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up into the land, throughout, from sea to sea, west and northwest, and also all islands lying within one hundred miles of the coast of both seas. By placing a pair of dividers over the map of the United States, with one foot on the coast two hundred miles south of Old Point Comfort, and the other two hundred miles north of the same point, and drawing the instrument across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, one may satisfy himself that the territory of the Ancient Dominion was pretty extensive.

At the time when this charter was granted, the company was enlarged by the addition of some of the first nobility and gentry, most of the companies in London, and a great number of merchants and tradesmen; and they were all incorporated by the name of 'The Treasurer and Company of Adventurers of the City of London, for the first Colony in Virginia.'

The scheme of colonisation was now exceedingly popular in England. Great numbers of adventurers offered themselves to the company; and the highest enthusiasm prevailed among all classes of people, in favour of rendering the settle ment permanent and effective. Lord Delaware was constituted governor and captain-general for life, with a retinue of officers and attendants, which would have been more suitable for a viceroy of Mexico, at a much later period of history.

Nine ships and five hundred emigrants were soon ready for departure; and the expedition was placed under the direction of Captain Newport; who, with Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers, was empowered to supersede the existing administration, and govern the colony till the arrival of Lord Delaware.

These three gentlemen embarked in the same vessel, which was parted from the rest of the fleet and driven on Bermudas in a storm; having on board not only the appointed directors of the colony, but one hundred and fifty men, a great portion of the provisions, and the new commission and instructions of the council. The rest of the fleet arrived safely in Virginia. 'A great part of the new company,' according to the authority of an old writer, consisted of unruly sparks, packed off by their friends to escape worse destinies at home. And the rest were chiefly made up of poor gentlemen, broken tradesmen, footmen, and such as were much fitter to spoil and ruin


What persons were added to the

What was its name?
Who was governor ?

Who were to govern in his absence?

How many emigrants came over?
What befell the deputy governors
Who arrived safely?

What was the character of the new



a commonwealth than to help to raise or maintain one. They were led by their seditious captains into many mischiefs and extravagances. They assumed to themselves the power of disposing of the government; and conferred it sometimes on one, and sometimes on another. To-day the old commission must rule, to-morrow the new, and next day neither. So that all was anarchy and distraction.'

These disorders were speedily repressed by the energy and decision of Captain Smith. He declared, very justly, that his own authority could only terminate with the arrival of the new commission, and he therefore resolved to continue its exercise. He imprisoned the most active of the seditious leaders, and, to rid Jamestown of the turbulent rabble with which it was crowded, he detached one hundred men to the falls of James river, under the command of West, and as many more to Nansemond, under that of Martin. These settlers soon incurred the hostility of the Indians, and were obliged to apply to Smith for assistance. Of course it was promptly rendered. On his return from one of his visits to the settlement at the falls, he was so severely wounded by an explosion of gunpowder, as to render it necessary for him to proceed to England for surgical aid.

At his departure the colony consisted of about five hundred people. They possessed three ships and seven boats, commodities suitable for the Indian trade, provisions for several weeks, an abundance of domestic animals, farming utensils, and fishing nets, one hundred disciplined soldiers, and twentyfour pieces of ordnance, with small arms and ammunition.

This provision was every way adequate for support and defence, had the prudent administration of Captain Smith continued; but with him departed the fair prospects of the colony. The licentious spirits, who had only been restrained by his energy, now rioted without controul. Captain Percy, who succeeded him, was by no means equal to the task of governing so turbulent a community, and anarchy soon prevailed.

The Indians, no longer restrained by the presence of Smith, became hostile. They attacked the settlements of West and Martin, and compelled them, after losing their boats and half their men, to take refuge in Jamestown. The provisions of

What was their behaviour?

How did Captain Smith repress disorders?

What befell him?

Whither did he retire?

In what state did he leave the colony?

What ensued on Smith's departure? What misfortunes were the consequence of this bad conduct?



the colony were exhausted; and famine ensued, wit!. its attendant horrors and crimes. This was the most trying period in the history of the colony, and was for many years after distinguished by the name of The Starving Time.

Contrasted with that of the administration of Smith, the history of this season conveys a most impressive lesson. It shows us that no abundance of resources can supply the place of prudence in the management of affairs; and that a large supply of provisions, arms, and soldiers are not so essential to the preservation and welfare of a community as a wise and efficient government. The commanding genius of Smith had done more for the establishment and continuance of the colony than the exertions of all the other adventurers. But he fought and toiled only for the community.

'Extreme suffering from his wounds, and the ingratitude of his employers,' says Mr. Bancroft, were the fruits of his services. He received, for his sacrifices and his perilous exertions, not one foot of land, not the house he himself had built, not the field his own hands had planted, nor any reward but the applause of his conscience and the world. He merits to be called the father of the settlement, which he had repeatedly rescued from destruction. His judgment had ever been clear in the midst of general despondency. He united the highest spirit of adventure with consummate powers of action. His courage and self-possession accomplished what others esteemed desperate. Fruitful in expedients, he was prompt in execution. Though he had been harassed by the persecutions of malignant envy, he never revived the memory of the faults of his enemies. He was accustomed to lead, not to send his men to danger; would suffer want rather than borrow, and starve sooner than not pay. He had nothing counterfeit in his nature; but was open, honest, and sincere. He clearly discerned that it was the true interest of England not to seek in Virginia for gold and sudden wealth, but to enforce regular industry. "Nothing," said he, "is to be expected thence, but by labour."'

In six months after the departure of Smith, the colony was reduced by various distresses to sixty persons, who would soon have perished, but for the arrival of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and Captain Newport, from Bermuda, (May 24, 1610.) All determined to abandon the coun

What lesson is conveyed by these facts?

"What was Captain Smith's character?

To what number was the colony reduced?

What did they resolve to do?



try, and they accordingly embarked on board the vessels and sailed for England. As they drew near the mouth of the river, they were met by the long-boat of Lord Delaware, who ad arrived on the coast, with a reinforcement of emigrants, and abundant supplies of provisions. They immediately returned to Jamestown, and were prevailed on by Lord Delaware to remain.

This nobleman was well qualified for his station. His mildness, dignity, and diligent attention to business, soon restored order, and inspired confidence. The colonists were regular and industrious; and the Indians were taught once more to respect the English character.

His wise administration was of short continuance. Ill health compelled him to relinquish the government; and having resigned his authority to Mr. Percy, he sailed for the West Indies. Although he left the colony in a flourishing state, yet, on the 10th of May, 1611, when Sir Thomas Dale, the new governor, arrived with a fresh supply of men and provisions, he found it relapsing into its former state of idleness, disorder, and want. He was obliged to resort to the declaration of martial law in order to save the settlement from utter anarchy and ruin.

In the month of August, 1611, Sir Thomas Gates, who had been appointed the successor of Sir Thomas Dale, arrived with six ships, three hundred emigrants, and a plentiful supply of provisions. On receiving this reinforcement, which increased the numbers of the colony to seven hundred, detachments were again sent up the James river, and several new settlements were made.

A more important change took place in the new arrangements with respect to property. Hitherto the land had been possessed by all the colonists in common. Every man was required to work a certain number of hours in the day, and all shared equally the produce. Now a few acres of ground were assigned to each man, as his private property, to plant as an orchard or garden for his own use, though some labour was still devoted to fill the public stores. This new regulation gave a powerful impulse to industry and enterprise; and

How was this prevented?

What was Lord Delaware's character?

How did he govern?

Who succeeded him?

Who superseded Percy?

Who succeeded Dale ?

When did Gates arrive?
What reinforcement did he bring?
What new regulation of property was

What obliged him to declare martial What was its effect?




the best effects were soon perceived to flow from assigning to each individual the fruits of his own labour. Industry, impelled by the certainty of recompense, advanced with rapid strides; and the inhabitants were no longer in fear of wanting bread, either for themselves or for the emigrants from England.

In consequence of the extravagant accounts which had been sent to England of the fertility of Bermudas, the company became anxious to include it within the colony; and accordingly a new patent was issued comprehending this island. This was a matter of trifling importance, as the connexion soon ceased; but the new patent conferred new civil rights; it established four general courts, comprising all the members of the London corporation, to be assembled annually, at which all officers should be elected, and all laws passed relating to the government, commerce, and real estate of the colony. Weekly or more frequent meetings might be convened for the transaction of ordinary business. This change, of course, gave no political power to the colonists themselves.

Lotteries, the first ever drawn in England, were granted for the benefit of the colony. They brought twenty-nine thou sand pounds into the treasury of the company; but were soon abolished as a public evil.

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About this time (1614) an event took place which has always been regarded with great interest by the Virginians. This was the marriage of Pocahontas. The circumstances which led to it were these: A party from Jamestown, headed by Argall, went with two vessels round to the Potomac for a cargo of corn. While obtaining the cargo, Argall managed to decoy Pocahontas on board his vessel, where she was detained respectfully, and brought to Jamestown. By keeping possession of his favourite child as a hostage, the English hoped to dictate to Powhatan what terms of alliance or submission they pleased. In this they were disappointed. 'Powhatan,' says Marshall, offered corn and friendship, if they would restore his daughter, but with a loftiness of spirit which claims respect, rejected every proposition for conciliation which should not be preceded by that act of reparation.

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While she was detained at Jamestown, Mr. John Rolfe, a young Englishman, gained the favour of the princess, and

What caused the granting of a new
patent to the Virginia company?
What new rights did it grant?
For what purpose were lotteries first
established in England ?

Why were they established?
What event took place in 1614?
How did it happen?

Who was Pocahontas's husband?

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