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ing, that faith excludes charity in the office of justification'. A few words of his own comprise all the account of this conference known to be extant, and the answer of his opponents does not appear. It is only certain, that nothing which passed, not even a hint from Cranmer that he could wish to see him reinstated at the councilboard", induced him to swerve from his determination, and accordingly he again found himself consigned for an indefinite time to his quarters in the Fleet.

In the hope of shaking his resolution, Sir John Godsalve, one of the visitors for the London district', wrote to him to represent the ruinous consequences likely to flow to himself from a perseverance in his present conduct. Gardiner's answer, though rather verbose, contained passages worthy of any man, and of any cause.

“ Sixteen years," he wrote to the Knight, “ have I held my bishopric, without infringing, in my official capacity, the laws of God, or those of the King. Equally blameless was I in these respects, on taking possession of my see; I have, therefore, the satisfaction of knowing, that the two portions of my life already spent have only been marked by such miscarriages as human frailty must be expected to pro

Collier, II. 232. k “ As Gardiner writ to the Protector.” Burnet, Hist. Ref. II. 59.

"As the diocese of Winchester was not included in this district it seems not unlikely, that Godsalve was a personal friend of the Bishop's.

duce in any man. Now, if I play the third part well, and depart from my bishopric without of fence to God's law, or the King's, I shall think the tragedy of my life well passed over. Thus to de mean myself is at this time my only desire and study; nor if this third act be finished well, do I care whether my bishopric be taken from me, or myself from my bishopric. I am by nature already condemned to die; a sentence which no man can reverse, or even assure me of delay in the execution of it. Of necessity, therefore, within a short time, my preferment must come again into the King's disposal, my household must be broken up, and all the habits of my life must find an end. The thought of these things, however, troubles me nothing. In my house in London I lately fitted up a pleasant study, which for a time afforded to me great delight; but I grew weary of it, and was glad to leave it for the country. From this I feel justified in concluding, that provided I retain honesty, and truth, I could easily make up my mind to relinquish any worldly pleasure. But these good qualities have attended me through life, they will befriend a man when every thing else forsakes him, no one can take them from me but myself, and I will not surrender them: they are dearer to me than all the possessions in the realm. Were I to take leave of truth and honesty, then, indeed, I should deserve to lose my bishopric, and the gaping expectants of it would have reason to exult over my fall. I shall, however, give them no such pleasure.” The Bishop then

declared, that he meant not to protest against the injunctions, only to allege such objections as he was in conscience bound to make ; and he concluded, by suggesting, that the visitation being likely to be found illegal in some particulars, no man could safely act under the commission for it, unless he were protected by a regular indemnity".

When the Protector returned from Scotland, Gardiner endeavoured by letters to prejudice him against the homilies, and paraphrase; not omitting to remind him, that the visitation might bring trouble upon those concerned in it, on account of its repugnance to the fundamental laws of England. As to the homily of salvation, he wrote; that, if Cranmer had been his extreme enemy, he could have wished no better than to see him produce that piece"; that baptism justifies infants;

m Burnet, Hist. Ref. Records, II. 157.

• Those who desire to understand completely the Archbishop's doctrine

upon the subject controverted by Gardiner should read the liomily of salvation, together with the two following ones. For the satisfaction of such as are not disposed to do this, or as have not the bomilies at hand, the following extract may suffice. “ Faith doth not shut out repentance, hope, love, dread, and the fear of God, to be joined with faith in every man that is justified; but it shutteth them out from the office of justifying. So that, although they be all present together in him that is justified, yet they justify not altogether : neither doth faith shut out the justice of our good works, necessarily to be done afterwards of duty towards God; (for we are most bounden to serve God in doing good deeds, commanded of him in holy Scripture, all the days of our life :) but it excludeth them, so that we may not do them to this intent, to be made just by doing of them. For all the good works that we can do be imperfect, and therefore

penance recovers lapsed adults; that a nice investigation into such matters was only fit for scholastic disputants in the Universities; and that the Archbishop would never persuade men generally to acquiesce in his doctrine of justification, unless he borrowed prisons of the Protector; a mode of silencing opposition resembling that pursued at Rome, where people who do not kneel when the Bishop passes by are knocked on the head with a halberd. He then launched out into some sarcasms upon the primate, as a person so highly gifted with God's spirit, and so deeply versed in theology, that he seemed able with a breath to confound error, and to establish truth.

Upon the paraphrase, Bishop Gardiner wrote, “ that he agreed with those who accused Erasmus of laying the eggs which Luther hatched ; that of all the monstrous opinions now abroad, evil men had a wondrous occasion ministered to them from the paraphrase; and that he might term the book in one word Abomination, both on account of the author's malice, and of the translator's arrogant, ill-disposed ignorance o.” In another letter, the

not able to deserve our justification : but our justification doth come freely by the mere mercy of God, and of so great and free mercy, that whereas all the world was not able of themselves to pay any part towards their ransom, it pleased our heavenly Father of his infinite mercy, without any our desert or deserving, to prepare for us the most precious jewels of Christ's body and blood, whereby our ransom might be fully paid, the law fulfilled, and his justice fully satisfied." Homilies, 19.

• Strype, Mem. Cranm. 215.

exasperated prelate represented this work as inculcating principles at variance both with the Homilies, and with the Necessary Doctrine", a book authorised by Parliament for the direction of the clergy; as being written by Erasmus in youth, when his pen was wanton ; as involving in doubt the obedience of subjects to their princes ; as speaking irreverently of the Eucharist, advocating clerical marriages, and tending in various ways to unsettle the minds of men! Upon another occasion, Gardiner complained to the Protector of being kept in prison at a time when he ought to be at liberty to attend his duty in Parliament, and he desired his release, in order to argue with the Archbishop of Canterbury in the House of Lords upon the points in which he differed from him. This application, however, as well as those preceding it, was disregarded; it not being deemed expedient to release a partisan of such talents and activity, while the sitting of Parliament afforded him additional facilities for embarrassing the government by his opposition'.

The uneasiness generally prevailing among people attached to Romanism induced the Lady Mary to try the effect of an appeal to the Protector. She appears to have expostulated with him by letter upon the impropriety of allowing any religious innovations to take effect during a minority, re

p Hist. Ref. under King Henry VIII. II. 521.

Bishop Gardiner to the Protector. Strype, Mem. Cranm. Appendix, 785.

I Collier, II. 233.

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