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tial had authority to punish indifference with stripes, and infidelity with death. The introduction of this arbitrary system excited no commotion, because the colonists, not having as yet tasted of liberty, were unacquainted with its value.

In 1611, a hundred kine were sent thither by the company, the most fortunate step yet taken. This emanated from the wisdom of Cecil, and it is strange indeed, that a measure so important, should have been deferred so long. In the following year, (1612,) a modification of the charter was effected, which consisted in giving to the corporation a democratic form. All power previous to this, had resided in the council ; it was now transferred in part to the company, frequent meetings of which were now held.

Those meetings, contained the germ of another revolu. tion, and became in a short time the theatre of bold and animated discussion. While the powers of the company were thus enlarged, the stability of the colony was confirmed. Some Indian tribes shortly thereafter, without solicitation, became the tributaries of King James, and the marriage of John Rolfe “an honest, discreet, and amiable enthusiast,” with Pocahontas, the daughter of “the emperor” in April, 1613, gave to the whole scene the most animating effect.

Rolfe, it is said, daily and hourly, and as it were in his very sleep, heard a voice crying in his ears, that he should strive to make her a Christian. With the solicitude of a troubled soul, he reflected on the object and end of his being. “ The Holy Spirit,” (says Rolfe) “demanded of me why I was created; and conscience whispered, that rising above the censure of the low-minded,' he should lead the blind in the right path.” After a long and serious struggle in his own mind, accompanied by daily prayer, he resolved “to labor for the conversion of the unregenerated maiden.” He succeeded; and she stood in the little church of James Town, before the font, “hewn hollow like a canoe" from the trunk of a tree, and openly renounced “her country's idolatry, professed the faith of Jesus, and was baptized.” This was followed by her nuptials with Rolfe. “ She stammered out before the altar her marriage vows,” and the English colonists and the tawny sons of the forest, to all appearance, were united in harmony."

A confirmed peace, not only with Powhattan, but with the powerful Chicahomanies, followed the marriage of Rolfe, and other tribes, from thenceforward, sought English protection.

In May, 1614, a petition for aid was presented in the House of Com. mons. "All that Virginia requires,” (says the petition,) " is but a few honest laborers burdened with children." Although supported by Lord Delaware and other gentlemen of influence, it failed of success. not, therefore, to parliaments or to kings, that Virginia was indebted for its prosperity, but to the industry of its inhabitants, directed to the culture of its then staple article, tobacco—a better and surer resource than the patronage of England or any other country on the globe. Tobacco became eventually not only the staple but the currency of the country.


It was

Industry being now respected and property secure, the emigrants be. gan to think of public rights. Under the influence of faction, Argall had been appointed lieutenant governor of the colony, and martial law hav. ing been adopted, opportunities for unrestrained tyranny frequently eccurred. These, Argall had improved ; and the first appeal from America to England was in 1618, from his decision, condemning in a wanton manner a colonist to death. By the influence of Sir Edwin Sandys, the appeal succeeded, and the mild and popular Yeardly was appointed captain general of Virginia. During his administration, the colonists were allowed to participate for the first time in legislation ; and in June, 1619, the first colonial assembly met in James Town. Two repre. sentatives from each of the eleven boroughs, hence called burgesses, constituted the first popular representative body, that ever met on this side of the Atlantic. Although their acts were of no force till ratified by the company in England, their first assembling was an era in the progress of freedom. They demanded a code based upon the English laws, and claimed the privileges of Englishmen.

Sir Edwin Sandys, the new treasurer, (the patriot party in England having now control of the London company,) set about reforming abuses in earnest. After twelve years of labor, and an expenditure of eighty thousand pounds by the company, there were not more than six hundred persons now resident in the colony, (1619.) Sir Edwin Sandys, in one year, provided a passage to Virginia for one thousand two hundred and sixty-one persons, and among them“ ninety young ladies, agreeable per. sons and uncorrupt," who were assured of a cordial welcome. They were transported thither at the expense of the company, and married afterward to their tenants, and to others who were able to support them, and who willingly paid the costs of their passage, which were rigorously demanded. The adventure succeeded so well, that it was proposed to send hither a hundred more the ensuing year; before, however, they were collected, the company became so poor, that recourse was had to a subscription. After some delay, sixty were actually dispatched, “ maids of virtuous education, young, handsome, and well recommended.” Their price rose from a hundred and twenty to a hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco, and in some cases even more. The debt contracted for a wife was a debt of honor, and took precedence of any other, and the company, in conferring employment, gave a preference to married men. Domestic ties were thus formed, and virtuous habits inculcated. The tide of emi. gration swelled at once to a mighty flood, and Virginia became a refuge even for Puritans.

On the resignation of Sandys as treasurer, in 1620, a struggle took place in the election of his successor. Many distinguished leaders in Parliament participated therein, and among others, King James himself. Notwithstanding, however, the opposition of the king, the choice fell upon the Earl of Southampton, the friend and patron of Shakspere. The company having now vindicated their own rights, proceeded to redress former injuries, and protect colonial liberty. Trials by jury were recognized by law, colonial assemblies sanctioned by a written ordinance, and the common law of England adopted as authority in their courts.

The foundation of American liberty was now laid—the superstructure now begun—and its influence, wide and enduring, for more than two cen. turies has been felt throughout the globe. The house of burgesses in Virginia, during that time has been the nursery of freemen, and a mony. ment of glory has been erected by its patriot leaders, “ under whose shade kings will moulder and dynasties be forgotten."

From the facts above detailed, England, it would seem, paid nothing toward the discovery or colonization of America. It is true, that many of her citizens expended fortunes in the great and glorious undertaking ; it is also true, that a large portion of those who risked their possessions, and even life itself, in the effort, received little or no compensation therefor. Still England, at a subsequent period, asserted and undertook to main. tain her rights by force of arms, and to collect a revenue in this country, without our consent, because a few English merchants, in their rambling adventures, had, perchance, seen its coast from their decks. We have, therefore, indulged ourselves in recapitulating the early history of the first British colony here, because it throws light upon our glorious Revolution. We shall pursue it, however, no further at present, because it is too remote from the object we seek to attain. In conclusion, then, we observe, that its population soon rolled over the Alleghanies, into the val. leys of the Ohio, the Kentucky, and their tributary streams, and thence into the southern parts of Illinois, carrying with them the habits, manners, and customs, they had formed ; thus rendering the history of the first settlement and colonization of Virginia, a legitimate portion of our own.

NOTE 1. “No baron's family,” says Hume, in speaking of the Duke of Northumberland, “was on a nobler or more splendid footing. It consisted of a hundred and sixty-six persons, masters and servants, and fifty-seven strangers ; in the whole, two hundred and twentythree. Two-and-a-half pence are supposed to be the daily expense of each. If a servant be absent a day, his mess is struck off; if he goes on my lord's business, board-wages are allowed him-eight pence a day for his journey in winter, and four pence in summer, besides the maintenance of his horse. A hundred and nine fat beeves, at 13s. 4d., two hundred and twenty-four lean ones, at 8s., are to be bought, and the latter put into the pasture. Six hundred and forty-seven sheep are allowed, at twenty pence a pair ; only twenty-five hogs are allowed, at two shillings a pair ; twenty-eight veals, at twenty pence; and forty lambs, at ten pence or a shilling.

“ These seem to be reserved for my lord's table, and that of the upper servants, called the knights' table ; the other servants, as they eat salted meat almost through the year, and with few or no vegetables, had a very bad and unhealthy diet ; so that there cannot be anything more erroneous, than the magnificent ideas formed of the roast beef of Old England. Only seventy ells of linen, at eight pence an ell, are annually allowed for this great family. No sheets were used. The linen was made into eight table-cloths for my lord's table, and one table-cloth for the knights'—the latter was washed once a month. The drinking, however, was tolerable, namely, ten tierces and two hogsheads of Gascony wine at £4 138. 4d. per tierce. Only ninety-one dozen candles for the whole year. The family rose at six, dined at ten, and supped at four in the afternoon. The gates are all shut at nine, and no further ingress or egress permitted. My lord and lady have set on their table for breakfast, at seven o'clock in the morning, a quart of beer or mulled wine, two pieces of salt pork, six red herrings, four white ones, and a dish of sprats ; on flesh days, half a chine of mutton, or a chine of beef boiled. Mass is ordered to be said at six o'clock, in order, says the household book, that all my lord's servants may rise early. Alter Lady-day, no fires are permitted in the rooms, except half-fires in my lord's and lady's, and Lord Percy's, and the nursery. It is decided that, from henceforth, no capons are to be bought, but only for my lord's own mess, and the said capons shall be bought for two pence a-piece, lean and fed in the poultry ; and master chamberlain and the stewards be fed with capons, if there be strangers sitting with them. Pigs are to be bought for three pence or a groat a-piece, chickens at a halfpenny, hens two pence, and only for the above-mentioned tables. When my lord is on a journey, he carries thirty-six horsemen with him, together with beds and other accommodations. The inns, it seems, could afford nothing tolerable. My lord passes his time in three country-seats, but he has furniture only for one. He carries everything along with him—beds, tables, chairs, kitchen utensils—and yet seventeen carts and one wagon suffice for the whole. One cart suffices for all his kitchen utensils, cooks' beds, etc. He has eleven priests in his house, besides seventeen persons, chanters, musicians, etc., belonging to his chapel, yet he has only two cooks for a family of two hundred and twenty-three persons. If we consider the magnificent and elegant manner in which the Venetian and other Italian noblemen lived, with the progress made by the Italians literature and the fine arts, we shall not wonder that they considered the westem nations of Europe as barbarians. The earl is not deficient in generosity; he pays, for instance, an annual pension of a groat a year to my Lady of Walsingham, for her interest in heaven. No mention is anywhere made of plate, but of the having of pewter vessels.” Such, in part, is the description given by Hume of a feudal baron's household in the sixteenth century.


" The emperor” falls little short of his royal brother of England, in the reverence and respect of his subjects. · When the emperor,” says an old writer, “ listeth, his will is a law, and must be obeyed ; not only as a king, but as half a god they esteem him. What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least thing ; at his feet they present what he commandeth, and at the least frown of his brow, their greatest spirits will tremble with fear.” In one other respect," the emperor” had a decided advantage over his brother of England: Powhattan “could make his own robes, shoes, bows, arrows, and pots, besides planting his corn for exercise, and hunting deer for amusement.”


Northern Illinois settled principally from New-York, and New-England— Protestant Re

formation-Luther-Calvin-Plymouth Patent-Henry VIII.-Anne Boleyn-Cardinal Woolsey-Acts of conformity-Queen Elizabeth—Puritans-James I.–Puritans embark for Holland-For America—Settle at Plymouth-Their success—Sir Harry Vane-Hugh Peters.

NORTHERN Illinois having been settled originally by emigrants, principally from New York and New-England, and having also been included in the original patent granted by King James to the Plymo on the third of November, 1620 ;—the history, habits, customs, manners, and character of “ the Pilgrims,” are essentially ours. Although many German emigrants from Pennsylvania, and elsewhere, have resorted thither, and of late, foreigners from almost “every nation under the whole heaven,” have made northern Illinois their home, still the habits, man. ners, and customs of New-York and New-England predominate, appa. rently at the north, in about the same ratio that the habits, manners, and customs of Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolina's, do at the south.

A concise view then of the origin, progress, and colonization of “the Pilgrims” in New England, and their emigration and settlement else. where, in aftertimes, cannot be an obtrusive theme.

Religious reformation was the original principle which kindled the zeal of our Pilgrim fathers; and the settlement of New England was a part of its result. An Augustine monk* denouncing indulgences in the sixteenth century, introduced a schism into the Catholic church, and shook the papal throne to its centre. A young French refugee, † of great skill in theology and civil law, shortly thereafter established a powerful party in the republic of Geneva, by conforming its ecclesiastical discipline to the principles of republican simplicity, of which Englishmen afterward became prominent members, and New-England its principal asylum. “A mode of worship,” says Hume, “ was established, the most simple imaginable; one that borrowed nothing from the senses; worthy of that Being it professed to serve, but little suitable to human frailty. Rejecting all exterior pomp and ceremony, it was so occupied in this inward life that it fled from all intercourse with society, and from every cheerful amusement which could soften and humanize the character.”

“ So absolute,” continues the same eloquent historian, " was the authority of the crown, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, that the pre

* Martin Luther.

+ John Calvin.

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