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DR. LIVINGSTONE AND THE CAZEMBE.
At length, after an absence of sive field of his labours, Dr. Livingnearly seven years, Dr. Livingstone stone has, as a final coup de maître, is not only alive, but has been per- demolished the theory of many sonally communicated with. So learned geographers, that the great often has he been reported to be Lake Tanganyika, discovered by dead, that we almost feared it would Burton and Speke, is the head of in the end be like the cry of Wolf! the Nile, by going round that lake, wolf ! in the fable. Where the and establishing the fact that this traveller has been during this long immense body of water, like Lake period and what he has been doing, Chad and the Caspian Sea, is a nobody can exactly say. But at all still lake, having no communication events we are told that in the in- with the Nile or any other large terior of Africa, where it was ima river ! gined there was nothing but arid With these geographical results deserts, he has found a number of of the great traveller's explorations, lakes, and such a superabundance however important they may be, we of water that he was often pre- do not care to burden ourselves, as vented by it from travelling; that we imagine they might not prove he has discovered the Sources of of much interest to the general the Nile between eleven and twelve reader. On the other hand, we degrees of south latitude, within believe that some account of the 1500 miles of the Cape of Good powerful African sovereign and his Hope; that four years and more people, whose country Dr. Livingago he visited the court of a power- stone has visited, cannot fail to ful monarch called the Cazembe, prove interesting to all. We wish of whom little more than the name it were in our power to insert in is known by most persons; that he our pages something derived from has since then been staying in the the traveller himself; but as he country of Manyema, whose inhabi- has not yet furnished any infortants have the unenviable reputa mation whatever respecting these tion of being cannibals; that on his strange people, we think we shall way back from that country, where be gratifying, and at the same time it has not fallen to his lot to be instructing, our readers by laying eaten up, he has visited a mysteri- before them some portion of what ous 'underground village,' with ex- is known on the subject from the cavations thirty miles in extent, only other authentic source ; namewhich are ascribed to the hand of ly, the narrative of a mission sent in the Deity himself, and in which are the year 1831 from Tete, on the 'writings that may possibly rival river Zambeze, by the Governor of the Egyptian hieroglyphics or the the Portuguese colony on the east ‘Hamah Stones,' of which facsimi- coast of Africa, to the Court of the les have just been published by Cazembe, under the command of Captain Burton and Mr. Tyrwhitt Major Monteiro; which narrative, Drake in their interesting work written by Major Gamitto, the Unexplored Syria; and that, last second officer of the mission, was ly, on coming out from the exten published at Lisbon in 1854 by the
Portuguese Government, under the writing some years ago to Dr. Petitle of O Muata Cazembe.
termann of Gotha, he described the As a preliminary to the notes government of the Murópue or which we are about to make from Muatiyanvo as the inost despotic, that work, and with a view to the inhuman, and bloodthirsty that ever better understanding of the same, existed; the sovereign being the we must explain that in the centre of uncontrolled disposer of the lives Southern Africa, between the Por- and property of his miserable vastuguese possessions on the east and sals. It is perfectly marvellous, he west coast of that continent, there said, to witness the abject readiness exists what appears to be the most and resignation with which they powerful monarchy of that part of obey their inhuman tyrant's arbithe world ; namely, the kingdom trary commands, against which they of Molúva, under the rule of a have no right or even a thought of sovereign known by the names or appeal. They submit to have their titles of Murópue and Matianvo or noses, ears, and other parts of their Muatiyanvo. The dominions of body cut off, often without any mothis potentate are deemed to ex- tive whatever beyond the will of tend from about the fifth to the the sovereign, and then to be bethirteenth parallel of south latitude, headed or even flayed alive. This and from the nineteenth to the can only be accounted for by the thirty-second meridians of east fact that they regard their bloodlongitude. The Portuguese of An- thirsty ruler as a divine being, in gola and Benguela on the west whose presence they crawl on all coast have long had commercial fours, rubbing their breasts and arms dealings with this country; but with earth, and crying with a loud owing to their well-known policy voice, “Uverie! Vurie, Calombo ! of keeping secret their relations Vurie! Muatiyanvo, vurie ! - All with the natives of the interior, it hail ! Hail, O God! Hail! Muais not possible to say what has tiyanvo, hail ! been the extent of their dealings or The territories or dependencies of their knowledge of the country. of this dreaded potentate were also All that we know for certain is that, skirted by our countryman, Dr. in the year 1808, the Murópue or Livingstone, in his memorable jourMatianvo sent an embassy to the ney across the continent in 1854 Portuguese Governor of Angola; and 1855; but he passed so entirebut with what result cannot be said. ly along their extreme south-west
More than forty years after this, ern limits, and his stay there was that is to say in 1850 and 1851, so brief, that he was not able to and again in 1854, an intelligent obtain any information of importand enterprising Hungarian, named ance respecting the monarch and Ladislaus Magyar, resident in Ben- his court. guela, visited the country of the It is from the Portuguese colony Murópue, he being the first Euro- on the east coast of Africa that pean who ever set foot within the fuller and more definite particulars same. He wrote a narrative of his have been obtained respecting this travels in three volumes ; but un- kingdom of Molúva, or at all events fortunately died when only the first of the eastern portion of it; and volume had been published, and it the information so obtained serves is not known what has become of to show that, in spite of the ferocity the manuscript of the other two and inhumanity of their ruler, these volumes, containing the most valu people are far from being savages able portion of his work. But, when in the ordinary acceptation of the term; and what is more remarkable ed in establishing himself in the is, that it is owing to their own de- territories of the vanquished Messire to form an alliance with the síras, where his descendants, alPortuguese, and mainly from their though they do not appear to have endeavour to carry that desire into declared themselves absolutely ineffect, that such information re- dependent of the Muatiyanvo, have specting them as we possess has founded a separate kingdom, posbeen obtained.
sessing a court, with all the state, It was about the beginning of the dignities, and forms—and it may last century, as far as we can calcu- be added, with all the brutality and late the date, that the then reigning disregard for human life of that of Muatiyanvo, who was already in their suzerain. commercial relations with the Por- This eastern kingdom is that of tuguese of the west coast, heard the Muata or Mambo Cazembefrom them that there were other the latter name being apparently Mozúngos—'wise men,'as all white that of the country and people, men are called—of the same nation whilst the signification of the two in regions lying far away to the former terms is ‘Lord,' and it is by east of his dominions; and in order these titles that he is usually adto ascertain the truth of this report, dressed, though when his vassals and with a view to enter into com- wish to flatter him they give him the mercial relations with these distant appellation of Muatiyanvo, which foreigners, he despatched an expe- properly belongs to the Murópue dition under the command of one alone. To Europeans he is best of his Quilólos or nobles, named known as the Cazembe. Canyembo, a man of great talent The successors of Canyembo I., and bravery, and endowed with mindful of the enterprise which led many good qualities.
to their rise to power, have always The expedition proceeded across sought to form an alliance with the the great river Lua-láo south-east- Portuguese on the east coast. Naward, as far as the district in which tive traders of each country appear Lunda, the capital of the Cazembe, to have visited the other ; but the now is, when its farther progress first person of European extraction was arrested by the natives called who visited the Cazembe was a cerMessíras, with whom a sanguinary tain Manoel Caetano Pereira, an war ensued, which ended in the uneducated man, the son of a Pordefeat and subjugation of the Mes- tuguese colonist from Goa in India, síras, and the occupation of their who went thither in 1786, and country by the Campocólos, as the brought back to Tete, the residence conquerors were called. Soon after, of the governor, an account of the the victorious general Canyem- country, which proved to be exbo met his death in the river Lua tremely erroneous and misleading. láo, which serves as the boundary Nineteen years later the reigning between what eventually became Mambo, Canyembo IV., better the dominions of the Cazembe and known by his proper name Lethe original kingdom of the Muró- quéza, sent a mission to Tete, under pue or Muatiyanvo, through the the command of an intelligent chief treachery of his sovereign's son, of named Catára, who arrived there at whom he had been appointed guar- the moment when the Portuguese dian and who had accompanied governor was organising a considerhim; but his own son, who bore the able expedition to the court of the same name as himself, and who was Cazembe, at the head of which he known as Canyembo II., succeed- had received orders from Lisbon to
place himself. This governor was mission under Major Monteiro arDr. Francisco José Maria de La- rived at this spot, they found a hut cerda e Almeida, an educated and erected over the place where he accomplished Brazilian, who having was buried, and in charge of a received a scientific education in Muine-mashámo, 'guardian of the Portugal, was appointed astrono- sepulchre ;' such was the respect mer-royal, and in 1780 went out to in which he had continued to be Brazil to lay down the boundary held, and this although his grave line of that colony; after which he was but an empty one. For when was appointed governor of the the mission left the country, some Rios de Sena, as the Portuguese nine months after his death, the possessions in Eastern Africa are remains of their lamented chief called, his appointment to that post were disinterred for the purpose of having been made principally with being conveyed to Tete; but shortly a view to this contemplated mission after crossing the river Chambeze, to the Cazembe.
the party were attacked by the The professed object of the mis- Muizas, and the whole took to sion was to contract a treaty of flight, leaving behind them the amity and commerce between the coffin containing Dr. Lacerda's sovereigns of the two countries, body, with most of the effects of and at the same time to endeavour the mission. to open an overland communica- If the first Portuguese mission tion, through the territories of the was a scientific one, the same canCazembe and the Murópue, with not be said of the second; the two the Portuguese possessions on the officers in charge of it being the west coast of Africa.
only persons who could read and This expedition, which was on write; and with the exception of a a very extensive scale, left Tete on magnetic compass, they took with July 3rd, 1798, under the most fa- them no instruments, not even a vourable auspices; but the serious telescope. The writer of the nar. illness of its accomplished leader, rative, Major Gamitto, appears, which terminated in his death on however, to have been an intelliOctober 18th following, before he gent and observant, even though reached the court of the Cazembe, not a highly educated man, but led to the disorganisation of the perfectly veracious, so that what he mission, so that it turned out a says may be depended on. complete failure. From the scien- This second mission left Tete on tific attainments of Dr. Lacerda June ist, 1831, and after a disasmuch might have been anticipated trous journey, during which they from this expedition, had he lived: sustained many deatlıs, owing to as it was, the only practical result sickness brought on by insufficient was the astronomical determination nourishment verging on starvation, by him of a few places in the in- they arrived in the vicinity of the terior of Africa; the farthest of Cazembe's residence on November them being Chama, the residence 9th following, but had to wait of the chief Mouro Achinto, in nearly three weeks before they were 10° 20' 35" N. lat., and 30° 1' 45" admitted to an audience of the E. long., about 150 miles south- sovereign, Canyembo V., the son east of the Cazembe's capital, and successor of the Muata Lenear which latter, in the valley of quéza, who was on the throne at the river Chungu, he died and was the time of the former mission. buried. Strangely enough, when, The reception they met with, thirty-three years afterwards, the and the treatment they received during their stay in the country of readily amenable to their incantathe Cazembe, differed widely from tions. The Cazembe deems himthat accorded to the first mission. self immortal by virtue of the same Lequéza had striven to favour and enchantments; and when the death please the foreigners, so as to in- of his predecessors is adduced as duce them to revisit his country : proof to the contrary, he meets his degenerate son seemed to do this by saying they died for want all in his power to disgust them, of taking proper care of such enand prevent them from ever re- chantments, but that he is not turning. If this was his object he really mortal by nature. For the perfectly succeeded; for it may be Pambi created the Mambo to rule looked on as certain that the Por- over the people, and consequently tuguese will never deem it worth he would never die, were it not their while to revisit the country, for the enchantments of others. So unless they do so in sufficient force convinced was Canyembo V. of to bring the inhuman barbarian to this absurdity, that, although adreason. And yet our countryman, vanced in years, he would not Dr. Livingstone, appears to have nominate a Muana-buto, or suclong sojourned in the country, he cessor to the throne, lest he should having been forty days at the court be exposed to his enchantments. of the Cazembe, and having visited The burying places of the Muatas it a second time on his way south- are held sacred. Nevertheless they ward to Lake Bangweolo.
do not worship the dead, but only Possessing, as already stated, no pay to their muzimos, or spirits, information from Dr. Livingstone, the same respect they rendered to we are thrown entirely upon Major them when living. The Cazembe Gamitto, and, according to his ac- alone possesses some small wooden count, the people under the rule images, roughly imitating the human of the Cazembe are black in colour, form, which are ornamented with but not at all of the common horns, bones, and other remains of
negro' type; for they have long animals, and these are revered as woolly hair, which both sexes allow mediums for good or for evil. to grow a foot in length, and they They believe that the deceased have a conical head with a high Muata - Cazembes communicate forehead, eyes projecting and gene- with the living ones, and that they rally very animated, flat cheeks, a are subject to the like passions and straight nose, and thin lips. They necessities, walk about at night, are of middle stature, rather stout, and are guilty of excesses. This and hold themselves quite erect. superstition is said to have been They do not tattoo themselves nor introduced by the first Cazembe make incisions on the face or any from Angola, which is the name part of the body; neither do they given to the country of the Mupierce their ears or lips for the in- rópue or Muatiyanvo. As an exsertion of ornaments, but leave ample of this belief Major Gatheir persons altogether in their mitto relates how, shortly before natural state.
the mission obtained permission to Their religion is styled by leave the country, which it had no Major Gamitto a gross supersti- little difficulty in doing, the Cation, though it does not appear to zembe had a dream, in which the be much worse than that of many spirit of his deceased father, the people much nearer home. They Muata Lequéza, appeared to him believe that the Pambi is a Being and said, 'Severe punishment awho created everything, and yet is waits thee on account of the little