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of Northampton"; John Dudley, Viscount Lisle, Earl of Warwick', the Lord Chancellor Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton"; Sir Richard Rich, Lord Rich of Lees; Sir William Willoughby, Lord Willoughby of Parham ; and Sir Edmund Sheffield, Lord Sheffield of Butterwick. Other creations, though intended, were not carried into effect, probably because the individuals whom it had been determined to ennoble, saw little prospect of attaining an augmentation of wealth adequate to the maintenance of a rank above that actually in their possession
On the 19th of February, the young King attended by a magnificent retinue rode from the Tower to the palace at Westminster, and on the following day, being Shrove-Sunday, he was crowned by Archbishop Cranmer, in the Abbeychurch, with the usual solemnities". Upon no occasion does the most dignified individual among the clergy appear to so much advantage, as when, by connecting the sovereign's inauguration with the most hallowed rites of religion, he reminds the
He married Anne, daughter and heiress of Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, a lady who numbered among her ancestors, the Bohuns, once Earls of Northampton. Ibid.
1 As descended from the Beauchamps who formerly bore that title. Ibid.
* " Son of William Wriothesley, and grandchild of John Wriothesley ; both of them in their times advanced no higher than to the office of an herald; the father by the title of York, the grandfather by that of Garter, king at arms." Ibid. 32. ! Burnet, Hist. Ref. II, 28.
Hayward, 276. Strype, Eccl. Mem. II. 35.
first individual in the state that his elevated rank is only a trust delegated to him by God for the benefit of his people. It was not, however, by means of significant ceremonies alone, that Cranmer admonished his royal godson, on the day of his coronation. As there appears to have been no sermon, he supplied its place by addressing the young monarch to the following effect. “ The promise which your Highness hath made to rerounce the devil and all his works is not to be understood, in the sense imposed upon it by the Bishop of Rome, as binding you to any dependence on his see. Paul the Third wrote to your royal father, Didst thou not promise, when crowned by our permission, to forsake the devil and all his works, and dost thou run to heresy? For the breach of this thy promise, kenowest thou not, that it is in our power to dispose of thy sword and sceptre to whom we please? We, however, dread sovereign, of your Majesty's clergy, do humbly conceive that this promise implies no subserviency to the Roman See Your ancestors received their crowns from God, and they could not resign them to the Bishop of Rome, or to his legates, without a breach of their coronation oaths. It is true that the Archbishops of Canterbury have been used to crown and anoint your predecessors, and it is asserted, that their authority to perform these offices is derived from Rome. But even were that assertion true, it could not be endured that an Archbishop should presume to approve or reject a Prince upon the grounds of his subservience, or
of his opposition to the Roman see. In truth, the rites of coronation are mere ceremonies which affect not an individual's title to the throne: they are, indeed, important ceremonies, for they admonish kings of their duty towards God. The dignity of him who is the object of this august ceremonial renders it becoming that the most distinguished of the clergy should anoint his sovereign. But if that ecclesiastic refuse to officiate upon such an occasion, any other prelate may be called upon to supply his place : nor is the royal title at all invalidated because the officer, upon whom it properly devolves to crown his king, has declined the office. Nor does the bishop of Rome, nor any prelate owning his authority, possess the right to make stipulations with a sovereign upon these ceremonies. The officiating bishop may indeed admonish the inaugurated king of what God requires at his hands, namely, religion and virtue. Not, therefore, as authorised by the bishop of Rome, but as a messenger from my Saviour Jesus Christ, I shall now humbly remind your Majesty of the duties which have devolved upon you. Your Highness, then, as God's vicegerent within your dominions, is bound to see that among those committed to your governance, God be truly worshipped, idolatry destroyed, images removed, and the tyranny of the Roman bishops overthrown. You are to reward virtue, to punish crime, to justify the innocent, to relieve the poor, to promote peace, to repress yiolence, and to execute justice throughout your realm. For examples of the
happiness attending such kings as performed these duties, and of the miseries inflicted upon such as neglected them, the Old Testament may be advantageously consulted. We find there, the acts of Josiah especially, recorded in a manner which will render his name illustrious until the end of days. Of these things I admonish your Majesty merely because I am bound by my function so to do; not because I have any commission to deprive you of the crown should you fail in the performance of your duty; much less because I have any power to make stipulations in favour of the Roman bishop, such as were made by your predecessors King John, and his son King Henry. I shall therefore only add ; may the Almighty God of his mercy cause the light of his countenance to shine upon you, may he grant you a prosperous and happy reign, may he defend and save you : and let your subjects say, Amen ”.
A happy result immediately flowing from the King's coronation was the customary grant of a general pardono. This terminated the persecutions instituted under the detestable act of Six
This address of Cranmer's “ was
the inestimable collections of Archbishop Usher." Strype. Mem. Cranm. 205.
• From the benefit of this, six individuals were excluded, viz. the Duke of Norfolk ; Edward, Lord Courtney, son to the late Marquess of Exeter ; Cardinal Pole; Dr. Richard Pates, who attended the council of Trent as Bishop of Worcester, a see of which he actually gained possession in Queen Mary's reign ; Fortescue and Throgmorton, of whom "I have found nothing but the names." Heylin. Hist. Ref. 33.
Articles. The relief, however, came too late for one victim of that iniquitous statute. Thomas Dobbs, once a fellow of St. John's College in Cambridge, had been committed to Bread-street counter for expostulating with the people, assembled round one of the altars in St. Paul's cathedral, upon the impious folly of adoring the uplifted wafer. In prison this enlightened Christian's health rapidly declined, and before the royal amnesty restored to liberty and usefulness the incarcerated sufferers for conscience sake, death had summoned him away. The pious band now allowed to quit the noisome dungeon, and once more to labour for the common good, was gradually augmented by arrivals from abroad. Learned Englishmen who, having sought for the principles of Popery in vain amidst the sacred records, and the genuine remains of ecclesiastical antiquity, had preferred exile to dissimulation, now gladly shaped their course again towards the land which
gave them birth. Among these expatriated divines Miles Coverdale, the martyred Tyndale's coadjutor in translating Scripture, was not one of the least illustrious. Their paternal soil was once more trodden also, about this time, by Hooper, Philpot, and Rogers, three conscientious ecclesiastics who joined eventually that “noble army of martyrs” which led the true Catholic Church of England to a glorious triumph over her infatuated foes4
p Foxe, 1180.
• Heylin. Hist. Ref. 34.