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after life, spoke of the “Eden of Sheafe Street,” so lovely was the memory of this their early married home. But only a year of such happiness was allotted to them. Mr. Ware lost his health, and Mary once more found that Providence had intended her for a nurse. On the 1st of April, 1829, Mr. and Mrs. Ware sailed for Europe, with the hope that the voyage and a sojourn abroad might restore Mr. Ware's strength. A young child was to be left behind; but the wife said, “I felt I had done all poor human nature could do; the rest was in God's hands — it was all in God's hands.” She said, in after years, that this was the most trying period of her life. One of her husband's most distressing symptoms was a total depression of spirits; a sense of helplessness, a fear of uselessness, agonizing to such a spirit as that of his wife, so tender, so sympathizing, so ready to take all troubles upon herself. The experiment was unsuccessful, and, after fourteen months' absence, the pair returned home, sadly, and bearing with them a young infant, born in Rome. Mrs. Ware's power of endurance was now for the time exhausted, and a long and protracted illness followed her arrival at home.

The remainder of her married life was but the conclusion of this beginning. Repeated illnesses of Mr. Ware, the birth and loss of children; labors incessant and out of measure ; failing strength on the part of the devoted wife — these filled up the years till Mr. Ware died, in September, 1843. We could gladly dwell upon the beautiful submission and admirable conduct of Mary Ware in these hours of deepest woe. Perhaps one little circumstance may be taken as a key to the whole. “A Sunday intervened before the body was removed for burial, and that day Mrs Ware went, with her children, morning and afternoon, to their accustomed place of worship; desiring it for their own sacred communion, and believing it most in accordance with his feelings.” Would that this holy example might sink deep into the hearts of those who allow custom and convention to warp the course of feeling and emotion from the church instead of to it, when bereavement throws the soul upon its highest resources for support and consolation! Mrs. Ware desired, too, to associate the idea of death in the minds of her children, not with restraint and


gloom, but with the place of prayer and praise, and the presence of cheerful worshippers. “It was a holy season," says one of the daughters, “those days after dear father left us ; no bustle, no preparation of dress, no work done but what was absolutely necessary; it was like a continued Sabbath."

Something more than six years of life remained to Mrs. Ware in her widowed state. These were passed in straitened circumstances, and painful efforts at occupations uncongenial and wearing, particularly that of teaching, which, undertaken at that time of life, was trying in the extreme to head and heart. An insidious disease supervened, a disease involving distressing operations, and obliging her to look death in the face, till she learned to welcome his aspect as that of a friend and deliverer. Beautiful, indeed, is the picture drawn on the mind by the account of her long decline; and the close proved all that could be desired, fit cadence to a life whose movement had been governed throughout by a hidden music. She died on Good Friday, and in the calm hour of an April twilight, surrounded by friends whose countenances beamed with the glory they felt was about to be revealed to her, and holding to her loving heart her husband's precious lines, written when he once had the thought that he must die without again beholding her. His words would serve for her epitaph, if we imagine them the offering of the multitudes she had helped, comforted, and instructed :—“Dear, dear Mary; if I could, I would express all that I owe to you. You have been an unspeakable, an indescribable blessing. God reward you a thousandfold! Farewell till we meet again.

Art. VIII. — The Life and Epistles of St. Paul.

By the Rev. W. J. CoNYBEARE, M. A., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; and the Rev. J. S. Howson, M. A., Principal of the Collegiate Institution, Liverpool. London: Longman, Brown, Green, & Longmans. 1852. 2 vols. 4to. pp. xvi. 492 & 573.

Among the hamlets and decaying villages of the Turkish

province of Karamania, Tersoos holds an almost metropolitan rank, and one of its inhabitants might still take to himself the credit of being "a citizen of no mean city.” To be sure, deposits washed down from the mountain have filled up its ancient harbor, so that only wherries can approach where fleets used to ride at anchor. But the surrounding plain is inexhaustibly fertile in corn and cotton, while the mountain pastures in the rear sustain numerous herds of goats and buffaloes, whose spoils, added to the productions of the soil, create an active commerce, to the annual amount of half a million of dollars, at the nearest port on the Mediterranean." Its houses of a single story are chiefly constructed from the ruins of the larger and more stately edifices of the ancient city. Beyond these, there are very few vestiges of its former magnificence.

But, during the first century of the Christian era, Tersoos was the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, and the object of peculiar favor and munificence with successive emperors. It was the chief centre of the East for travel and commerce. The river Cydnus flowed through the town in a deep channel, two hundred feet in width, and its wharves were crowded with mariners and merchandise from every portion of the empire and its dependencies. In the diversity of its population it was a microcosm. The native “barbarian" stock was diminished and depressed, but not wholly extinct. The descendants of an early Greek colony constituted the wealthiest and most influential caste, and their language was that of the law and of general intercourse. Numerous Roman officials and mercantile residents were assuming their places by the side of the Greeks in social respectability, and above them, of course, in the municipal and provincial administration. Separated from all these by their religious faith and ancestral customs, but intimately associated with them in the various departments of active life, were large numbers of the Hebrew race, whose migratory instincts had anticipa

* Of the extent to which modern Geography is a mythological science we have a curious instance in Tersoos. Of two standard authorities now before us, one makes its population 7,000, and its port at a distance of " four hours' journey," while the other rates its population at from 25,000 to 30,000, and places its port “about seven or eight miles from the town.”

ted the fulfilment of that prophetic doom, by which they were to have a home everywhere and nowhere. East of Rome there was probably no place, where there was a freer commingling of people from every quarter of the civilized world, or a more favorable position for obtaining an intimacy with the languages, habits, customs, and opinions of the various nations. A commercial entrepot is also fraught with liberalizing influences. Men brought together for mutual gain suppress the ruder aspects of their characters, and conciliate one another's good will by reciprocal complaisance and courtesy. Even the virtual antagonism in which they needlessly imagine themselves in their business transactions, (for to this day, men are slow to acknowledge reciprocal advantage as the true mercantile standard,) tends to assimilate them at every other point. In such a community, religious bigotry loses much of its moroseness and asperity, and the very persecutor is inflamed rather by unwise enthusiasm in behalf of his own creed, than by sentiments of malignity and cruelty towards those who differ from him. To " become all things to all men


was not unnatural to a native of Tarsus; and, when St. Paul adopted this maxim in the service of his Divine Master, he was only employing in sacred uses a facility of adaptation, which had grown out of his early training, and the necessary influences of his birthplace.

Tarsus was also celebrated as a seat of learning. Strabo says, that in all that appertained to philosophy and general education, it even took precedence of Athens and Alexandria. It was the residence of several eminent luminaries of the Stoic school, among whom were Athenodorus, the tutor of Augustus, and afterward governor of Cilicia, and Nestor, the tutor of Tiberius. It was not inconsistent with the superior freedom of the Hellenistic Jews to become conversant with Gentile learning, and some of the Apocryphal writings comprised in the Romish canon of Scripture are much more largely imbued with Platonism than with the spirit of Moses and the Prophets. Especially at the chief seats of erudition, was the current faith of the Jews deeply tinged with the academic philosophy, of which, in numerous instances, Hebrews of the Hebrews occupied the foremost places as professed teachers and expositors. That St. Paul had enjoyed a generous culture, in part under Grecian auspices, before he was shut up, in the school of Gamaliel, to the exclusive study of the Targums and the Rabbis, is evident from the freedom and fluency of his style, from his literary citations and allusions, and from his dialectic acumen and skill. That, on its Jewish side, his education was thorough and perfect, his teacher's name alone is ample warrant, Gamaliel was the most learned Jew of his age, and was reckoned among the seven who alone were honored with the title of Rabban, (literally my master, but equivalent to most excellent master.) It is a saying of the Talmud, that “the glory of the law ceased” at his death. He was a Pharisee, and, as such, not only held in reverence the entire canon of the Old Testament, but probably attached even greater weight to the oral traditions of his sect, and to the (so called) religious writings in the then vernacular dialect. And it should not be inferred, from his prudent counsel in the case of Peter, that his Pharisaism set loosely upon him. That counsel savored as much of the fox as of the dove, and, taken by itself, it only indicates a keen insight into the springs of human action, and a shrewd perception of what would have been the only feasible way of extinguishing Christianity, if it were indeed, as he deemed it, a base-born superstition. There is extant a prayer against heretics, bearing his name, from which it would seem that he relied on the divine vengeance to do what he dissuaded his fellow-countrymen from doing.

A Frenchman, who understands English but imperfectly, may impart to our children a pure Parisian pronunciation, but is wholly unfit to give them a knowledge of the idioms of his own language, and to enable them to appreciate its rhetorical niceties and beauties. For these ends, the best teacher is he who has superadded a thorough French education to the native use and the lifelong study of the English tongue. The same principle holds good in ethical and religious training. Mere conversance with the doctrines to be taught can qualify one only for the dry, technical statement of their terminology. In order to illustrate, defend, and enforce them, it is absolutely necessary that one should be familiar with the position, principles, and habits of those whom

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