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that the government is “the sole proprietor of the land" is not true without essential modification; and it is to be remarked, that, whatever be the rights of the government in the land, so far are the English from having, as Mr. Cobden implies, introduced any new principle in relation to them, that they have, on the contrary, adopted that of their Hindoo and Mahommedan predecessors, which seems to have had its origin in the remotest antiquity.
But let us go on. “ The kind of slavery," says this veracious writer," which the British have imposed on the great mass of their East Indian subjects, is infinitely more oppressive and inhuman than chattel slavery."...." The object is to take the fruits of the laborer's toil without providing for him at all.” p. 459.
These are strong words, but the author is obviously incapable of understanding their force.
Another of the assertions made by this Mr. Cobden bears directly on the subject of our article. He declares that, “famines (always frightfully destructive in India) have become more numerous than ever, under the blighting rule of the British aristocrats."
And again, three pages afterward, he says, “We have only to add, that, whatever may be found in the climate or character of the country that expose (sic) the people to the frequency of want, the conquerors have done their best to aggravate natural evils." p. 466.
Are the canals to be regarded only as gigantic instruments for wasting the waters of the land and producing a universal malaria? After going on to enumerate a long list of the crimes of the British in India, the chapter is closed by Mr. Cobden in the following words.
“ The Hindoos are the victims of conquerors, slower, indeed, in their movements, than Tamerlane or Genghis Khan, but more destructive and more criminal than either of those great barbarian invaders.” p. 488.
Is Mr. Cobden sure that he is right? — Conquerors more destructive than Tamerlane, who left pyramids of skulls to mark the course of his army through Asia? — Than Genghis Khan, the victims of whose massacres were numbered by millions ?
Our readers have had a sufficient specimen of this chapter. Such a display of ignorance, pretension, and folly would be as ludicrous as it is contemptible, were it not for one serious reflection. The book is intended for popular reading. It is made attractive to the vulgar taste by ordinary, but, as the title-page says, “spirited” woodcuts, representing some of the horrors detailed in the text. It is addressed to a low popular prejudice. It is written with the design of exciting ill-feeling against England, and of serving at the same time as a sidelong defence
of slavery in this country. The principles of the author are of the same quality as his statements.
We have no disposition to enter upon the defence of the English in India. The history of their rule exhibits, like every other history, a mingling of good and bad. One page bears the record of frequent mistakes and crimes in the acquisition and government of the country; the other, of as frequent, sincere, and often successful efforts to raise the character and improve the condition of its people. Nor would such a book as that before us deserve even the notice we have given to it, were it not that it is one of a class which has become too prevalent of late, and against which a strong protest should be made. It belongs to that base class of books which form what may be called the literature of recrimination, - a literature which is opposed to good sense, right-feeling, and patriotism ; and which is at once the disgrace of its authors, and of that public with whom it finds favor.
NOTE TO THE ARTICLE ON M. LIBRI'S CASE, IN No. CLIX.
It is seldom very agreeable to any one to have to acknowledge the commission of an error ; but in the present instance, we can sincerely say that we take a genuine pleasure in correcting a most disagreeable blunder into which we fell in the article upon M. Libri's Case, in the April number of our last volume.
It is unnecessary for us here to state the causes of our mistake. They were certainly, however, sufficient to justify us in making the statement which we did, viz.; that M. Libri was no more. As the least expiation in our power for this act of involuntary manslaughter, we beg to declare, as notoriously as we can, that M. Libri is publicly and actively living, and to express the hope that so he may long continue to remain.
One word more as to the merits of the prosecution of which he has been the victim. Since the publication of the article in question, our attention has been more than once called to the facts of the case, and we have no hesitation in re-asserting, with a full conviction of their fidelity to truth, every statement we therein made in favor of M. Libri. If we committed an error, it consisted in not sufficiently insisting upon his perfect and entire innocence of all the charges brought against him. The truth seems to be, that the French authorities, in their natural attempt to strike a blow at M. Guizot, in the person of one of his protegés, so entirely overshot the mark as to render a dignified retreat
impossible. Either a public repentance and restitution must have taken place, or an unblushing persistence in the course of persecution that had been adopted. The latter alternative was, unfortunately for all parties, fixed upon. In vain has M. Libri, in vain have his respectable and distinguished friends in England, solicited that he should be allowed to return to Paris upon bail, and to have time there to prepare his defence before he should be brought up for trial. Every one knows, who knows any thing about the case, that his defence would in that event be most triumphant, let the result of the trial be what it might. Deprived of his papers, his property, his books themselves, his statement, prepared in exile, has carried conviction to the minds of every one;— and how much stronger would be that feeling, if he were suffered to avail himself of the ordinary material and tools employed on similar occasions ? Therefore we can perfectly comprehend how a government like that of France, as at present constituted, should refuse to put such a weapon in the hands of those who would be but too ready to use it. But nothing can stifle the voice of sympathy and indignation throughout the literary world, at the whole history of this matter; and so far as it can be any consolation to M. Libri to know that his innocence is much more manifest to those who, like ourselves, know him only by name, than if it were at last declared from the mouths of such an ignorant and vindictive body as that which has already pronounced his guilt; we have great pleasure in tendering to him every assurance of our confidence in his integrity and veracity.
NEW PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
Philosophy of Sir William Hamilton, Bart., Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in Edinburgh University. Arranged and Edited by 0. W. Wight. For the use of Schools and Colleges. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1853. 8vo. pp. 530.
A Manual of Elementary Geology; or the Ancient Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants, as Illustrated by Geological Monuments. By Sir Charles Lyell, M. A., F. R. S. Reprinted from the Fourth and entirely Revised Edition. Illustrated with Five Hundred Woodcuts. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1853. 8vo. pp. 512.
A General Introduction to the Sacred Scriptures, in a Series of Dissertations, Critical, Hermeneutical, and Historical. By the Rev. Joseph Dixon, D.D. Two Volumes in One. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co. 1853. 8vo.
Annual Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, showing the Progress of that Work during the Year ending November, 1851. Washington : 1852.
Tables of the Prime Numbers, and Prime Factors of the Composite Numbers, from 1 to 100,000; with the Methods of their Construction, and Examples of their Use. By Edward Hinkley, A. M. Baltimore. 1853. 8vo. pp. 216.
Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of New York, and of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. Albany. 1853. 8vo.
Essays on Various Subjects. By His Eminence, Cardinal Wiseman. In three Volumes. London: Charles Dolman. Baltimore : John Murphy & Co. 1853. 8vo.
Report on the Geology of the Lake Superior Land District. By J. W. Foster and J. D. Whitney, United States Geologists. Part II. The Iron Region, together with the General Geology. Washington. 1851. 8vo.
The Poetical Works of John Milton : with a Life of the Author; Preliminary Dissertations on each Poem; Notes Critical and Explanatory; An Index to the Subject of Paradise Lost; and a Verbal Index to all the Poems. Edited by Charles Dexter Cleveland. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co. 1853. 12mo. pp. 688.
A Second Book in Latin ; containing Syntax, and Reading Lessons in Prose, forming a sufficient Latin Reader. With Iunitative Exercises and a Vocabulary. By John McClintock, D. D. New York: Harpers. 1853. 12mo. pp. 296.
Home Pictures. By Mrs. Mary Andrews Denison. New York: Harpers. 1853. 12mo. pp. 417.
Theory of Politics : an Inquiry into the Foundations of Governments, and the Courses and Progress of Political Revolutions. By Richard Hildreth. New York: Harpers. 1853. 12mo. pp. 274.
Xenophon's Memorabilia of Socrates, with Notes and an Introduction. By R. D. C. Robbins. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1853. 12mo. pp. 421.
The Complete Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. With an Introductory Essay upon his Philosophical and Theological Opinions. Edited by Professor Shedd. Vol. VII. New York: Harpers. 1853. 12mo. pp. 702.
The Fawn of the Pale Faces, or Two Centuries Ago. By J. P. Brace. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1853. 12mo. pp. 288.
A Manual of Greek Literature, from the Earliest Authentic Periods to the Close of the Byzantine Era. By Charles Anthon, L. L. D. New York: Harpers. 1853. 12mo. pp. 580.
William Carey: a Biography. By Joseph Belcher, D. D. Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society. 12mo. pp. 306.
Tanglewood Tales, for Girls and Boys; being a second Wonder-Book. By Nathaniel Hawthorne. With Fine Illustrations. Boston: Ticknor, Reed & Fields. 1853. 12mo. pp. 336.
The Boyhood of Great Men, intended as an Example to Youth. With Illustrations. New York: Harpers. 1853. 12mo. pp. 385.
A Guide to English Composition: or One Hundred and Twenty Subjects Analyzed, and Illustrated from Analogy, History, and the Writings of Celebrated Ancient and Modern Authors, to teach the Art of Argumentation and the Development of Thought. By the Rev. Dr. Brewer, Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Revised and Adapted for the Use of Schools in the United States. New York and Boston : C. S. Francis & Co. 1853. 12mo. pp. 415.
History of Church Music in America, treating of its Peculiarities at Different Periods ; its Legitimate Use and its Abuse ; with Criticisms, Cursory Remarks, and Notices relating to Composers, Teachers, Schools, Choirs, Societies, Conventions, Books, &c. By Nathaniel D. Gould. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1853. 12mo. pp. 240.
The First Book of History, combined with Geography; containing the History and Geography of the Western Hemisphere. For the Use of Schools. By the Author of Peter Parley's Tales. Illustrated by Engravings and Colored Maps. Revised and improved Edition, with Important Additions. Boston : Jenks, Hickling, & Swan. 1853. 12mo. pp. 224.
The Old House by the River. By the Author of The Owl Creek Letters. New York: Harpers. 1853. 12mo. pp. 318.
A History of the United States of America, on a Plan Adapted to the Capacity of Youth, and Designed to Aid the Memory by Systematic Arrangement and Interesting Associations. By Charles A. Goodrich. Illustrated by Engravings and Colored Maps. To which are added the Constitution of the United States, and the Declaration of Independence. Revised from Former Editions, and brought down to the Present Time. Boston: Jenks, Hickling, & Swan. 1853. 12mo. pp. 425.
Stuyvesant, a Franconia Story. By the Author of the Rollo Books. New York: Harpers. 16mo. pp. 203.