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d'exercer, dans l'étendue de leur arrondissement, vis-à-vis de leur compatriotes, les fonctions de juge, d'arbitres, de conciliateurs; souvent ils sont officiers de l'état civil ; ils remplissent l'emploi de notaires ; quelquefois celui d'administrateurs de la marine; ils surveillent et constatent l'état sanitaire. Ce sont eux qui, par leurs relations habituelles, peuvent donner une idée juste et complête de la situation du commerce, de la navigation, et de l'industrie particulière au pays de leur résidence."

The origin of the appointment of a Consul has been briefly mentioned. I do not conceive further information on this point to be within the purpose for which this volume is intended.

Particular attention is respectfully directed to the Consular Convention between France and the United States ; such may well be considered likely to be taken as a precedent for future treaties on the same subject.

The Instructions issued by the Board of Trade are most clear, and justify my omitting the Merchant Shipping Act.

The Consular jurisdiction and duties in the Levant and China have necessarily occupied many pages. They are of so much consequence as to preclude a closer condensation. They require careful perusal; and strict attention is directed to the onerous duties a Consul there is required to perform.

I have supplied a concise view of the Consular privileges, rank, fees, and salaries; the latter being in accordance with a recent statement made by Her Majesty's Government.

In the Appendix is arranged, in Section I., a few points of international and maritime law and insurance. Sections II., III., IV., and V., the Acts of Parliament for the solemnization of marriages abroad, administration of oaths abroad, that relating to bills of lading, and that for the performance of quarantine. Section VI., Consular Forms and notarial precedents, which, together with those in the body of the work, will, I hope, prove of the greatest utility to the Consul. In Section VII. is the Foreign Deserters Act, and a list of the countries to which the same is extended by Order in Council. In Section VIII., the Commercial Treaties and Conventions concluded between Great Britain and foreign countries. As the latter would have, if given in extenso, formed several volumes by themselves, they have been arranged on a novel plan—that of giving a formula of the several clauses contained in different treaties of commerce, numbered,

to which numbers the conventions of the several countries are referred. This consolidation necessarily occupied much time and labour, and, I trust, will be deemed acceptable.

A comparative statement of the moneys, weights, and measures of foreign countries, with those of Great Britain, will be found.

I have to request my readers will believe that, in compiling this book--and producing it for sale at so moderate a price, regard being had to the originality of its purpose and effect I have with great reluctance forborne to yield to the tempting opportunity of indulging in making many remarks which might be considered fairly to attach to so interesting a question, and appurtenant whereto-—as much as a military or naval school of training be necessary in those departments respectively—it might be wise to offer the suggestion of educational and qualifying institutions being at once established for that portion of the public service to which this Volume relates.

I thank most sincerely those kind friends who have lent me their assistance in this compilation.

“ Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see,

Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be.
In every work regard the writer's end,
Since none can compass more than they intend;
And if the means be just, the conduct true,
- Applause, in spite of trivial faults, is due.”—POPE.



January, 1856.

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