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the Lord's table followed within a short interval after the time when the Parliament had separated. It was therefore deemed expedient, under the urgency of the case, merely to prepare as an appendage to the mass, a form in English for the administration of the Eucharist in both kinds, according to the legislative provisions lately enacted. On the 8th of March accordingly, proceeded from Grafton's press a service adapted to this purpose ; to which was prefixed a royal proclamation enjoining a ready obedience to the alterations already made, and intimating that farther reforms were in agitation. To the office itself was prefixed a rubric ordering the officiating minister to give notice of his intention to administer the Communion, on the Sunday or holiday next before, or at least on the day before such celebration. The words prescribed for this notice are not materially different from those which appear in the first annunciatory exhortation to be seen in the present English Communion-service. Excellent as every Christian must allow this exhortation to be, a mind imbued with Romish prejudices would observe with regret that it enjoined an acknowledgement of sins not to man, but to God, that it admonished penitents whom a review of their past conduct filled with more than ordinary perplexity to lay their case, not of necessity before their own parish priest, but before any discreet and learned divine, and that it left auricular confession entirely to the discretion of individuals, recommending that no person should undertake to censure his neighbour for continuing or omitting that practice. At the time of celebration, it was ordered that the ancient mass should be said in the accustomed manner down to the end of the communion of the priest. So that those who considered it desirable to hide under the disguise of a dead language, what are deemed the mysteries of consecration, were gratified in this particular. They were not, indeed, allowed to calculate upon the long continuance of such gratification, for the rubric enjoining that the mass should be celebrated as usual, intimated that it was only to be so “ until other order shall be provided.” After the priest had communicated, he was directed to turn towards the congregation, and to address them in English with the exhortation still used, for the same purpose, with some alterations, chiefly verbal. This was to be followed by a recommendation to unrepentant blasphemers, adulterers, malicious or envious persons to abstain for a while from the holy table, lest their participation should give occasion to the devil to enter into them, as he did into Judas. For the sake of rendering this more effective, a short pause was to be made when the priest had concluded, in order that any selfconvicted offender might avoid the presumption of challenging, while yet in his sins, a communion with his God, and that the clergyman, by noticing any person's departure, might know where his spiritual aid and counsel was most urgently required. After this followed the short invitation to communicants, the confession, and the absolution, nearly as they yet stand in our service books. The well-selected texts of Scripture yet prescribed in this office, except the second, which was omitted, were next to be read; and after them that beautiful expression of humility with which the officiating minister is to our own times directed to kneel down by the side of the Lord's table. This being ended, the priest was to arise from his knees and administer the consecrated elements in both kinds, first to any clergymen present, and afterwards to the people. With the bread, he was to say, “ The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body unto everlasting life:" with the cup, “ The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy soul unto everlasting life.” The congregation having communicated, was then to be dismissed with the blessing. In providing for this sacrament, it was ordered that the small round cakes or wafers", which had been usual, should be continued, and that, according to the Romish custom, water should be mingled with the wine. But it was enjoined that each of these wafers should be broken into two or more pieces, and that if the wine first consecrated were not found sufficient, more should be consecrated by repeating those words in the canon of the mass which relate to the cup. There was, however, in this case to be no new eleyation P.

of any other place after this life, but of these two only.” (Ibid. 17.) It is evident from Bede, that in his days, a belief in something like the purgatory of modern Romanism was making its way among the credulous, for he relates some visions reported to have been seen, in which the dreamer was believed to have been admitted to a sight of certain purgatorial inflictions. That, however, it was considered an integral part of the Christian faith, in Bede's time, to admit the existence of a place for the temporary punishment of all human souls, is nowise probable. For even Gregory I., although he gave some encouragement to the expectation of such a place, says, “ in the day of his death a just man falls to the south, a sinner to the north; because a just man, by the fervour of the spirit, is carried to joys, and the sinner, in the coldness of his heart, is reprobated by the Apostate angel." Britons and Saxons not converted to Popery, 351,

• It is obvious, that as the Eucharistic bread anciently was selected from the offerings of the congregation, it must have been of the same description as that prepared for ordinary purposes. Such accordingly, it is known, was the fact, in the primitive Church. (Cave's Primitive Christianity, 443.) The use, however, of small cakes at the Holy Communion appears to be ancient, for they are mentioned, but not with approbation, by Gregory 1. towards the close of the sixth century. At the beginding of the thirteenth age these hosts, as they are called, seem to have become general, and Honorius III, who decreed the worship of them, ordered that they should be marked with a cross. (Hospinian, 371.) They are delivered whole to the communicants; an usage which the compilers of King Edward's first Communion-service thought proper to break through, both in compliance with the practice of the primitive Church, and to render them significant emblems of Christ's body broken on the cross. As pieces of these hosts were to be distributed, the following rubric was provided : " Men must not think, less to be received in part than in the whole, but in each of them the whole body of our Saviour Christ."

The Alliance of Divine Offices, by Hamon L'Estrange, Esq. Lond. 1699. p. 337. VOL. III.


On the 13th of March a circular letter to the several prelates was agreed upon in the privy council, enjoining them to disperse the new service throughout their respective dioceses, and to take care that it should be generally used at the ensuing Easter. This letter was signed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor Rich, the Earl of Arundel, the Lords St. John and Russel, Mr. Secretary Petre, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir Edward North, and Sir Edward Wotton. In the majority of instances no disposition was evinced to disobey the orders of authority. The bishops, Boner of London, Gardiner of Winchester, Voisey of Exeter, and Sampson of Lichfield and Coventry were, however, somewhat backward in their compliance; and many of the parochial clergy expressed their dissatisfaction with the changes which they were required to carry into effect! Among the objections urged against the new service, it was represented by some that the compilers were not contented with restoring the cup to the people without at the same time contriving to make it appear even more important than the bread. In delivering the latter, it was remarked, the priest was directed to say, “ May it preserve thy body;" while with the chalice he was to say, “May it preserve thy soul.” To suppose that any thing invidious really was intended by this variation, would be to suspect our Reformers of a spirit to

4 Heylin, Hist. Ref. 59.

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