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the Queen-dowager still fondly clung to a close alliance with her native land, and even those among the nobles who would have been glad to see peace re-established between the two British nations were not unaffected by that cruel policy of England which was ever threatening devastation to the northern kingdom. Advantage was taken of this general hatred and irritation to propose that the infant Queen should be sent to France for education and protection. A measure so decisive was, however, at first by no means generally approved. It was represented, that the hostilities of England having no other ostensible object than the union of the whole island by a marriage between its two young sovereigns, it would be wretched policy to render that union utterly hopeless, and thus provoke such an invasion as Scotland might prove unequal to resist. On the other hand it was urged, that so long as Mary remained at home the English would never cease to harass their northern neighbours with attempts to gain possession of her person, or at all events to overrule her people's policy; but that, if the French alliance were once irreversibly adopted, the court of London would desist from wasting the resources committed to its management upon mere projects of subjugation. To this view of the case a majority of the leading Scots inclined, being enflamed by national rivalry, and corrupted by French gold. The infant Mary, accordingly, left her native land, and after encountering some dangers at sea, reached the shores

of France. Soon after her arrival upon the continent, she was betrothed to the Dauphin, and the politics of her father-in-law were efficiently supported in her hereditary kingdom by a formidable band of French auxiliaries commanded by an officer of reputation named d’Essé. Somerset, who was pressed on all sides by domestic difficulties, would have gladly concluded a truce of ten years with the northern nation, but his proposal was rejected, because he refused to surrender the Scottish fortresses occupied by England. The Earl of Shrewsbury then crossed the border at the head of about fifteen thousand men; three thousand of whom were Protestant German mercenaries. A series of military operations followed, of which, as was generally the case in the wars between England and Scotland, the sole results were enflaming national animosity, and causing individual misery. When the campaign closed, it was found, that nothing decisive had been accomplished o.

During the course of these events, dissensions among the people, arising from the unsettled state of religion, kept the English government in a constant state of uneasiness. Ecclesiastics attached to the principles in which they had been bred had become generally apprehensive of some important change, and hence were much upon the alert to strengthen Romish principles among their congregations. As usual the confessional

o Hume. Hayward, 291. Burnet, Hist. Ref. II. 137.

was pressed into this service, and such as chose to disburthen their consciences by its means commonly retired from it with an increased antipathy against farther alterations in the Church. This spirit naturally became an object of anxious oh

P Strype, Eccl. Mem. II. 141. "In this earshrift (auricular confession) are wrought their malicious mysteries. In it the poor simple creatures are taught to delight in ignorance, and to beware of the reading or hearing of the Scripture in the English tongue, contrary to Christ. John v. In this secret school are they confirmed in the hope of the Pope's pardons to be set abroad, again contrary to Christ in Matt. xxiv. Here are they instructed to believe, that your masses and diriges are meritorious both for the quick and dead, contrary to the ix. and x. chapters of St. Paul to the Hebrews. Here are they commanded to multiply prayers, and to repeat our Lady's Psalter upon their beads. Or if they dare not occupy beads, to number their prayers upon their fingers, contrary to Christ, Matt. vi. Here learn they to put difference between day and day, and meat and meat, contrary to Paul, in the second chapter to the Colossians. Here are they taught to worship God in images, the making and having whereof is not only forbidden, but also accursed of God himself in the xiv. chapter of the Book of Wisdom, and in the xxvii. of Deuteronomy. In this hell-house are the simple people taught to earn heaven by their will-works : as by building and enriching of abbeys, by founding of chantries and anniversaries, by painting and gilding of posts, and by giving of bell, book, chalice, and other ornaments, as you (Shaxton) call them, to your Turkish temples, contrary to the Lord's express commandment, Deut. chap. v. Here are they taught to think themselves well enough, and their consciences clean discharged of all sin whereof they have made relation to the priests, though they never felt any part of true repentance, but do incontinent (immediately) return to their old vice, as the sow to the puddle, and the dog to his vomit, contrary to Peter in the second chapter of his second epistle." Crowley's Confutation of Shaxton's Articles. Lond. 1548. VOL. III.


servation with the ministry, and the movements of Bishop Gardiner in particular were narrowly watched. That influential prelate, when relieved from restraint at the close of winter, had retired to Winchester, and rumour charged him with assuming there a very dangerous character. He was said to have taken measures secretly for arming his household, as if in expectation of some commotion"; to have used the prohibited superstitions of passion-week; to have spoken injuriously of the royal chaplains who were sent to preach in his cathedral ; and to have kept alive in the pulpit the popular ferment engendered by the Eucharistic question. In consequence of these reports, he received orders to present himself immediately before the council. He replied, that his health would not then allow him to travel on horseback, and upon this representation he was permitted to postpone his journey for a time. His conduct, however, still, appears to have been considered unsatisfactory, and his plea of ill-health exaggerated, if not fictitious. Accordingly, three days before Whitsuntide, was transmitted to him another order to attend the council; which he obeyed without delay; travelling to London in a horse-litter. When arrived in the council-chamber, the members of the board received him courteously, and upon a footing of perfect equality, conversing with him individually before the busi

Burnet, Hist. Ref. II. 109. Of this charge, however, no notice is taken in Bishop Gardiner's own account.

It was

ness for which they had come together was entered upon. This in due time was explained by Somerset from a paper. Gardiner, in vindication of himself, asserted, that he had not borne palms, or crept to the cross, during the last passionweek; and that as for preparing a sepulchre, with some other kindred ceremonies, he had only acted as he considered himself bound by his Majesty's proclamation. Of his attack upon the King's chaplains he gave some explanation, which is lost. He was then charged with having uttered in the pulpit contemptuous insinuations against the council, saying that, “ the Apostles went from the presence of the council, the council, the council.” This he flatly denied, adding, that such iterations were never used by him in his sermons. next objected to him, that he had preached upon the Eucharist, and declared that the body of Christ was really present in that sacrament; the word really not being so applied in Scripture. “ This," he answered, “ is not the fact. I never used that word, but I allow myself to have taught the same doctrine that my Lord of Canterbury maintained at the trial of Lambert." He concluded his defence by protesting himself to be actuated by an habitual desire to obey the ruling powers, and by a declaration, that he had taught the people of his diocese to suffer patiently the pleasure of those who were in authority, as being an important part of a Christian's duty. But however the Bishop might represent his instructions to the people under his guidance, it is evident, that the

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