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the British, and caused a considerable waste of time in digesting their plans of operation. It also occasioned the evacuation of Rhode Island, which, however, was of little importance to the cause, as the 6,000 men who were stationed there for two years and eight months, were thus effectually kept out of active service.

The paper money system adopted by the continental congress, had now begun to produce its legitimate effects of ruin and distress. The bills were depreciated to about onethirtieth of their nominal value. The pay of the officers and soldiers was insufficient to procure them clothing. Congress finding its funds and credit exhausted, made a requisition on the several states for provisions and forage. Private capitalists, of whom Robert Morris, Esq., of Philadelphia, was among the most liberal, made loans to the government, and loans were solicited in Europe. Notwithstanding these expedients, the army was wretchedly supplied; and it required all the patriotic exertions of their officers to restrain the men from desertion or open revolt. The example of their leaders, in cheerfully submitting to severe hardships, and making sport of privations which were any thing but light, had its effect in retaining the troops in the service, and making them bear, and do their utmost for the cause of their country.

This year was signalised by the most celebrated of the achievements of Paul Jones. In August he sailed from France in the Bon Homme Richard, with six other vessels, the whole squadron being under his command. Having cruised successfully off the coast of Ireland for some time, he sailed with the Pallas, of 32 guns, and the Vengeance, of 16 guns, to the coast of Scotland, captured several armed vessels in sight of the port of Leith, and after threatening to lay the town under contribution, which threat he was only prevented from executing by a violent gale of wind coming on, he again put

to sea.

A few days after this he fought his famous battle with the British frigate Serapis. On the 23d of September, 1779, at seven o'clock in the evening, the encounter took place off Flamborough-head, on the coast of England, and the moon shining brightly at the time, the action was witnessed by thousands of spectators assembled on the shore. The Serapis

What is said of the paper money | Of the patriotic behaviour of capitalsystem? ists, officers, and men?



was a new ship, with 44 guns, and a select crew. In every respect she was far superior to the Bon Homme Richard. The action commenced with a broadside from the Serapis, and raged with unremitting fury till the bowsprit of the British vessel coming over the poop of the Bon Homme Richard by her mizen mast, Jones himself seized the ropes that hung from the bowsprit, and made them fast to his own ship. The Serapis now swung round, so as to lie alongside the American vessel, with the stern of one close to the bow of the other. The battle was then renewed with increasing fury, and lasted till half past ten o'clock, when the enemy's mainmast going by the board, he struck his colours.

The details of the battle surpass any thing in the records of naval warfare for determined bravery and perseverance. The Bon Homme Richard was actually in a sinking state when the battle ended; and there was hardly time allowed to take out the wounded men, before she went down.

When the Serapis first hove in sight, she, in company with the Countess of Scarborough, a ship of 20 guns, was convoying a large fleet of merchantmen; and while the action with the Bon Homme Richard was going on, the Pallas engaged and captured the Countess of Scarborough.

Jones was honoured with the most unlimited confidence by congress, and received many marks of favour from that body, as well as from the king of France.

The campaign of 1779, was productive of no decisive events. The Americans seem to have counted too much on the aid of their new allies, and to have exerted themselves but feebly in endeavouring to rid the country of its enemies; and yet they were bitterly disappointed, when at the end of the season it was found that little or nothing had been accomplished towards bringing the war to a close. The army was dispirited by defeat; and many of the citizens began to despair of the fortunes of the country. But the hardier spirits, the leaders in council and in the field, took heart when they recollected that the enemy had effected little except the over-running and plundering an extensive tract of territory; and that after all their battles, and marauding expeditions, they had been compelled to return to as narrow encampments as they had occupied before the campaign commenced.

What is said of Paul Jones's victory? | What is said of the campaign of Describe the battle.






RECENT events in the southern country had convinced Sir Henry Clinton of the weakness of that portion of the Union, and had pointed it out as the proper theatre of war. Leaving, therefore, the command of the royal army in New York, to General Kniphausen, on the 26th of December, 1779, he sailed from that city with a considerable force, and after a stormy passage, on the 11th of the ensuing month he arrived at Tybee in Georgia, at the mouth of the Savannah river. Hence he proceeded to Ashley river, and encamped opposite to Charleston.

On his arrival, the assembly of the state of South Carolina broke up its sitting, after having once more delegated a dictatorial authority to governor Rutledge, who immediately issued his orders for the assembling of the militia. These orders were not promptly obeyed. The disasters of the last campaign had damped the ardour of patriotism, and each man seemed to look to his neighbours for those exertions which might have been justly expected from himself.

On reconnoitering the works of Charleston, however, Sir Henry Clinton did not deem it expedient to attack them till he had received reinforcements from New York and Savannah. These soon arrived, and he proceeded to open the siege in form.

The ap

Charleston is situated on a tongue of land, bounded on the west by Ashley, and on the east by Cooper river. proach to Ashley river was defended by Fort Moultrie, erected on Sullivan's island; and the passage up Cooper river was impeded by a number of vessels sunk in the channel, opposite the town. On the land side, the place was defended by a citadel and strong lines, extending from river to river. Before these lines Clinton broke ground on the 29th of

When did Sir Henry Clinton arrive

in Savannah ?

Where did he soon after encamp?
What measure was taken by the as-
sembly of South Carolina?
By governor Rutledge?

| By the people?

What was now done by Clinton ?
Describe the situation and defences
Of Charleston.
Describe the opening and progress of
the siege.



March, and on the 10th of April, he completed his first parallel. On the preceding day, Admiral Arbuthnot, who commanded the British fleet, had passed Fort Moultrie with little loss, and had anchored near the town. About the 20th of April the British commander received a second reinforcement of 3,000 men; and the place was soon completely invested by sea and by land-his third parallel being advanced to the very edge of the American works.

General Lincoln, who commanded the American garrison in Charleston, would not have shut himself up in the town, if he had not confidently expected relief from the militia, who had been called out by governor Rutledge, and, by whose assistance he had hoped if reduced to extremity, to have effected a retreat across Cooper river. But the few who, in this hour of difficulty, advanced to his aid, were cut off or kept in check; and the river was possessed by the enemy.

In these distressful circumstances, after sustaining a bombardment which set the town on fire in different places, on the 12th of May he surrendered on a capitulation, the principal terms of which were, that the militia were to be permitted to return to their respective homes, as prisoners on parole, and while they adhered to their parole, were not to be molested in their persons or property.' The same conditions were also imposed on all the inhabitants of the town, civil as well as military.

Sir Henry Clinton now addressed himself to the business of re-establishing the royal authority in the province, as a preliminary step to which, on the first of June he issued a proclamation, offering to the inhabitants, on condition of their submission, pardon for their past offences, a reinstatement in their rights, and what was remarkable, as indicating the lowered tone of the ministry, exemption from taxation except by their own legislature.

This proclamation was followed up by the posting of garrisons in different parts of the country, to protect the tories and overawe the patriots, and by the march of 2,000 men towards North Carolina. On their advance, the American troops, who had marched from that province too late for the relief of Charleston, retreated with the loss of a party of near

What is said of General Lincoln ?
What was his situation?

What was now done by Sir Henry
Clinton ?

n what terms did he surrender the What terms did he offer to the peotown?

ple of South Carolina? What followed the proclamation?



400 men who were barbarously massacred, after surrendering to Colonel Tarleton at the Waxhaws.*

Thus completely successful, Clinton, early in June, embarked with the principal part of his forces, for New York, having delegated the completion of the subjugation of South Carolina to Lord Cornwallis, with whom he left for that purpose an army of 4,000 men.

When Lord Cornwallis assumed the command in South Carolina, the Americans had no army in the field within 400 miles of that province, and the principal part of the inhabitants had submitted either as prisoners or as subjects. Had they been suffered to remain in this state of quiet neutrality, they would have adhered to their parole of honour, and awaited the issue of the contest in the northern states.

But his lordship's instructions did not permit him to be contented with this passive obedience, and he proceeded to take measures to compel the South Carolinians to take up arms against their countrymen. For this purpose, he issued a proclamation, absolving from their parole, all the inhabitants who had bound themselves by that obligation, and restoring them to all the rights and duties belonging to citizens.'

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What was meant by the ominous word duties' was explained by another part of the proclamation, whereby it was declared, that it was proper for all persons to take an active part in settling and securing his majesty's government, and that whoever should not do so, should be treated as rebels.'

The Carolinians were highly indignant at the treacherous and unprincipled violation of the terms of their submission. Many of them justly considering the contract to be broken by this proceeding of the British commander, instantly resumed their arms; and though more, under the impression of fear, enrolled themselves as subjects, they brought to the cause a hollow-hearted allegiance which could not be trusted in the day of trial. Large numbers quitted the province, and hastened to join the army which congress was raising for the purpose of recovering South Carolina, and others forming themselves into small bands, commenced a system of partisan

Whither did Clinton then go?

Who succeeded him at Charleston ?
What was now the condition of South
Carolina ?

What did Cornwallis declare in his

What did he require?

What was the consequence of this treachery?

What kind of warfare was now commenced in the South?

*This massacre gave a much more sanguinary turn to the war in the south. "Tarleton's quarters' became proverbial, and in the subsequent battles, re venge gave a keener edge to the just resentment of the patriots.

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