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inflicting vengeance on such of the inhabitants of South Carolina as had been induced to join the American standard. The militia men he doomed to the gallows. The property of the fugitives and of the declared friends of independence he confiscated; and he seized a number of the most respectable citizens of Charleston, and most of the military officers residing there under the faith of the late capitulation, and sent them to St. Augustine.

Reduced to desperation by these injudicious severities, the bold and active among the patriots formed themselves anew into partisan bands under different chieftains, among whom Marion and Sumter were most distinguished by their spirit and enterprise. These bands harassed the scattered parties of the British, several of which they cut off; and by their movements kept in check the tories to the north of the Carolinas.

Eight of these leaders of partisan bands, having collected their forces to the amount of 1,600, made an attack on Major Ferguson with his detachment of tories, and regulars on the top of King's mountain, October 7th. The Americans formed three parties: Colonel Lacy of South Carolina led one, which attacked on the west. The two others were commanded by Colonels Campbell and Cleveland; one of which attacked on the east, and the other in the centre.

On this occasion, Colonel Cleveland addressed his party in a harangue, which we copy from Dr. Ramsay's history, on account of the perfect idea it affords of the tactics of partisan warfare. It comprises the whole art of war of a bush fighter.


My brave fellows! We have beat the tories, and we can beat them. They are all cowards. If they had the spirit of men, they would join with their fellow citizens, in supporting the independence of their country. When engaged you are not to wait the word of command from me. I will show you by my example how to fight. I can undertake no more. Every man must consider himself as an officer, and act from his own judgment. Fire as quick as you can, stand as long as you can. When you can do no better, get behind trees, or retreat; but I beg of you not to run quite off. If we be repulsed, let us make a point to return and renew the fight. Perhaps we may have better luck in the

Give the particulars.

How were these measures revenged? Where did Major Ferguson suffer a defeat from the partisan troops ?


How did the Americans attack?
What was the substance of Colonel
Cleveland's speech to the men?



second attempt than in the first. If any of you be afraid, such have leave to retire; and they are requested immediately to take themselves off.'

These directions were literally followed in the battle. Ferguson attacked them with fixed bayonets, and compelled one party after another to retire; but they only retreated to a short distance and getting behind trees and rocks renewed their fire in almost every direction. The British being uncovered were securely shot down by the assailants. Ferguson himself was killed and his men were compelled to surrender. Eight hundred became prisoners and 225 were killed or wounded.

This success was followed by important results. Lord Cornwallis had marched into North Carolina in the direction of Salisbury; but when he heard of the defeat and death of Ferguson, he retreated to Winnsborough in the southern province, being severely harassed in his retreat by the militia and the inhabitants; and when he retired into winter quarters, Sumter still kept the field.

In the mean time General Gates had collected another army, with which he advanced to Charlotte. Here he received intelligence that congress had resolved to supersede him, and to submit his conduct to a court of inquiry. This was the consequence of his defeat at Camden and of the general unsuccessful conduct of the campaign in the south. Mortified as he was by the withdrawal of his country's confidence, on receiving the notification of this resolve of the supreme power, he dutifully resigned his command. But on his way home from Carolina, his feelings were soothed by an address from the legislature of Virginia, assuring him that 'the remembrance of his former glorious services could not be obliterated by any reverse of fortune.'

While these events were occurring in the southern states, General Washington was obliged to confine himself to the irksome and inglorious task of watching from his encampment at Morristown, the motions of the British on New York island, and of restraining their incursions into the adjacent country. Though the army opposed to him was lessened by the detachment which Sir Henry Clinton led into South

Describe the battle.

How many of the British were taken?
How many killed or wounded?
What was the consequence of this

battle to Cornwallis and Sumter ? What is related of General Gates?

Of the Virginia legislature?
Of General Washington ?

What was the condition of his army,
and of the enemy's force in his



Carolina, his own forces were proportionably weakened by the reinforcements which it was necessary for him to send to the American army in the same quarter; and never did distress press more heavily upon him.

The depreciation of the currency was at that time so great, that four months' pay of a private would not purchase a single bushel of wheat. His camp was sometimes destitute of meat, and sometimes of bread. As each state provided its own quota of troops, no uniformity could be established in the distribution of provisions. This circumstance aggravated the general discontent, and a spirit of mutiny began to display itself in two of the Connecticut regiments, which were with difficulty restrained from forcing their way home at the point of the bayonet.

Of these discontents the enemy endeavoured to take advantage, by circulating in the American camp proclamations offering the most tempting gratifications to such of the continental troops as should desert the republican colours, and embrace the royal cause. But these offers were unavailing; mutinous as they were, the malcontents abhorred the thought of joining the enemies of their country; and on the seasonable arrival of a fresh supply of provisions, they cheerfully returned to their duty.

Soon after this, when General Kniphausen, who commanded the British forces in the absence of Sir Henry Clinton, made an irruption into Jersey, on the 16th of June, the whole American army marched out to oppose him; and though he was reinforced by Sir Henry Clinton, who, during this expedition had arrived from Charleston, he was compelled to measure back his steps. Both the advance and retreat of the German were marked by the devastation committed by his troops, who burnt the town of Springfield, and most of the houses on their line of march.

Alarmed by the representations made by General Washington, of the destitute condition of his army, congress sent three members of their body, with instructions to inquire into the condition of their forces, and with authority to reform abuses. These gentlemen fully verified the statements of the commander in chief. No sooner was this fact known in the city of Philadelphia, than a subscription was set on foot for the relief of the suffering soldiers, which soon

What occasioned the mutinous dispo- | What is said of Kniphausen's incursition in the army?

What was done by the British?
How were they foiled?

sion into Jersey?

What was done by congress?
By the citizens of Philadelphia ?



amounted to $300,000. This sum was entrusted to the dis cretion of a well chosen committee, who appropriated it to the purchase of provisions for the troops.

The commissioners also applied themselves diligently to the task of recruiting and reorganising the army. They prescribed to each state the quota of forces which it was to contribute towards the raising of 35,000 men, their deficiency in regulars being to be supplied by drafts from their respective militia. The states of New England, Pennsylvania and Virginia, promptly listened to the call of their country, and made extraordinary efforts to furnish their several quotas of recruits. The other members of the union exerted themselves to the best of their ability; and although the general result of these exertions did not produce the number of troops which was deemed requisite for the public service, more could not, in such circumstances, have been expected.

The congress was the more earnest in their wishes to put their army on a respectable footing, as they were in expectation of the arrival of a body of auxiliary forces from France. This welcome aid appeared off Rhode Island on the 10th of July, 1780, on which day Monsieur Ternay sailed into the harbour of Newport, with a squadron of seven sail of the line, five frigates and five schooners, convoying a fleet of transports, having on board 6,000 men, under the command of the Count de Rochambeau.

Admiral Arbuthnot, who had under his command at New York, only four ships of the line, on hearing of the arrival of the French at Rhode Island, was apprehensive of being attacked by their superior force. But he was soon relieved from his fears by the vigilance of the British ministry, who, on the sailing of the French fleet from Europe, had sent to his assistance Admiral Graves, with six ships of the line.

On receiving this reinforcement, he sailed for Rhode Island, for the purpose of encountering the French squadron, whilst Sir Henry Clinton proceeded with 8000 men to the north of Long Island, for the purpose of landing on the opposite part of the continent, and attacking their land forces. But the British admiral found the French ships so well secured by batteries and other land fortifications, that he was obliged to content himself with blocking them up in their harbour; and

What was done by the commissioners? | How was he saved?
By the states?

What happened July 10th, 1780 ?
What was the French force?

What was done by Admiral Arbuthnot?

By Sir Henry Clinton ?

Who feared an attack from the How was Arbuthnot foiled?


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Clinton, receiving intelligence that General Washington was preparing to take advantage of his absence, by making an attack on New York, hastened back to the relief of that place.

Washington, on the retreat of General Clinton, withdrew to West Point, an almost impregnable position, situated about 50 miles to the northward of New York, on the Hudson river, by means of which he kept up a communication between the eastern and southern states. Having occasion, towards the end of the month of September to go to Rhode Island, to hold a conference with the French admiral and Count Rochambeau, he left the command of this important post to General Arnold, unconscious that in so doing he entrusted the fortunes of the infant republic to a traitor.

Arnold was brave and hardy, but dissipated and profligate. Extravagant in his expenses, he had involved himself in debts, and having had, on frequent occasions, the administration of considerable sums of the public money, his accounts were so unsatisfactory, that he was liable to an impeachment on charges of peculation. Much had been forgiven, indeed, and more would probably have been forgiven, to his valour and military skill. But alarmed by the terrors of a guilty conscience, he determined to get rid of pecuniary responsibility by betraying his country; and accordingly he entered into a negotiation with Sir Henry Clinton, in which he engaged, when a proper opportunity should present itself, to make such a disposition of his troops as would enable the British to make themselves masters of West Point.

The details of this negotiation were conducted by Major André, the adjutant general of the British army, with whom Arnold carried on a clandestine correspondence, addressing him under the name of Anderson, whilst he himself assumed that of Gustavus. To facilitate their communications, the Vulture sloop of war was moved near to West Point, and the absence of Washington seeming to present a fit opportunity for the final arrangement of their plans, on the night of the 21st of September, Arnold sent a boat to the Vulture to bring André on shore.

That officer landed in his uniform, between the posts of the two armies, and was met by Arnold, with whom he held a conference which lasted till day-break, when it was too late

What recalled Clinton ?

Where was Washington posted?
To whom did he entrust the post?
On what occasion?

What was Arnold's character ?

What led to his treasonable conduct?
With whom did he negotiate?
What did he engage to do?

Who conducted the details of the ne-
gotiation ?

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