therefore, was justly afraid of the expense of a permanent army. Jea. lousy toward a standing army had a powerful influence upon the military arrangements of America; this jealous spirit early insinuated itself into the Legislative bodies of the Colonies, and was displayed in many of their measures. It appears in the address presented by the Provincial Assembly of New-York to General WASHINGTON, while on his journey to the American camp. “ We have the fullest assurance, say they, that whenever this important contest shall be decided, by that fondest wish of each American soul, an accommodation with our Mother Country, you will cheerfully resign the important deposite committed into your hands, and reassume the character of our worthiest citizen.” Congress, as a body, unquestionably felt this jealousy, and was afraid to trust a standing army with the power necessary to conduct the war, lest, at its successful termination, this army should become the master of the country for whose liberties it had fought. The plan of temporary enlistments was adopted by Congress, in the confident persuasion, that draughts on every occasion might be made from the militia, to oppose any force Britain could bring into the field; and that the native patriotism and bravery of the Americans would prove superiour to the mechanical movements of disciplined troops.

There being no magazinos of arms in the country, the soldiers of the first campaign were of necessity permitted to bring their own muskets into service, although their different length and size occasioned

much inconvenience. By the regulation of Congress for the new enlistment, the soldiers, who chose not to serve another campaign, were not permitted to carry home their arms; but they were to receive payment for them by appraisement. Every soldier who enlisted was to find a gun, or pay a dollar to the Govern. ment for the use of one during the campaign. Every soldier, who found himself a blanket was to receive two dollars. As it was impracticable to clothe the army in uniforms, clothes of different colours were provided, the price of which was to be deducted from the wages of the men.

As soon as the plan of the new army was settled, General WASHINGTON adopted measures to carry it into execution. In general orders he directed, that all officers, who intended to decline the service of their country at the expiration of their present engagements, should in writing make known their intention to their respective Colonels ; which was to be communicated to the General Officers commanding Brigades. “ Those brave men, and true patriots, who resolved to continue to serve and defend their bre. thren, privileges, and property," were called upon in the same manner to make known their intentions, and to consider themselves as engaged to the last of December, 1776, unless sooner discharged by Congress.

The period of patrintick enthusiasm had, in some measure, passed away; numbers of officers consented conditionally to remain in the army, and many made no communication on the subject. Immediate deci. sion was necessary; and, in new orders, the Com

mander in Chief solemnly called upon them Oct. 30. for a direct and unconditional answer to his

inquiry. " The times,” he observed," and the importance of the great cause we are engaged in, allo w no room for hesitation and delay. When life, liberty, and property are at stake; when our country is in danger of being a melancholy scene of bloodshed

and desolation; when our towns are laid in ashes; in. nocent women and children driven from their peaceful habitations, exposed to the rigours of an inclement season, to depend, perhaps, on the hand of charity for support; when calamities like these are staring us in the face, and a brutal enemy are threatening us, and every thing we hold dear, with destruction from foreign troops ; it little becomes the character of a sol dier to shrink from danger, and condition for new terms. It is the General's intention to indulge both officers and soldiers, who compose the new army, with furloughs for a reasonable time; but this must be done in such a manner as not to injure the service, or weaken the army too much at once."

The troops were assured that clothes, on reasonable terms, were provided “ for those brave soldiers, who intended to continue in the army another year.". With great difficulty the arrangement of officers was com

pleted, and recruiting orders were immeNov. 12. diately issued. Recruiting oificers were di

rected to “ be careful not to enlist any person suspected of being unfriendly to the liberties of America, or any abandoned vagabond, to whom all causes and countries are equal, and alike indiferent. The rights of mankind and the freedom of America would have numbers sufficient to support them, without resorting to such wretched assistance. Let those, who wish to put shackles upon freemen, fill their ranks with, and place their confidence in, such miscreants." To aid the cause, popular songs were composed and circulated through the camp, calculated to inspire tha soldiery with the love of country, and to induce them to engage anew in the publick service. But unfortunately, the army at this time was badly supplied with clothing, provisions, and fuel, and the consequert sufferings of the soldiers, operating upon their strony desire to visit their homes, prevented their enüstment in the expected numbers. On the last day of

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