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He had been the soul of the enterprise; and when he had perished, the remnant of his followers were only anxious for a safe passage to their countrymen. Under the conduct of Moscoso, their new leader, they attempted to reach Mexico, and marched 300 miles westward from the Mississippi. But the Red river was swollen so as to present an impassable barrier to their further progress, and they were compelled to return and prepare boats for passing down the Mississippi to the gulf of Mexico-an undertaking of great difficulty and danger, which was not accomplished until July 18th, 1543. Fifty days afterwards the remnant of Soto's splendid company of adventurers, now reduced to 311 in number, arrived at the province of Panuco in Mexico.

Thus far the Spaniards, although they claimed the whole coast of the United States under the name of Florida, had not effected a single settlement on the soil. For some years after Soto's failure the design seems to have been abandoned; until an attempt of the French to establish a colony in Florida awakened the jealousy of the Spaniards, and brought them forward once more, to revive and make good their claim to the land which had cost them so much blood and treasure.

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Gaspard de Coligny, admiral of France, conceived the design of establishing a colony of French Protestants in America, which should afford a refuge to those who were persecuted for their religious opinions, during the civil wars with which his country was disturbed in the reign of Charles IX. He obtained a commission for this purpose from the king; and intrusted the expedition to John Ribault, who sailed with a squadron in February, 1562.

Having arrived on the coast of Florida in the latitude of St. Augustine, Ribault explored the coast, discovered the river St. Johns, which he called the river of May, and visited Port Royal entrance, near Beaufort, and having left a colony of 26 persons at a fort which he named Carolina in honour of Charles IX, he returned to France. The civil wars in that kingdom being revived, no reinforcements were sent out to the colony, and it was speedily abandoned.

On the return of peace (1564) Coligny was enabled to send out a new expedition under Laudonniere, an able and intelligent commander, who arrived on the coast of Florida in June,

What course did his followers take?
Under what commander?
What caused their return?
How did they reach Mexico? When?
How many of the Spaniards survived?

What nation next attempted the set-
tlement of Florida?

Where did Admiral Coligny plant a
colony? When?
What occasioned its failure?



began a settlement on the river May, and erected a new Fort Carolina, many leagues to the south of its predecessor. Here they had to encounter the usual hardships and privations of settlers in a new country, till December of the same year, when a part of the colonists, under pretence of. escaping from famine, obtained permission from Laudonniere to equip two vessels and sail for Mexico. But instead of doing so, they began to capture Spanish vessels. They were taken and punished, as pirates.

When the colony was nearly exhausted by the scarcity of food, relief was brought by the fleet of Sir John Hawkins, who furnished a supply of provisions, and made the offer of one of his vessels to convey the French to their own country. Just as they were preparing to embark, Ribault arrived with a reinforcement and ample supplies of every kind.

The colony had now a fair prospect of ultimate success. But it had been planted in a territory to which the Spanish had a prior claim, which, although dormant, was by no means extinct. An expedition was soon fitted out for the occupation of Florida; and its departure from Spain was hastened by the report, that the country was already in possession of a company of settlers doubly obnoxious to the Spaniards on account of their nation and their religion. They were not only Frenchmen, but Protestants.

This expedition, commanded by Pedro Melendez, came in sight of the Florida shore in August, 1565. A few days afterwards Melendez discovered and named the harbour of St. Augustine, and learned the position of the French. Before attacking them, he landed at St. Augustine, and took possession of the continent in the name of the King of Spain, and laid the foundation of the town. This interesting event took place on the 8th of September, 1565; more than forty years; before the settlement of Jamestown in Virginia. St. Augustine can, therefore, boast a higher antiquity than the Ancient Do minion.

Meanwhile the French, having learned the arrival of their enemies, nearly all abandoned the settlement on the river May, embarked in their fleet, and were shipwrecked on the coast. The remnant were attacked and massacred by the

Where did Laudonniere make a settlement?

What was done by a part of the settlers?

Who relieved the colony?

What did he offer to the French?

Who threatened its extinction?
When did Melendez arrive?
What town did he found?
What is said of it?

How were the French colonists treat-
ed by Melendez ?



Spaniards, who, in honour of the saint on whose festival the victory had been obtained, gave the river May the name of St. Matheo, or St. Matthew. Those Frenchmen who had survived the shipwreck of the fleet, surrendered to Melendez on a promise of safety; but they were nearly all put to death, many of them were hung on gibbets with the inscription over their heads, 'Not as Frenchmen, but as Protestants.' A few Catholics were saved from the massacre. After thus extirpating the French colony, the Spaniards sailed for their native country, leaving a force in possession of the settlement.

As the French government took no measures for punishing this aggression, Dominic de Gourgues, a French officer of some distinction, fitted out an expedition of three ships and one hundred and fifty men at his own cost, (1568,) for the express purpose of avenging his murdered countrymen. He surprised the forts on the river St. Matheo, and captured a considerable number of prisoners, who were forthwith hanged upon trees with the inscription over their heads, 'I do not this as unto Spaniards or mariners, but as unto traitors, robbers, and murderers.' He then embarked without attempting to keep possession of his conquest. His acts were disavowed by the French government, and the Spaniards continued to hold the colony.

Thus it appears, that up to the year 1568, the Spaniards were the only nation holding possessions within the territory at present belonging to the United States. It was nearly forty years after this that England began the settlement of Virginia.



THE fisheries of Newfoundland appear to have been visited frequently, if not annually, by the English as well as the French navigators, during the early part of the sixteenth century; and both nations cherished the design of founding colonies in North America. We have already shown that Nova Scotia was settled by the French in 1605, and Canada in 1608.

How was this revenged?

By whom?

What part of North America was

visited by the French and English in the early part of the 16th cen tury?

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Previous to these settlements the English were by no means inactive in the career of western adventure. The discovery of a north-west passage to India was a favourite project with them, notwithstanding the failure of the Cabots in attempting it. An expedition for this purpose was fitted out by Martin Frobisher, under the patronage of Dudley, Earl of Warwick, in 1576. It consisted of two small barks, of twenty and twenty-five tons burden, one of which was lost on the outward passage. With the remaining vessel Frobisher pursued his voyage; landed on the coast of Labrador, and brought away some of the mineral productions of the country. On his return one of the stones he had found was thought, by the English refiners, to contain gold. This circumstance gave a new direction to British enterprise, and gold became now the grand object of discovery. Queen Elizabeth contributed to the fitting out of a new expedition, which returned laden with what was supposed to be gold ore, but was soon discovered to be worthless earth. (1577.) Not discouraged by this result, the queen lent her aid to a new enterprise, which had for its objects the permanent settlement of that high northern region, and the working of its supposed mines of gold. Fifteen vessels, carrying one hundred settlers, many of whom were sons of the English gentry, were despatched in pursuit of boundless wealth in the New World. The fleet encountered great difficulties and dangers among the currents and islands of ice, with which the northern seas abounded; the settlers were afraid to remain in so dreary a region; and their hopes of bringing home cargoes of gold ore were, of course, as futile as those of their predecessors.

While these attempts were made on the eastern coast of North America, Sir Francis Drake, in one of his cruises in search of Spanish merchantmen in the Pacific, thought proper to explore the western coast in hopes of finding the supposed northern strait connecting the two oceans. He sailed as far as the forty-third degree of north latitude, and was conse quently the first Englishman who visited the Oregon territory. (1579.)

The plan of colonisation was, meanwhile, revived by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, a man of intelligence and singular intrepidity, who, having obtained a charter from Queen Elizabeth,

What was the object of Frobisher's | What was the result?


Where did he land?

What did he bring away?

What occasioned a new expedition?

What was the result of the third

What discovery was made by



sailed from England with a small fleet in 1579, in hopes of establishing a permanent colony but the loss of one of his ships and other disasters compelled him to return. A new squadron was fitted out by the joint exertions of Gilbert and his step-brother, Walter Raleigh, in 1583. Nothing more was accomplished by this expedition, than the empty ceremony of taking possession of Newfoundland in the queen's name, and the discovery of some earth which was falsely supposed to contain silver. On the passage home, the small vessel in which the unfortunate Gilbert sailed was foundered. Her companion reached England in safety.

Not disheartened by the sad fate of his step-brother, Raleigh determined to found a colony farther to the south. For this purpose, having obtained a patent from the queen, he despatched two vessels under the command of Amidas and Barlow, who arrived on the shores of Carolina in July, 1584, and after sailing along the coast for a distance of one hundred miles, landed on the island of Wococken, the southernmost of the islands forming Ocracock inlet. They were delighted with the rich and verdant appearance of the country, and the mild and gentle manners of the natives; and having explored Albemarle and Pamlico sounds and Roanoke island, and induced two of the natives to accompany them, they returned to England.

The accounts, which they gave of the beauty and fertility of the country, were so flattering, that Queen Elizabeth considered it an important addition to her dominions, and gave it the name of Virginia, in reference to her own unmarried state. Raleigh, who had now received the honour of knighthood, soon fitted out a new expedition of seven vessels, carrying one hundred and eight settlers under the direction of Ralph Lane, who was appointed governor of the colony. Sir Richard Grenville, Hariot, Cavendish, and other distinguished men accompanied him. Arriving on the coast, the fleet was in some danger of shipwreck near a head land, to which they gave the name of Cape Fear. It escaped, however, and arrived at Roanoke. After landing, the men of science, attached to the expedition, made an excursion, to

When did Gilbert's first expedition | Where did they land? take place?

What was the result?

What was accomplished by Gilbert and Raleigh's expedition?

What was Gilbert's fate?

What followed?

What name did the queen give the country?

Who commanded the next expedition ?

Who were sent out by Raleigh in What distinguished persons accom


panied it?

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