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uncandidly refused to read any thing that proceeded from their pens'. - Of Zuingle's assistants in the Eucharistic controversy, by far the most celebrated was John Ecolampadius, or Hausschein, who was born at Winsperg, in Franconia, in the year 1482. This excellent scholar, whose attainments, especially in Greek and Hebrew, were surpassed by very few or none in his day, settled ultimately at Basil, and established the people of that city in the principles of scriptural Christianity. In 1525, he published a work upon the Eucharist displaying uncommon ability, learning, and piety". The book immediately attracted considerable attention, and Erasmus was urged to undertake the task of refuting it. But that celebrated scholar well knew the resources of Ecolampadius, having received assistance from him while preparing the Greek Testament for publication. He saw, besides, that the learned Franconian's positions were of the strongest kind, and he appears to have discovered no means of overthrowing them but by citing the authority of the Roman Church; a species of argument which he knew would only expose him to merited derision'. But colam

"" Tandem res eo deducta est, ut multi nimis gravi præjudicio, Zuinglii et Ecolampadii nomen, tanquam pestilentissimorum hæreticorum vix audire dignati sunt: quæcunque ab eis profecta audiebant, nec visa, nec audita, nec lecta condemnarint." Ibid. 22. 8 Gerdes, I. 118.

Lavather, 4. . The following are extracts from the correspondence of Erasmus. “ Perlegi librum Johannis (Ecolampadii de verbis Cænæ

padius was assailed by weapons far more easy to wield, than the arguments of learned men, far more destructive also of a scholar's peace, and injurious, at least for a time, to his reputation. He was vilified as the worst of heretics not only by the Romanists, but likewise by all who followed as Luther's commanding genius led. He did not, however, cease to inculcate that doctrine of the Eucharist which he had so long and so ably defended. But his labours and anxieties undermined his constitution, and in November, 1531, he sank into an early gravek. It is thought, that, immediately before his death Ecolampadius had been occupied in preparing for the press the work of

Domini, mea sententia, doctum, disertum, et elaboratum, ad. derem etiam pium, si quid pium esse posset quod pugnat cum sententia, consensuque Ecclesiæ, a qua dissentire periculosum esse judico.” On another occasion he wrote, “ Ecolampadium emisisse libellum tam accurate scriptum, tot machinis argumentorum, totque testimoniis instructum, ut posset vel electos in er. rorem pertrahere.” Ibid. 5.

Ibid. 21. Ecolampadius professed to the last his conviction of having taught sound doctrine; especially as to the Eucharist. In the month preceding that in which this very learned and amiable divine was called away, his illustrious friend Zuingle perished in the field of battle. Religious animosities had reached such a height in Switzerland, that at length the Romish cantons took up arms, not however without having received considerable provocation. Zuingle, who had vainly endeavoured to restrain the irritation of his disciples within reasonable bounds, was appointed to attend a detachment which marched to meet the enemy, and he received a mortal wound at the commencement of an action fought near Cappel on the 11th of October. He was succeeded in his ministry by Henry Bullinger. Mosheim, IV, 364. Turretin, 262.

Ratramn on the Eucharist. That remarkable relic of antiquity made its appearance in print in the following year', and it immediately gave a new face to the Eucharistic controversy. Hereafter when the Sacramentaries were upbraided with reviving an exploded heresy first broached by Berenger, and subsequently patronised by Wickliffe, they were enabled to retort triumphantly upon their opponents the charges of novelty and error so confidently made. No publication, accordingly, so much embarrassed the Romanists as that of Ratramn's treatise. To see extensively circulated among men of information a work written by a learned member of their Church, at the bidding of the most powerful sovereign of his time, and so lately as the ninth century, which broadly denied the carnal presence, and intimated that all who think as Catholics must deny it, threw the partizans of Rome into great confusion. They immediately resorted to the most obvious expedient for eluding this decisive blow, and asserted that the book was either a forgery altogether", or at all events shamefully interpolated by their opponents ".


At Cologne. Cellot says that Ecolampadius prepared the work for the press. But it is not known what MS. was used. Introd. to the Book of Bertram, 21. - Lavather, 23.

Upon this subject let us hear" the learned and honest F. Mabillon, who saith, Travelling in the Netherlands, I went to the monastery of Lobes, where among the few manuscripts now remaining, I found two: one book written 800 years since, conQuestions, however, of this kind can generally be set to rest within a moderate time, and as the

taining two pieces, one of the Lord's body and blood, and the other of predestination; the former one book, the latter two. The inscription and beginnings of both were thus in the manuscript: Thus begins the book of RATRānus of the Body and Blood of our Lord fc. as in the printed books. The other book was a catalogue of the library of Lobes with this title A.D. 1049, The friars of Lobes taking an account of the library, find in it these books—Ratramnus of the Lord's body and blood, one book : the same author of God's predestination, two books : which gives us to understand that the book which contains these pieces of Ratramnus, is the very same set down in the catalogue A.D. 1049, and written before that time, and by the hand it appears to have been written a little before the end of the 9th century. And I doubt not but it is the very book which Herigerus, Abbot of Lobes, used at the end of the 10th century.-I compared the Lobes manuscript with the printed books, and the reading is true, except in some faulty places, which I corrected by the excellent Lobes manuscript. There is one word of some moment omitted, which yet I will not say, was fraudulently left out by the heretics, the first publishers of it, in regard, as I said before, there appears not any thing of unfaithfulness in other places." (Introd. to the Book of Bertram, 61.) The omission is that of the word existit in the following passage : "Iste panis et calix, qui corpus et sanguis Christi nominatur et existit, memoriam repræsentat Dominicæ passionis, sive mortis.” (Ratramn, 132.) It is evident that the omission here is of little or no importance, because the original publishers of Ratramn did not deny the spiritual presence, and therefore, if the word in question were found in the MS. which they used, it is not to be doubted that it was left out of the printed copy accidentally. “ Outre le MS. de Lobe, le même Pere (Mabillon) en decouvrit un autre dans le monastere de Salem Weiler en Allemagne; et il juge par la charactère, qu'il peut avoir 700 ans d'antiquité." Dissertation sur Ratramne, prefixed to the French translation of his work. Amsterdam, 1717. p. 132.

publishers of Ratramn had no reason to shrink from the responsibility which they had encountered, the work was openly circulated without the least hesitation. It was, indeed, soon rendered accessible to the mass of the people; for Leo Judas translated it into German, and his version was sent by the divines of Zurich to the Margrave of Brandenburg, in consequence of a letter received by that prince in 1532 from Luther, in which he was exhorted to drive the Sacramentaries from his territories. Thus Ratramn's tract was brought forward in opposition to Lutheranism, and that circumstance will perhaps account for the late notice which it appears to have received in England. The Saxon correspondents of our Reformers would be likely either to pass over in silence, or to mention in a very slight manner a book which was esteemed subversive of a principal tenet adopted by their master. At length, however, the name of Ratramn was heard in every region of Western Europe, and Romish polemics, throughout the sixteenth century, in mere despair of eluding the force of such testimony, were reduced to the mortifying necessity of compromising their credit by pronouncing the book supposititious P.

• Lavather, 23.

p The Book of Bertram " is a late forgery, it was written by Ecolampadius, and published under the venerable name of an author of the 9th century. This Sixtus Senensis, and after him Possevine, with extreme impudence pretend. But for want of good memories they elsewhere tell us that the author of the book

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