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process of time, men would not bear such rational interpretations: they gradually became persuaded, that in the Eucharist, Christ was truly offered, and that, as when he died at Calvary he made a propitiatory sacrifice, so whenever a priest celebrated mass a propitiatory sacrifice was in like manner offered. By this kind of sacrifice, it was at length believed, the present, though not communicants, the absent, and even the dead, might be benefitted ?. The natural result of such a belief, when once firmly established, was, that in every condition was excited an eagerness to purchase these Eucharistic services; hence the Romish priesthood almost daily made accessions of wealth and importance; nor needed it to fear any very serious reverse of fortune so long as a belief in its power to offer propitiatory sacrifices should remain firmly impressed upon the minds of men.

temporibus dicta fuerit, nemo docebit nos melius quam ipse Sententiarum Magister, Petrus Lombardus, Episcopus Parisiensis. Hanc enim quæstionem movet ille, lib. 4. distinct. 12. Si quod gerit sacerdos, proprie dicatur sacrificium vel immolatio; et si Christus quotidie immoletur, vel semel tantum immolatus sit ? Deinde respondet : Ilud quod offertur el consecratur a sacerdote, vocari sacrificium et oblationem, quia memoria est et representatio veri sacrificii, et sanctæ immolationis factæ in ara crucis. Et semel, inquit, Christus mortuus est in cruce, ibique immolatus est in semetipso : quotidie autem immolatur in sacramento, quia in sacramento recordatio fit illius quod factum est semel.(Usser. de Success. 98.) Peter Lombard was a native of Novara in Lombardy, (whence his designation,) who taught theology at Paris with great applause, and was appointed to the bishopric of that city in 1150. He is chiefly known as the compiler of a book of Sentences, (a name commonly bestowed in his time upon theological works) which is made up for the most part of extracts from the fathers, especially from Hilary, Ambrose, Jerome, and Austin. This work, which served as a nucleus for collecting round it a cloud of commentators, obtained for its compiler the designation of the Master of the Sentences. Peter Lombard died in 1164. Du Pin, III. 273.

2 After long and keen debates, the council of Trent anathematised, on the 17th of September, 1562, “those who shall say, that the mass is a sacrifice only of praise or thanksgiving, or a bare commemoration only of the sacrifice of the cross, and not propitiatory; and that it doth help only him that doth receive it, and ought not to be offered for the living and the dead, for sins, punishments, satisfactions, and other necessities." (F. Paul. 574.) The creed of Pope Pius IV. thus expresses the doctrine of the Roman Church upon this subject: "I profess likewise, that in the mass there is offered to God, a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead."

When the Reformers first began their labours, this impression had generally prevailed during two or three centuries, and being supported by some specious scriptural authorities, its soundness was not at first suspected. Zuingle, however, having learned to distrust the whole system of Popery, determined to sift it narrowly in all its parts.' In 1524, he entered upon the Eucharistic question, and he soon found that transubstantiation is utterly irreconcilable with the Sacred Record. He then examined the opinions of those who maintain that in, with, or under the elements, are taken the natural body of Christ. All these opinions he found totally untenable, and not even deducible from the words of the fathers critically understood. The result of his enquiries was a conviction, that Christ is received in the Eucha

rist by faith spiritually, not by the mouth corporally; and that the schoolmen, in teaching a contrary doctrine, had followed neither Scripture, nor ecclesiastical antiquity'. Zuingle, having thus found himself unable to retain the Eucharistic opinions in which he had been educated, and duly feeling the importance of that question which now engaged his attention, apprised the learned of his sentiments extensively both in France and Germany. To many his opinions appeared correct, and he therefore made them public without any farther hesitation, in a course of lectures which he delivered upon the Gospel of St. John. Carlostadt had already written against the carnal presence during the time of Luther's concealment in the castle of Wartburg. As, however, the great Saxon Reformer had refused to sanction other innovations made in his absence, so he also condemned the attack of Carlostadt upon the carnal presence. His support, indeed, of that doctrine under a modification of his own, powerfully influenced his future life, and those who respected his exertions were generally inclined to join with him in reprobating Carlostadt's work upon the Eucharist. The circulation of it, accordingly, was forbidden by the senate of Zurich, until Zuingle, though he did not entirely approve the work, exerted himself to have the prohibition removed. In 1525, Luther published a reply to Carlostadt,

• Lavather. Hist. de Orig. et Progress. Controv. Sacram. Tigur. 1563. p. 1.

Ibid. 2.

and in the March of that year appeared Zuingle's work De Vera et Falsa Religione. Of this publication, the part relating to the Eucharist was, by the author's means, translated into German, and sold extensively at Francfort fair. In the August of the same year, Zuingle published a more comprehensive work upon the Eucharist, in which his former positions were defended by new arguments. Thus in the same year did the two great revivers of scriptural Christianity publicly commit themselves on different sides of the same question, to the great regret of those who had at heart their common cause. In vain did Zuingle, after this, intreat his fellow-labourer in Saxony to consider the novelty of those ecclesiastical arrangements which depend upon a belief in the carnal presence". To reasonings upon this subject Luther continued to the last inaccessible. He was ever bent upon holding up to execration the Swiss doctrine of the Eucharist, and within two years of his death, he published annotations upon Genesis, in which he reflected severely upon the Sacramentaries. Soon afterwards, in spite of Melancthon's opposition, appeared his last confession respecting the Lord's Supper, in which Zuingle and his adherents were condemned in terms of inexcusable asperity. The result of this persevering hostility in one possessed of an influence so immense, was a most violent prejudice against the Swiss Reformers, among the generality of those who advocated scriptural Christianity. Men not less zealous in combating the principles and pretensions of papal Rome than Zuingle and his friends.could not bear to hear the names of those celebrated divines, and most

• Ibid. 3. “Hæc autem præcipua fuerunt capita in quibus Zuinglius a Luthero in hac causa dissentiebat : nempe, quod hæc verba Christi (Hoc est corpus meum sc.) per metonymiam essent exponenda : Quod Christi caro et sanguis non ore carnali, sed fide duntaxat perciperentur: Quod Christi corpus in certo cæli loco degeret, neque per omnia, ut divinitas, diffunderetur : Quodque impii symbola tantum corporis et sanguinis Christi, non ipsum corpus Christi, ejusque sanguinem acciperent." (Ibid. 13.) See also Hist. Ref. under King Henry VIII. I. 351.

& “ Quod per omnia templa et basilicas quæ cis Rhenum sunt, domicilia, in quibus sacramenta custodiuntur, non vetustiora sunt ducentis annis, aut paulo plus, signum est ante tot annos, Eucharistiæ sacramentum pro eo habitum loco, quo nos habemus. Tiguri urbe vetustissima cum hoc anno aræ omnes tollerentur, nulla prorsus inventa est quæ cum templo excitata esset. Quid ? an hoc signum non est, ad octingentos hinc annos aras nondum fuisse? Sacerdotia missalia, quæ capellanias nostri, alii vicarias vocant, tam Tiguri, quam per omnes Helvetios, Argentoratum usque, vetustiora trecentis annis non inveniri, etiam ad signa pertinent. Glaronæ ac Tugii reperti sunt missales libri, non ad plenum trecentorum annorum, qui rubricas hujusmodi continent: Ac mox, ubi baptizati sunt, (infantes sc.) detur eis panis et vinum corporis et sanguinis Domini.--Instrumenta habet collegium nostrum Tigurinum, annos nata plus septingentos, in quibus nulla missæ fit mentio. Ordinis Benedictini ac Bernardhini monachi passim apud Helvetios sic sunt instituti, ut corporis Dominici, aut missæ, nulla fiat mentio in diplomatis eorum; etiamsi quidam intra trecentos annos instituti sunt.” Amica Exegesis, id est, Expositio Eucharistiæ Negocii ad Martinum Lutherum, Huldrico Zuinglio autore. Tigur. 1563. pp. 36, 7.

Lavather, 32.

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