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is effected in the Eucharist ”. Nor was the carnal presence universally admitted among laymen of distinction in the twelfth century, for it appears that the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa did not hold that opinion'. It was, however, during the whole period constantly making its way, and to this age is commonly referred the coinage of the word Transubstantiation ?

That term appears to have been first used either in the Epistles of Peter of Blois, or in a work upon the Eucharist by Stephen, Bishop of Autun. The former of these writers flourished during the pontificate of Alexander III.“, the latter is thought to have lived towards the beginning of the century. In

* “ Si autem quæritur qualis sit illa conversio, an formalis, an substantialis, vel alterius generis, definire non sufficio." Peter Lombard flourished about the year 1140. Ibid. 145.

Y" Friderico negatam esse carnalem Dominici corporis et sanguinis in sacramento præsentiam, duobus exemplis confirmat Johannes Vitoduranus Minorita, in principio chronicorum, quæ apud Helvetios in S. Galli monasterio manuscripta asservantur." (Usser. de Success. 97.) Frederic Barbarossa was elected to the imperial throne in 1152. Abrégé Chronologique de l' Histoire d'Allemagne, par M. Pfeffel. Paris, 1777. I. 316.

* “ Nomen transubstantiationis ipsi etiam transubstantiatores concedunt ante XII. sæculum fuisse inauditum.” Cosin, 53.

* Ibid. 146. Bishop Cosin assigns 1180 as a date to Peter of Blois. It should, however, be observed that Alexander, after struggling for more than twenty years with rival popes, died on the 27th of August, 1181. Du Pin, III. 227.

6 About the year 1100, or a little after. (Bp. Jeremy Taylor's Real Presence, Polem. Works, Lond. 1674. p. 267.) Bp. Cosin thus speaks of Stephen, “ cujus et ætas et scripta valde incerta sunt. Quod enim refertur a recentioribus quibusdam (Bellar

the year 1215, the term, transubstantiation, was introduced into the authentic formularies of the Roman Church, being used in developing the doctrine, since distinguished by its name, in one of the canons assented to by the great council then assembled at the Lateran, under Innocent III.

mine et Possevin) ad sæculum X. id sine testimonio idonei alicujus authoris ab eis factum est." 146. Stephen, however, uses the word under notice with some qualification : he speaks of the sacramental bread as “ quasi transubstantiatum.Ibid. 53.

• The following are the words of this canon extracted from Labbe and Cossart's councils. “ Una vero est fidelium universalis ecclesia, extra quam nullus omnino salvatur. In qua idem ipse sacerdos et sacrificium Jesus Christus, cujus corpus et sanguis in sacramento altaris sub speciebus panis et vidi veraciter continentur ; transubstantiatis pane in corpus, et vino in sanguinem, potestate divina, ut ad perficiendum mysterium unitatis accipiamus ipsi de suo quod accipit ipse de nostro. Et hoc utique sacramentum nemo potest conficere, nisi sacerdos qui fuerit rite ordinatus secundum claves ecclesiæ quas ipse concessit A postolis et eorum successoribus Jesus Christus.” On the 11th of October, 1551, the council of Trent thus decided, “ that in the Eucharist, after the consecration, Christ is contained truly, really, and substantially, under the appearances of the sensible things, notwithstanding he is in heaven by a natural existence." (F. Paul, 339.) The council anathematised those who denied this doctrine, which is thus expressed in the creed of Pius IV. “ In the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist, there is truly, really, and substantially, the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ; and there is a change made of the whole substance of bread into the body, and of the whole substance of wine into the blood ; which change the Catholic Church calls transubstantiation." The Catechismus ad Parochos, a manual drawn up by a committee of the Trentine divines for the instruction of parish priests, “ acquaints us, that by the words of consecration, the true body of our Saviour, that This doctrine, being thus admitted into an authentic confession of the Roman faith was gradually received by the great majority of men throughout the West. Inquisitive minds abandoned rational investigation for the mazes of scholastic theology, and hence were occupied in entrenching transubstantiation amidst dialectic subtleties, rather than in examining the grounds upon which it stood. The bulk of men less competent to judge of abstract questions naturally gave implicit credence to their spiritual guides, and many wavering minds were probably affected by those imaginary portents of which accounts were spread abroad in a spirit of the most resolute mendacity". Transubstantiation, indeed, never ceased throughout the middle ages, to find numerous opponents, but these were generally persons in humble life whom the great and learned proscribed and vilified as heretics. It is no wonder, therefore, that at the Reformation, a doctrine which had been pretty firmly established in the West during nearly five centuries, and almost indisputably admitted by influential minds during three, should have been usually considered as coeval with the foundations of Christianity.

body, which was born of the blessed Virgin, and sits at the right hand of the Father in heaven, is present in this Sacrament. And to make the orthodoxy of this article more apparent, the parochial clergy are put in mind to cite our Saviour's words in their sermons, This is my body, and explain them to a literal sense. And, lastly, they are to inform their audience, that whatever is included in the essence and composition of a real body, for instance, Bones and Nerves (ossa et nervos) are contained and present in this Sacrament. They are farther to instruct their people, That the whole person of Christ, the divine and human nature, are joined in this mystery : that the most comprehensive idea of both these substances, and whatever is consequent to the notion and integrity of either of them; that is, the divinity, and entire human nature, by which is to be understood, the soul, the blood, and all the parts of the body : all this compass of nature, properties, and parts, are to be believed present in the holy Eucharist.” Collier’s Answer to some Exceptions : ad calcem Eccl. Hist. p. 8.

Vide Hospinian, 434.

Immediately consequent upon the reception of transubstantiation in the Roman Church was Artolatry, or the worship of bread. During the first ages of the Christian æra, the sacramental elements were not at all elevated after consecration. Early in the eighth century, however, we are told by Germanus, Bishop of Constantinople, it was usual in the East to hold up the consecrated bread as a commemoration of Christ's crucifixion and resurrection : perhaps also this practice might be intended to admonish the congregation that the time for communicating was now at hand'. That this usage was adopted by the Eastern Christians with a view to the people's adoration of the Eucharist, there is neither evidence nor probability. The Western Church appears not to have elevated the consecrated elements until a much more recent period 5 : that she did not enjoin the adoration of them in the time of Berenger, must be inferred from the total absence of any notice of such a practice in all the contentions undergone by that celebrated divine". The earliest writers in the West who mention the elevation of the sacramental bread are Ivo de Chartres, and Hugh de St. Victor, both of whom lived in the eleventh century; but the reason which they assign for the practice is the same as that assigned by the Constantinopolitan Bishop'.

• Bingham, I. 759.

'Hospinian, 371. * This is sufficiently evident from Durant, (De Ritibus Eccl. Cath. Rom. 1591. p. 476 et seq.) who undertakes to prove that m Hospinian, 372..

Bishop'. In the middle of the following century, however, it is certain that artolatry had begun its course, for Averroes, the Arabian philosopher, said, “ Since Christians eat what they worship, let my soul be with the philosophers k. The minds of men, therefore, having been sufficiently prepared for this innovation by its gradual reception in the West, Honorius III. who succeeded Innocent III. in 1216', decreed that the clergy should teach their congregations reverently to bow at the elevation of the Eucharist, and on meeting it when carried by the priest to a sick person". The succeeding pope, Gre


the elevation of the Eucharist was ever the usage of the Church, but produces Eastern authorities chiefly, and even these making little or nothing for his object. Allix, Piedmont, 220.

• Bingham, I. 795. * Ibid. 797. Averroes lived about the year 1150. It is worthy of remark, that no such reflection appears to have been cast upon the primitive Christians by the heathens of their time, eager as these were to vilify the Church : a plain proof that artolatry did not exist in the first ages. Du Pin, III, 292.

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