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presenting such a course as alike disrespectful to the memory of her deceased father, and unfair towards her brother, because likely to disturb the peace of his kingdom. Somerset's reply is a verbose epistle, in which he exculpates himself from the charge of disrespect to his late master, protests, that he was only actuated by an anxiety to discharge his duty conscientiously, and expresses his belief, that his royal correspondent's interference was prompted by some of those uncharitable and malicious persons who were then so active. It appears, that the Princess had, among other topics, urged upon Somerset the ready acquiescence yielded by all classes in the late reign to such ecclesiastical arrangements as were then carried into effect; an unanimity which she could “ partly witness herself.” « At these your Grace's sayings,” wrote the Protector in reply, “ I do something marvel. For if it may please you to call to your remembrance what great labours, travails, and pains his Grace had, before he could reform some of those stiff-necked Romanists, or Papists : yea, and did they not cause his subjects to rise and rebel against him, and constrained him to take the sword in his hand, not without danger to his person and realm ? Having thus truly stated the case, respecting King Henry's reforms, Somerset proceeded, by adverting to the unsettled state of religion at that monarch's death,


5" I gather this to have been the substance of her letter, from the answer which the Protector wrote." Burnet, Hist. Ref. II. 62.

and to the uneasiness hence pervading the country. He then asserted from his own knowledge that the late King was much concerned, when upon his death-bed, to leave the Reformation so incomplete, having resolved to carry it farther, and he concluded by requesting the Princess to consider the absurdity of calling scriptural religion newfangledness, and fancy. The mortification of seeing her interference thus rebuked was, however, the only one to which the Lady Mary was subjected at this time. In all other respects she received the treatment to which her birth entitled her, and the young King failed not upon every opportunity to give her proofs of his affectionate regard“

It was not without reason, that the leading Romanists made such exertions to support the credit of their opinions, for in addition to the hostility of the cabinet, they had to contend almost daily with active assailants, in the inferior walks of life. Their leading doctrine, transubstantiation, especially, was now more controverted than ever, and some of the attacks levelled against it were by their boldness and scurrility calculated to make a powerful impression upon the vulgar. Placards were affixed on the doors of St. Paul's cathedral, and in other places, terming the consecrated wafer itself A Round Robin, when contained in the pix, Jack in the box, and mass, The

! Ibid. Records, 161. " Strype, Eccl. Mem. II. 91.

sacrament of the halter". From arguments and invectives against the corporal presence, all Bishop Gardiner's care and severity had not sufficed even to keep his own diocese free. Before the end of King Henry's reign a clergyman, named Hancock, had preached there from the Epistle to the Hebrews', that the single sacrifice offered by Christ upon the cross was a sufficient atonement for the whole sum of human iniquity. This doctrine, though strictly scriptural, was considered as inculcated with a view to disparage the mass, and Hancock was suspended from the exercise of his ministerial functions. This suspension was, however, removed soon after King Edward's accession, by Cranmer's means, and the zealous preacher now impugned unreservedly the corporal presence, in various parts of the southern, and western counties". Other clergymen adopted the same line of conduct, and thus the popular mind was retained in a state of constant ferment, as to what were deemed the vitals of religion, not only by means of vulgar ribaldry, but also by the force of serious argument. These attacks upon the mass did not, however, receive any direct encouragement from persons in authority. The coarseness, indeed, with which this Romish service was assailed, disgusted all serious minds, and

* Life of Bishop Ridley, 216. These indecencies were far from new; but they were now brought forward with unwonted boldness. 3 Heb. ix. 12. 25, 26.

Strype, Mem. Cranm. 247.


Bishop Ridley, in a sermon preached, this autumn, at St. Paul's Cross, reprobated these excesses with such severity, that he was afterwards said to have maintained the corporal presence upon that occasion

An incident, which occurred in October, shewed, that the prevailing disposition to pour contempt upon the mass had made some progress in the University of Cambridge. When the members of St. John's College there assembled one morning in their chapel, the strings by which the pix was ordinarily suspended were found to be cut, and that venerated vessel was lying upon the pavement. As there was little probability, that this ignominious fall resulted from accident, an enquiry was immediately set on foot to discover the author of the outrage. The offender proved to be a young Frenchman of Protestant principles, who was a sizar of the house. His act occasioned great uneasiness in the collegiate body, being thought likely to give offence at the seat of government, and, accordingly, it was determined to lay all the circumstances, without delay, before Archbishop Cranmer. By him, in consideration of the youthful delinquent's irreproachable morals, and studious habits, no particular severity was recommended, and the affair was hushed up..

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Ancient opinions respecting the Sacramental presence-Rise of a

belief in transubstantiation-Ratramn-Contemporary sentiments of other eminent divines-Lanfranc-Berenger-Progress and establishment of a belief in transubstantiation-Artolatry--The Eucharist represented as a propitiatory sacrifice Zuingle's attacks upon transubstantiation-Ecolampadius Elfric-The Anglo-Saxon homily-Anglo-Saxon epistles against transubstantiation-Anglo-Norman arrangements for the reception of that doctrineAbandonment of it by Ridley and Cranmer.

Among the peculiar tenets engrafted under papal influence upon the Catholic faith, that which gives life and energy to the whole system of Romanism, is transubstantiation. This doctrine teaches, that the words of Eucharistic consecration having been pronounced by a priest duly ordained, and intending to produce the effect an

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