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Three Great Achievements in Electrical Science.

BY RAY STANNARD BAKER......

The Beginnings of the Incandescent Lamp.

BY THOMAS A. EDISON.....
The Triumph of the American Idea.

BY ALEXANDER H. FORD...
Power Employed in Manufactures.

BY E. H. SANBORN....
The Utilization of Niagara Power.

BY H. W. BUCK....
Compressed Air and its Application in Mechanical Lines.

BY W. O. DUNTLEY...

The Turbine Engine.

BY CHARLES C. FITZMORRIS..

The Copying of American Machines.

BY JOSEPH HORNER...

Invention as a Factor of American National Wealth.

BY W. C. DODGE...

American Steam Engineering.

BY PHILIP DAWSON....

Progress in Engineering.

BY ROBERT HEYWOOD FERNALD..

How the American Shoe has become Standard.

BY GEORGE HOUGHTON..

Needles and Pins.

BY CHARLES M. KARCH...
The Sewing Machine.

BY JOHN A. BOSHARD..

The Revolution in Watch-Making.

BY WILLIAM A. COUNTRYMAN..

The Development of the Typewriter.

BY HARRY E. BARBOUR..
Labor Saving Systems Revolutionize Office Work.

BY HUGH S. FULLERTON.

FIFTY YEARS OF AMERICAN SCIENC

BY W. J. MC GEE.

(W. J. McGee, geologist and ethnologist; born Dubuque county, Ia., Api self educated; studied Latin, astronomy, surveying, and higher mathen at work on a farm, 1863-73; land surveying and justice court practic invented, patented, and manufactured agricultural implements, *1873geology and archæology, 1877–81; made the most extensive geologic and survey of northeastern Iowa ever executed, 1877-81; examined and i building stones of lowa for tenth census, 1881-82; became attached to U: geological survey, and assumed charge of important divisions in 1885; su mapped 300,000 square miles in southeastern United States; compiled ge of the United States and New York; investigated Charleston earthquak plored Tiburon Island, 1894-95; ethnologist in charge of Bureau of Am nology, 1893–1903; president American anthropological association; actir A. A. A. S., 1897-98; chief of department of anthropology and ethnology Purchase Exposition.] Copyright 1898 by Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

On April 2, 1840, eighteen American savants Philadelphia and organized themselves into “The A Society of Geologists.” Within two years the as extended its field of activity, and added "and Nat to its title. Still later other sciences were given and at a notable meeting held in Boston in 1847 it cided to remodel the organization on the lines of a association that had been a power in shaping int progress for a quarter century. In accordance w action, the leading scientific men of the country met adelphia, September 20, 1848, and instituted "The A Association for the Advancement of Science." S the origin of the leading American scientific society tinctively American body, meant to increase and to exact knowledge among the people.

Scientific progress, especially in a land of free tions, is so closely interwoven with industrial an progress that the advance of one cannot be traced constant reference to the other. Indeed, the state our national progress during the past half century more than a summary of results and practical app of scientific research. Fifty years ago our populat hardly more than twenty millions, now it is eighty i Vol. 7-1

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