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patching Sir Ambrose Dudley, the Earl of Wa. wick's brother, to seize the Castle of Brezzy, situated at the mouth of the Tay. Stal, as bed not venture to move upon Stirling, were ise Seottish government, and remnant of ide uzy had taken refuge, these operations Fere Erzie likely to expedite the objects which had caused the invasion. But the Protector, probabis,c not possess the means of pursuing the keto sa o Scotland to their retreat. Soon after tis oce tion of Edinburgh, he marched to the soubrai, without even waiting to receive the propose is to fered to him by the Scottish government He desired, that the commissioners charged with these should attend him at Berwick, but wben be reached that place he determined upon process ing immediately to London, and the Ex of Warwick was left to negociate with the eseny.
When, however, it was seen, that tbe main body of the English had withdrawn, and oniy a les garrisons remained to attest the recent triopa of their enemy, the spirits of the Scots revived The Queen Dowager no longer hesitated to repeat her objections to the proposed alliance with England; nor did the sense of wounded honour, and personal sacrifices allow the nobles about her to deprecate the infatuation of offering continual pretences to the southern kingdom for pouring her squadrons into the comparatively defenceless
* On the 18th of September. Burnet, Hist. Ref. 11. 56. ' He returned on the 29th of September. Ibid.
territories of Scotland. The French politics therefore resumed their wonted ascendancy at the fugitive court of Stirling, and it was even resolved to omit the decent formality of sending commissioners to Berwick, to confer with the Earl of Warwicks. Thus the Scottish proposal appeared a mere artifice to gain time, and England was justified in complaining of the insidious policy pursued by her northern neighbour. The season was indeed now too far advanced for the renewal of hostilities upon an extensive scale, and therefore, mutual complaints and recriminations were almost the only modes in which, during several months, the angry feelings of the rival nations could find a vent.
During Somerset's absence in Scotland was begun the royal visitation ordered some months before. The visitors were directed to enquire, respecting the bishops, and other ecclesiastical officers, whether they were corrupt in the exercise of their respective jurisdictions; whether they had caused the Litany to be sung or said in English only; and whether the diocesans had been accustomed to preach, especially against the Roman bishop's usurpations, having also chaplains in their service able to assist them in delivering sound doctrine from the pulpit. Respecting the parochial clergy, it was to be enquired, whether they had honestly preached against papal encroachments, and endeavoured to suppress unne
cessary holidays ; whether they had allowed the continuance of images, receiving religious honours, of relics, or of any other incentives to idolatry, superstition, and hypocrisy; whether they had taught in English, and expounded the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments; whether they were regular in their professional duties, and exemplary in their lives; whether they had advised the use of Latin prayers, had encouraged a confidence in the repetition of prayers a prescribed number of times, and in saying them over beads; whether they had recommended as good works, the moral duties enjoined in God's recorded Word, not the observances prescribed by the fancies of men; whether they had discouraged any, not restrained from reading Scripture, in the use of that privilege; whether they had declared, that men ought to know the articles of their faith in English before receiving the Eucharist; whether they had taught people to consider images merely as commemorative, and that, every other use of them is idolatrous; whether they had explained the canons respecting fasts as mere positive laws, hence to be disregarded without any scruple of conscience, in all cases of necessity, the royal license having been first obtained; whether they had taught that ceremonies do not of themselves confer grace, but are merely outward signs serving to typify and commemorate matters of importance; whether they brought to a sense of their error, promoters of pilgrimages and other superstitious delusions; and, finally,
whether their conduct had been regulated by law, and the injunctions issued in the late reign. Respecting the laity, it was to be enquired, whether any persons endeavoured to prevent men from reading the English Bible, or to hinder the preaching of sound doctrine; whether lustral water, consecrated candles, or other such things were used for any superstitious purposes ; whether any were accused of immorality, erroneous opinions, magical arts, incestuous marriages, neglect of duty as churchwardens, irregular solemnizations of matrimony, unfaithful execution of testamentary trusts, the use of any Primer except that published by the late King's authority, or of any grammar save that exclusively privileged "; and,
* Before the general use of printing, Latin grammars in England were inconveniently numerous, most schoolmasters, probably, compiling one for the use of their own pupils. It is thought, that the first printed grammar was that written by John Holt, of Magdalen College, Oxford, and usher of Magdalen school there. This was entitled Lac Puerorum, and was printed about the year 1497, being dedicated to Cardinal Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury. This was succeeded by other grammatical works, but it was not until the foundation of St. Paul's school, that a grammar, generally approved, made its appearance. The excellent Dean Colet then drew up an accidence for the use of scholars upon his foundation, Subsequently he prepared a draught of a manual of syntax, which being afterwards amplified by Lily, the first high-master of St. Paul's school, and corrected by Erasmus, was formed into the syntax since generally used. To these pieces Lily added the Propria quæ maribus, and As in præsenti. (Knight's Life of Colet, 109 et sequ.) “ King Henry endeavoured an uniformity of grammar all over his dominions ; that so youths, though changing their schoolmasters, might keep
lastly, whether any individuals were privy to the alienation of estates, or other property belonging to the Church'.
The injunctions delivered by the visitors to ecclesiastical persons and corporations, comprised the several particulars enjoined by the Vicar-general in the late reign", together with some new articles. Images, abused by receiving religious honours, were to be removed; people were to be
their learning. This was performed, and William Lily's grammar enjoined to be universally used. A stipend of four pounds a year was allowed to the King's printer for printing it; and it was penal for any publicly to teach any other.- Many were the editions of this grammar, the first set forth Anno 1513, as appears by that instance, Meruit sub rege in Gallia, relating to Maximilian, the German Emperor, who then, at the siege of Therouenne, in Flanders, fought under the banner of King Henry the Eighth, taking an hundred crowns a day for his pay. Another edition, Anno 1520, when Audito Rege Doroberniam proficisci, refers to the King's speedy journey into Canterbury, there to give entertainment to Charles the fifth, Emperor, lately landed at Dover." (Fuller, 168.) In the same spirit of accommodation to contemporary events, are the examples, Regum est tueri leges, and Refert omnium animadverti in malos, which relate to the prosecution of Empson and Dudley. (Knight, 117.) St. Paul's school had also the honour of giving birth indirectly to the Greek grammar afterwards used by authority. This was compiled by Camden the antiquary, who was by education a Pauline; and these two grammars form the groundwork of those edited for the use of Eton College, now generally used, in preference to their more venerable predecessors, under an idea that they are improvements upon them.
Strype, Eccl. Mem. II. 75. After the articles respecting the laity, are five referring to the residence, duties, morals, and preferments of chantry priests. * Hist. Ref. under King Henry VIII. II. 200. 304.