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gory IX., who attained his dignity in 1227", decreed that, on the elevation of the Eucharist, a bell should be rung, and at its sound the kneeling people should with outstretched hands adore the host°This usage still exists in the Roman Church, and it tends materially to lower the dignity of her most gorgeous masses. Sublime music and magnificent dresses do, indeed, render those solemnities highly captivating to the generality of men; nor are the kneeling worshippers one of the least imposing features in the scene; but the tinkling bell sadly mars the whole contrivance, and throws an air of pettiness about

• Du Pin, III. 292.

• " Gregorius 9. decrevit, ut ad Christi corporis et sanguinis confectionem, itemque hostiæ elevationem, campanula seu tintinnabulum pulsaretur, ut eo audito, cuncti, ceu sidere quodam tacti, in genua procidant, et hostiam extentis manibus adorent : quemadmodum Nauclerus in chronicis suis, Generat. 42. sub anno 1240. annotat; itemque Urspergensis Paralipomena fol. 351. Cranzius in Saxonia lib. 8. c. 10." (Hospinian, 373.) Durandus, who wrote about the year 1986, plainly says that the host is elevated for the purpose of adoration, and he is the first writer who assigns such an object to that ceremony, " as Mr. Daillé proves at large." (Bingham, I. 795.) The following words of Durandus are certainly sufficiently plain. “ Dictis verbis istis, Hoc est corpus meum, sacerdos elevat corpus Christi : primo ut cuncti astantes illud videant, et petant quod proficit ad salutem.” (Rationale 65.) The council of Trent anathematised those who denied, " that Christ in the Eucharist ought not to be worshipped with the honour of Latria, (the worship due only to God) or honoured with a particular feast, (that of Corpus Christi) or carried in procession, or put in a public place to be worshipped;" and it also anathematised those who said that such "worshippers are idolaters." (F. Paul. 340.)

it, in keeping indeed with the tricks of artful men, but most unsuited to a stupendous miracle wrought by the mighty hand of Omnipotence P. Artolatry, like her twin-sister transubstantiation, was indebted for general reception, in a considerable degree, to those wonders which figure in Romish history and theology. It was observed with astonishment, that even brutes rendered that homage to the host which heretics refused, and a learned mule, ass, or sheep effected conversions which defied the eloquence of friars ”.

P As such, transubstantiation is always represented by its friends. “ Cum ergo sacerdos illa Christi verba pronunciat Hoc est corpus meum, et hic est sanguis meus ; panis et vinum in carnem et sanguinem convertuntur illa verbi virtute

qua verbum caro factum est et habitavit in nobis ; quia dixit et facta sunt, mandavit et creata sunt; qua feminam mutavit in statuam, et virgam convertit in colubrem, qua fontes mutavit in sanguinem, et aquam convertit in vinum." (Durandi Rationale, 63.) These illustrations, however, are none of the most felicitous, for we are not informed that the Jews of our Saviour's time were expected to believe in his incarnation, although he did not visibly dwell among them; nor do we read, that although Lot's wife was changed into a pillar of salt, those about her could discover no change in her at all ; nor that, Aaron's rod appeared to be just as little of a serpent after the change as it was before: nor that, that the Nile though turned into blood was not perceptibly altered. As for the change of the water into wine at the marriage of Cana, we are expressly informed that no person, however in. credulous, could take it for water after our Saviour's intervention. It is, therefore, plain that the miracles of Scripture are widely different from those of transubstantiating priests.

9 “ Ce fut dans le même tems que se firent des miracles eclalans pour l’etablissement de cette adoration; car l'an 1230. Antoine de Padouë ayant trouvé dans le comté de Toulouse un

Transubstantiation and artolatry having gained firm possession of the public mind, a crowd of superstitions, absurdities, and indecencies followed in their train. Officiating priests were troubled with numerous directions, known as cautels of the mass, intended to guide them in cases of sudden nausea, fainting, and accidents of every kind which might overtake either themselves, or the consecrated elements'. In the schools it was debated, whether brute animals eating the host eat the Lord's body, whence come the worms in a musty host, what becomes of the Lord's body when a host is received into the stomach, or may become of it in case of the recipients illness; with many other questions relating to this subject equally childish, disgusting, and even blas

heretique qui nioit la presence reelle, et cet heretique ayant promis après une longue dispute d'embrasser le sentiment d'Antoine, si une mule qui aurait jeûnée trois jours, etant placée entre le foin et le Sacrement, elle quittoit le foin pour aller adorer l'hostie; Antoine ne manqua pas de tenter le miracle: et l'on vit que la mule affamée negligea les alimens que l'heretique lui offroit, pour aller rendre ses respects à l'hostie. Un autre heretique qui avoit accoutumé son ânesse à manger des hosties, crut être fort sûr de son fait, en soutenant au même Antoine de Padouë que son ânesse mangeroit l'hostie, qu'on lui presentoit comme le corps de Jesus Christ. L'heretique fut trompé, l'animal eut plus de raison que lui; car Antoine ayant consacré un hostie, et la presentant à l'ânesse, cet animal se mit à genoux, et l'adora au lieu de la manger. La brebis de St. François faisoit quelque chose de plus, car elle se mettoit à genoux toutes les fois qu'elle entendoit sonner la petite cloche pour l'elevation." Basnage, Hist. de l'Egl. Rotterdam, 1699. p. 1002.

" These cautels may be seen in the missals. VOL. III.


phemous'. Several masses too were celebrated in the same church in one day, contrary to the usage of all antiquity"; the Eucharist was borne in procession as a protection against storms and other calamities“; and the Popes adopted, towards the end of the fourteenth century, the practice of having it carried before them when they moved from home W. But the most remarkable result of a general belief in transubstantiation was the docdrine of masses satisfactory. The primitive Christians were often reproached by both Jews and Pagans with their neglect of those sacrificial rites which, being common both to the religion of the ancient Record, and to that of unwritten Gentile tradition, were justly deemed integral parts of the

• Vid. Hospinian, 404.

!“ Conam Domini semel tantum in primitiva Ecclesia in uno die et in eodem templo celebratam esse ex historiis certissimum est. Et Mediolanensis ecclesiæ morem ætate sua exponens Ambrosius, Omni Hebdomeda, inquit, offerendum est: etiamsi non quotidie peregrinis ; incolis tamen vel bis in hebdomada. His verbis Ambrosius communionem suo tempore semel, aut bis in hebdomada, aut ad summum quotidie semel, si occasio gravior oblata esset, non autem vicies, aut tricies in uno die administratam fuisse testatur. Hanc consuetudinem in Romana Ecclesia suo adhuc tempore usurpatam Franciscus Assissinas monachis suis firmiter tenendam in regula his verbis præscripsit: Moneo et exhortor vos in Domino, ut in locis, in quibus morantur fratres, una tantum celebretur missa in die, secundum formam sanctæ Romane Ecclesiæ. Et Græci adhuc unicam tantum missam in die celebrant, Thoma Vualdensi teste, lib. 6. cap. 34." Hospinian, 390.

• Ibid. 388.

* “ Benedictus 13, Papa, circa annum Domini 1390, fertur primus Eucharistiam ante se gestasse ad sui custodiam, ut refert Tenebrardus in chronicis." Ibid. 392.

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revelation made by God to the common ancestors of mankind. As an answer to this objection it was urged by the early professors of our holy faith, that bleeding victims were no longer necessary; since the mighty propitiation of which they were merely types had been offered on the

In the hope, however, of reconciling unconverted men to the Christian faith, her ministers adopted terms familiar to the ears, and dear to the prejudices of those around them. The Lord's Supper was usually termed a sacrifice, the communion-table an altar". Nor were these metaphors reprehensible ; for the Eucharist is not only a commemoration of that sacrifice which hallows the mention of Calvary; it is also a solemn offering made by the communicant of praise and thanksgiving; of his body, his soul, and his alms to that merciful Saviour who offered a propitiation for his sins. In this scriptural manner was the Eucharistic sacrifice explained by doctors of the Roman Church in the twelfth century'. But in

* “ Les anciens tachans d'attirer à la foy Chretienne les Payens, qui estimoient qu'il n'y a point de religion sans sacrifice, et les Juifs, desquels la religion sous l'ancien Testament consistoit principalement en sacrifices, ont appellé la Sainte Cene sacrifice et la table sacrée autel, et ceux qui servent à cette table Levites." (Anatomie de la Messe, par Pierre Du Moulin. Sedan. 1636. p. 194.) Confiding in this figurative language which occurs in the early theologians, “ Eckius told the Elector of Bavaria, that the doctrine of Luther might be overthrown by the Fathers, though not by Scripture." Bp. Jeremy Taylor's Dissuasive from Popery. Polemical Works, p. 289.

“ Quo autem sensu Dominica Cæna Sacrificium, etiam hisce

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