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oppressed female's life. It is, however, 'not unlikely, that Cranmer, and his friends also, concurred in the propriety of subjecting glaring cases of heresy to judicial cognizance. In the last December, a priest named Ashton, who denied the deity of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, was summoned to Lambeth by means of two of the Archbishop's chaplains. It is not probable, that such a prosecution should have been instituted without Cranmer's privity. Fortunately the heterodox priest recanted". As his case and Bocher's are not without parallel in the records of this time, it is reasonable to believe, that a disposition to revive the early heresies was now rather gaining ground, and there can be no doubt, that the friends of scriptural Christianity felt deep concern in observing such a tendency. Not only was a colour thereby given to the cavils of their Romish adversaries, but also violence was thus done to their own golden rule, by which canonical Scripture alone, fairly interpreted, was admitted as the ground of faith. Now those who hold anti-trinitarian opinions would fain adopt as their standard of belief something less than the received canon of Scripture, and would assume a right to interpret the text according to their own pre-conceived opinions. In this respect such religionists take a position similar to that of the Romanists. Neither of these sects is contended with Scripture as it finds it; but the one
b Ibid. 256.
detracts from the Sacred Record by gratuitous charges of interpolation, and forced constructions; the other adds to it by interpretations, and supplemental articles derived, as it is asserted, from infallible Apostolical tradition. Between the two parties, therefore, Scripture receives that treatment which Procrustes is fabled to have bestowed upon the unfortunates who reclined upon his bed. It is made longer or shorter according to the measure of their respective prejudices.
The new Liturgy was not compulsorily to come into use before Whit-Sunday, but many clergymen did not choose to wait so long. At Easter, accordingly, they greeted their congregations with the sound of devotions in a tongue universally understood'. Nor was the Common Prayer generally received by such priests as were less forward in using it, with any apparent reluctance., The work was in fact compiled with such eminent skill and moderation, that no friends to the former system, who were men of sense and information could substantiate any objections to the new service". But although nearly the whole clergy, outwardly laid aside the Romish ritual, there were many members of that body who contrived virtually to retain it. Their new books, it is true, were disgraced by none of those wretched rubrics which occupy so large a space in the old ones,
i Heylin, Hist. Ref. 74.
* Dodd admits, that the new Liturgy was well concerted to carry on the interest of the Reformation.”
these admirers of inveterate habits officiated, notwithstanding, as they had ever been wont. The prescribed words were chanted or muttered, almost innumerable crossings continued, the altar was kissed, the priest's fingers were washed, and all the other tedious absurdities making up the pantomime of a Popish mass, were practised as before!. In this obstinate adherence to exploded prejudices, there were ecclesiastics who steadily kept an eye upon the profits of the old system.
· These ceremonies, if they are worthy of the name, are thus briefly mentioned in the injunctions of the visitors. “That no minister do counterfeit the Popish mass, as to kiss the Lord's Table, washing his fingers at every time in the Communion, blessing his eyes with the paten or sudary, or crossing his head with the paten, shifting of the book from one place to another, laying down and licking the chalice of the Communion : holding up his fingers, hands, or thumbs joined towards his temples ; breathing upon the bread or chalice, shewing the Sacrament openly before the distribution of the Communion; ringing of sacring bells, or setting any light upon the Lord's board at any time: and finally to use no other ceremonies than are appointed in the King's book of Common Prayers, or kneeling otherwise than is in the same book.” (Burnet, Hist. Ref. Records, II, 226.) The Romish ritualists assign various mystical meanings to the egregious trifling of their mass-priests. Of these the following one, relating to the repeated finger-washings used at the altar, is a favourable specimen." Priusquam sacerdos offerat, manus iterum lavat, quamvis prius, dum vestibus se ornaret, lavisset; et etiam post secundam thurificationem iterum lavat, ut si magis ac magis mundatus offerat hostiam immaculatam, sanctam, Deoque placentem.” (Durandi Rationale, 53.) This portion of a Romish clergyman's ministrations is technically known as the lavabo, and a prayer for those who are gazing upon it is to be seen in Challoner's Garden of the Soul, 81.
These shrewd admirers of the principles in which they had been bred, obtained the attendance of a single recipient besides themselves, and to him they celebrated the new Communion-service by way of a soul-mass; perhaps repeatedly in the course of a day". They thus continued to reap some advantages from those purgatorial regions so fortunately discovered by their Roman friends. It being, however, not intended to mock the nation by a service, so delivered as that few could distinguish whether it was in English, or in Latin; or to bring the people to church for the purpose of gazing there at a succession of idle ceremonies; or to allow them to be pillaged any longer, under a notion that if they should hire a priest to receive the Sacrament, they would thereby shorten the purgatorial sojourn of their departed friends; a royal visitation was ordered, for the purpose of putting down these and other similar abuses. The most remarkable articles in the regulations to be promulged by the visitors, were that all mention of the Popish mass, should be laid aside, and all attitudes and gesticulations used in its celebration wholly banished from the Churches; that all hiring of persons to receive the Sacrament in behalf of others should cease; that the people should be taught to abstain from gabbling prayers over beads ", and that such as might be found in
m Burnet, Hist. Ref. II, 164.
n“ Beads are most probably of Oriental origin, being used by both the Hindoos and Tartars. Peter the Hermit, notorious as the leader of that immense mob, which sallied forth to the first
corrigibly addicted to this anti-scriptural folly o Crusade, is thought to have brought them into Europe. Nor is it unlikely, that this fanatic saw the rosary when he made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, which led to so many mad attacks upon Palestine. His approval and patronage of such a superstitious toy, if it came in his way, may fairly be presumed. The Dominican friars, however, claim the distinction of having brought beads into general credit in the West; saying, that their founder Dominic Guzman, known at the commencement of the thirteenth century, as the suggester of the Inquisition, and the zealous persecutor of scriptural Christianity in Southern France, first taught men to amuse themselves with rosaries. It is recorded of this fiery and unfeeling bigot, who passes for a saint among Romanists, that being prisoner on board a piratical Moorish vessel, a storm arose which threatened shipwreck. Guzman advised his captors to call upon the Virgin Mary, but being in the habit of confiding in no dead person excepting Mahomet, they only laughed at their prisoner's recommendation. Of course the Spaniard himself made all the interest that he could with the female object of his adoration, and on the morrow-morning, it being the feast of the Annunciation, she appeared to the crew, and informed them, that if they would recite the rosary every day, and institute a fraternity devoted to this kind of employment, she would save the whole of them. If they should refuse her stipulation, she professed her intention of rescuing Guzman alone, and of leaving them to their fate. The Moors, however, liking gabbling Latin prayers and angelic salutations over beads better than drowning, accepted the bargain. Their facility disgusted a company of infernal spirits in attendance, who loudly thus expressed their disappointment. Oh this Dominic! he deprives us of our prey! he releases them with the rosary! he chains us, he scourges us, be kills us with that rosary!' All the goods which they had thrown overboard to lighten the vessel, were found lying safely upon the strand; and the converts, being led in triumph to be baptised, became the first members of the society of the rosary." Southey's Vindiciæ Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ. Lond. 1826, p. 478. See Hist. Ref. under King Henry VIII. I. 38.
O" When ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen