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these innovations, which are highly reprehensible, because leading to antiscriptural notions of the

is first set down; yet that was wanting in a ritual of Bellay, written about the thousandth year, so that it was not universally received for near an age after it was first brought in.” (Burnet, Vindic. 27.) “ The ancient rituals for ordination agree with that drawn up in the reign of King Edward VI. There is no anointing the hands and head of the priest and bishop. No chalice or paten delivered to the second order, nor any ring or crosier to the first. It is true, about the ninth century we find the use of these ceremonies. But then, as the learned Morinus observes, these supplemental rites in the forms of ordination were added only upon the score of solemnity." (Collier, II. 289.) Of such facts Queen Mary's examiners evidently were not ignorant, and hence they brought forward vague surmises in places where ought to have stood scholarly declarations. They knew well enough, that if they had plainly pronounced all the forms of the modern pontifical to be necessary, able opponents would have instantly arisen, and proved, upon such principles, that the Roman Church could have conferred no valid orders during many centuries. What then would have happened to her pompous boasts of uninterrupted succession? The omission of mentioning the particular order conferred upon the individual bishop or priest, was, perhaps, an inaccuracy. This defect, however, if it be one, was subsequently remedied. Its little importance is manifest from these considerations, that the essentials of ministerial consecration, the imposition of hands and prayer, were observed in King Edward's ordinal ; and that the address to bishops differs from that to priests. This trifling objection, however, comes with an ill grace from the Romanist, for his pontifical enjoins, that deacons, on ordination, shall be addressed in the following words : " Accipe Spiritum Sanctum ad robur, et ad resistendum diabolo, et tentationibus ejus. In nomine Domini." (Pontifical. 15.) Instead of this general language, it was originally prescribed in our reformed Church, and the usage still continues, that the bishop say, " Take thou authority to execute the office of a deacon in the Church of God.” To priests

priestly character and functions, it was directed, that a Bible be delivered into the hand of every one coming for sacerdotal ordination. By this significant ceremony the true import of the priestly office is plainly shadowed out. Christ's appointed ministers are thus admonished, that their commission is to dispense the heavenly knowledge which flows from God's undoubted Word, as well as the Sacraments which that unerring authority plainly reveals. The Romish priest, on the contrary, by the corresponding member of his ordination, is taught to believe, that his principal duty consists in constantly sacrificing the Son of God, and in applying the merits of that merciful Saviour's glorious passion to the purgation of human iniquity both past and present. Another judicious variation from the Roman system is found in the imposition of hands, as prescribed by our Church. Among the Papists, this ceremony is performed by the bishop alone. Our Reformers, mindful of the manner in which Timothy was ordained, and of the usage prevailing in the West at an early period', enjoined that such priests as may be present at an ordination shall unite with the bishop in the imposition of hands.

In its interrogative portions also, the English ordinal differs materially from the Roman. In

and bishops the Roman pontifical prescribes no appropriate address.

e 1 Timothy, iv, 14.

f “ Juxta expressam sanctionem concilii Carthaginiensis." Mason. de Ministerio Anglicano. Lond. 1625, p. 242.

this latter, no questions are asked of the deacons; of the priests, nothing is required beyond promises of canonical obedience; bishops are examined at some length as to their belief in the trinitarian doctrines, and in the divine origin of Scripture. The Anglican fathers, however, enjoin that deacons be asked, whether they trust that they are inwardly moved by the Holy Ghost to enter upon the diaconate : whether they consider their calling as agreeable to the will of Christ, and to the law of the land : whether they unfeignedly believe the canonical Scriptures: whether they will diligently read them to the people duly assembled for public worship : whether they will undertake to lead their lives, and to regulate their families, like true Christians : and whether they will engage to obey the ordinary, or any other ecclesiastical superior? Priests are to be interrogated as to their cordial opinion upon the suitableness of their calling to Christ's will, and to the order of the English Church : as to their persuasion that Scripture sufficiently teaches all things necessary for salvation, and their determination to inculcate no doctrine as thus necessary, unless they shall be. convinced that it may be proved by Scripture : as to their willingness to administer the Christian doctrine, sacraments, and discipline in a manner conformable to God's Word, and to the national regulations : as to their disposition to use diligence in dispensing sound religious knowledge, and wholesome admonition : as to their inclination to engage in prayer, and in

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professional studies, to the exclusion of such habits as are worldly and carnal: as to their de. termination to lead religious lives, and to make their families do the same : as to their anxiety to promote peace around them : and as to their feelings respecting canonical obedience. Bishops are to be questioned in a similar manner respecting their opinions as to the lawfulness of their calling, and as to the sufficiency of Scripture; likewise as to their disposition for prayer, scriptural studies, an exemplary life, and the promotion of peace. A pledge is also required of them, that they will oppose the progress of unscriptural doctrines, use their jurisdiction in repressing immorality, faithfully discharge the duty of ordination, and live in habits of Christian charity. The propriety of calling for such engagements from individuals about to be invested with offices of great solemnity and importance, is unquestionable. Nor at a time, when a very large proportion of men denied the validity of such ministerial commissions as were not sanctioned at Rome, and the insufficiency of Scripture to furnish proofs of a Christian's faith; could those who stood forward to vindicate their country's ecclesiastical inde pendence, and the vigilance of Providence in causing such religious truths to be recorded as mortals are concerned to know, deem it needless to require, that none should take holy orders who would not unequivocally recognise these two great principles. Of this formal recognition the necessity has happily diminished; but it still

exists, and therefore the demand is properly continued. Among all these interrogatories, however, no one has attracted so much observation as the first of those addressed to deacons. But in this nothing more is required of the candidate than an expression of his trust that he is guided by a heavenly influence in what he is doing. Nor obviously need any serious man brought before the bishop for ordination, by his own deliberate choice, and the force of circumstances, hesitate to express a hope, that God has directed his steps. In many cases where the sacred profession is adopted, it is that calling to which the individual is attached by natural inclination, and by its suitableness to his peculiar habits. A person of this kind, when undertaking the diaconate, after due religious preparation, assuredly may feel justified in cherishing a belief that an overruling Providence has led him to that important occupation for which his talents are evidently best adapted. Nor need others, less distinctly marked out for the clerical vocation, scruple to express their trust that heaven has led them to the decisive step which cats them off from secular employments; when they recollect that their choice has flowed from the advice of those whom they respect, that it is approved by their own judgment, and that it has given a peculiar direction to their studies. It is most desirable, that ordination should wear an appearance of something more than a formal admission to a worldly calling. Men who devote themselves to the ministration of holy things

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