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by assault, but was repulsed, and evacuating the works which he had constructed with so much labour, he retreated to the north ward, across the Saluda, whence he was followed by Lord Rawdon beyond the Ennoree.
The feelings of the American commander on seeing the fruit of his toils thus suddenly and unexpectedly torn from his grasp, must have been of a most agonising nature. But Greene was gifted with an elasticity of spirit which prevented him from yielding to the pressure of misfortune, and his opponents seldom found him more dangerous than immediately after suffering a defeat. On the present occasion, when some of his counsellors advised him to retreat to Virginia, he firmly replied, “I will recover South Carolina, or die in the attempt.'
On maturely deliberating on the object of the campaign, and the relative situation of himself and the enemy, he was well aware that though Lord Rawdon was superior to him in the number as well as the discipline of his troops, yet if his lordship kept his army concentrated, he could afford no encouragement, or even protection to the royalists, and that if it were divided, it might be beaten in detail. As he expected, the British commander, finding he could not bring him to an engagement, took the latter course, and withdrawing a detachment from Ninety-Six, re-established himself on the line of the Congaree.
Within two days, however, after his arrival at the banks of that river, he was astonished to find his indefatigable enemy in his front, with numbers so recruited, that he thought it prudent to decline the battle which was offered him, and retreated to Orangeburgh, where he was joined by Lieutenant Colonel Cruger, who, in the present circumstances, had thought it prudent to evacuate his post at Ninety-Six. On the junction of the forces of these two commanders, Greene retired to the heights above Santee, whence he sent his active coadjutors, Marion and Sumter, with strong scouting parties, to intercept the communication between Orangeburgh and Charleston,
As a last effort to maintain their influence in the centre of the state, the British took post in force, near the confluence of the Wateree and Congaree; but on the approach of Greene,
Whither was he obliged to retreat ? What astonished him after his arrival What is said of Greene's feelings and at the Congaree? character ?
Whither did he retreat? What was the alternative of Lord Who reinforced him ? Rawdon ?
Whither did Greene then retire ? What course did he take?
AFFAIR OF COLONEL HAYNE.
they retreated for the space of 40 miles, and waited his threatened attack at the Eutaw Springs. Greene advanced with 2,000 men, to attack them. The action was severe, and the Americans, both continental troops and militia, displayed the greatest intrepidity. The British were finally compelled to give way, and fled on all sides. Their loss, inclusive of prisoners, was 1,100 men; that of the Americans was above 500, of which number 60 were officers. After this signal defeat, the British were glad to abandon the interior of South Carolina to the victorious patriots, and take shelter in Charleston.
Of all the incidents of the American revolutionary war, the most brilliant is this campaign of General Greene. At the head of a beaten army, undisciplined and badly equipped, he entered the state of South Carolina, which was occupied, from its eastern to its western extremity, by an enemy much superior to bim in numbers, in appointments, and in military experience. But by his genius, his courage, and his perseverance, le broke their lines of operation, drove them from post to post, and though defeated in the field, he did not cease to harass them in detail, till he had driven them within the fortifications of the capital.
Well did he merit the gold medal and the British standard bestowed on him by a vote of congress on this occasion. By his successes he revived the drooping spirits of the friends of independence in the southern states, and prepared the way for the final victories which awaited the arms of his country in Virginia and which led to the happy termination of the war.
Whilst the American commander was enjoying the honours bestowed upon him by his grateful countrymen, as the just meed of his valour and skill in arms, Lord Rawdon, soon after his return to Charleston, by an example of severity, brought odium on the British cause, and fired the breasts of the continentals with indignation. Amongst the American officers who distinguished themselves in the defence of South Carolina was Colonel Hayne, a gentleman of fortune, and of considerable influence in his neighbourhood. After the capitulation of Charleston, Hayne voluntarily surrendered himself to the British authorities, requesting to be allowed his personal liberty on parole. This indulgence, usually granted to officers of rank, he could not obtain; and was told that he must either
Where did the British finally concen- What is said of Greene's campaign in
trate and await Greene's attack? the south? Describe the battle of Eutaw Springs. What had he accomplished ? Whither were the British finally What is said of Lord Rawdon ? driven?
Relate the affair of Colonel Hayae.
CORNWALLIS IN VIRGINIA. take the oath of allegiance to his Britannic majesty, or submit to close confinement.
In an evil hour, induced by family considerations, he chose the former alternative, and signed a declaration of fealty to George III, protesting, however, against the clause which required him to support the royal government with arms; which clause the officer who received his submission, assured him it was not intended to enforce. The officer in question, no doubt, in this assurance exceeded his authority, and Hayne was some time after summoned to join the royal standard. Regarding this as a breach of the contract into which he had entered with the British, he again took up arms on the side of independence, and having been taken prisoner in a skirmish with part of the royal forces, he was, without the formality of a trial, ordered for execution by Lord Rawdon. To the petition of this unfortunate officer's family, as well as those of the inhabitants of Charleston, his lordship turned a deaf ear, and Hayne suffered as a rebel and a traitor. The death of this gallant soldier has left an eternal stigma on the character of Lord Rawdon. It was a measure dictated by savage cruelty and revenge and founded on no principle either of justice or policy.
It has already been related, that after the battle of Guildford, Lord Cornwallis marched to Petersburg, in Virginia. His lordship did not take this step without hesitation. He well knew the enterprising character of his opponent, and was aware of the probability of his making an incursion into South Carolina. He flattered himself, however, that the forces which he had left in that state, under the command of Lord Rawdon, would suffice to keep the Americans in check. In this idea he was confirmed by the result of the battle of Camden, and by the receipt of intelligence that three British regiments, which had sailed from Cork, might be expected speedily to arrive at Charleston.
No longer anxious therefore, for the fate of South Carolina, he determined to march forwards, in the confident hope of increasing his military renown by the conquest of Virginia He accordingly advanced with rapidity from Petersburg to Manchester, on James River, with a view of crossing over from that place to Richmond, for the purpose of seizing a large quantity of stores and provisions, which had been de
Whither had Cornwallis marched ?
Whither did he march?
CORNWALLIS OCCUPIES YORKTOWN.
posited there by the Americans. But on his arrival at Man. chester, he had the mortification to find that, on the day before, this depot had been removed by the Marquis de la Fayette, who, at the command of congress, had hastened from the head of the Elk to oppose him.
Having crossed James River at Westow, his lordship marched through Hanover county to the South Anna River, followed at a guarded distance by the marquis, who, in this critical contingency, finding his forces inferior to those of the enemy, wisely restrained the vivacity which is the usual characteristic of his age and country. But having effected a junction with General Wayne, which brought his numbers nearly to an equality with those of the British, and having once more, by a skilful maneuvre, saved his stores, which had been removed to Albemarle old Court-house, he displayed so bold a front, that the British commander fell back to Richmond, and thence to Williamsburgh.
On his arrival at the latter place, Lord Cornwallis received despatches from Sir Henry Clinton, requiring him to send instantly from his army a detachment to the relief of New York, which was threatened with a combined attack by the French and the Americans. The consequent diminution of his force induced his lordship to cross James River, and to march in the direction of Portsmouth. Before, however, the reinforcements destined for New York had sailed, he received counter orders and instructions from Sir Henry Clinton, in pursuance of which he conveyed his army, amounting to 7,000 men, to Yorktown, which place he proceeded to fortify with the utmost skill and industry.
The object of Lord Cornwallis in thus posting himself at Yorktown, was to co-operate in the subjugation of Virginia with a fleet which he was led to expect would about this time proceed from the West Indies to the Chesapeake. Whilst his lordship was anxiously looking for the British pennants, he had the mortification, on the 30th of August, to see the Count de Grasse sailing up the bay with 28 sail of the line, three of which, accompanied by a proper number of frigates, were immediately despatched to block up York river.
Who disappointed him, and in what | What orders did he receive from Sir manner?
Henry Clinton ? Whither did he then march?
Whither did he proceed when these Who followed him ?
orders were countermanded ?
Whom did he expect to assist him ?
PREPARATIONS FOR THE SIEGE OF NEW YORK.
The French vessels had no sooner anchored, than they landed a force of 3,200 men, who, under the command of the Marquis of St. Simon, effected a junction with the army of La Fayette, and took post at Williamsburgh. Soon after this operation, the hopes of the British were revived by the appearance off the capes of Virginia, of Admiral Graves, with 20 sail of the line, a force which seemed to be competent to extricate Lord Cornwallis from his difficult position. These hopes, however, proved delusive.
On the 7th of September, M. de Grasse encountered the British fleet, and a distant fight took place, in which the French seemed to rely more on their maneuvring than on their valour. The reason of this was soon apparent. In the course of the night that followed the action, a squadron of 8 line of battle ships, safely passed the British, and joined De Grasse, in consequence of which accession of strength to his antagonist, Admiral Graves thought it prudent to quit that part of the coast, and retire to New York. This impediment to their operations having been removed, the Americans and French directed the whole of their united efforts to the capture of Yorktown.
This had not, however, been the original design of General Washington at the commencement of the campaign. Early in the spring, he had agreed with Count Rochambeau to lay siege to New York, in concert with a French fleet which was expected to reach the neighbourhood of Staten Island in the month of August. He had accordingly issued orders for considerable reinforcements, especially of militia, to join his army in proper time to commence the projected operations.
The French troops under Rochambeau having arrived punctually at his encampment near Peekskill, General Washington advanced to King's Bridge, and hemmed in the British on York Island. Every preparation seemed now to be in forwardness for the commencement of the siege; but the militia came in tardily. The adjacent states were dilatory in sending in their quotas of troops; and whilst he was impatiently awaiting their arrival, Washington had the mortification to receive intelligence that Clinton had received a reinforcement of 3,000 Germans.
What force did the French land? Who was to assist him?
tions ? What had Washington originally in- What reinforcement did Clinton retended ?