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Sullivan, with a detachment from General Washington's army, and reinforcements from New England, was to act in concert with him.

This enterprise, however, completely failed, for want of active co-operation on the part of the French fleet. Lord Howe appearing with his fleet off Newport, the French admiral came out of the harbour to give him battle, but before the hostile armaments could encounter, a violent storm arose, which damaged both fleets so much, that the British were compelled to return to New York, and D'Estaing declared his intention of withdrawing to Boston harbour. Notwithstanding the remonstrances of General Greene and the Marquis de la Fayette, who were deputed by Washington to exert their influence in preventing this ill-timed retreat, he executed his purpose, leaving the American army under General Sullivan, on the island, in a very critical situation; but by the skill of its commander, it was withdrawn to the main land with trifling loss. His escape was very fortunate, as Sir Henry Clinton was on his way to Rhode Island with a reinforcement of 4,000 men, but was detained in the Sound four days by contrary winds, and arrived only the day after the Americans had left the island. A very short delay on the part of General Sullivan, might have proved fatal to the army.

Sanguine expectations had been entertained throughout the United States of the reduction of Rhode Island, and the capture of the British force which defended it, so that the disappointment and mortification, on the failure of the enterprise, were exceedingly bitter. The French being considered the authors of the miscarriage, were much blamed; and some misunderstanding took place between General Sullivan and the Count d'Estaing on the occasion. By the intervention of General Washington and the congress, however, the growing breach between the Americans and their allies was soon healed.

During the summer of 1778, a harassing and destructive war was carried on by the Indians against the settlers on the western frontier of the United States. The happy settle ment of Wyoming, in Pennsylvania, became in a particular

For what purpose did he proceed to
Rhode Island?

Who was sent to co-operate with him?
What was the result?

What caused the failure of this enter-
What saved the army?

What is said of Sir Henry Clinton ?
What was the effect of this defeat?
What is said of the misunderstanding
between General Sullivan and the
Count d'Estaing?"

What took place in the summer of



manner the scene of carnage, misery, and ruin. It was a flourishing settlement, containing about 1,000 inhabitants. Unfortunately the neighbourhood was infested with tories, who uniting with the Indians in the work of treachery and murder, succeeded in surprising the settlement and capturing the forts; and massacred a great part of the inhabitants. The surrounding country was then laid waste, and about three thousand persons, without money, clothes, or provisions, precipitately abandoned their homes, and fled from the murderous tomahawk. The approach of some continental troops drove the savage invaders from the region which they had desolated. These atrocities served to exasperate the Americans, and to give a still sterner aspect to the subsequent character of the war.

The western frontier of Virginia was saved from similar horrors by the enterprise and courage of Colonel George Rogers Clarke, who with a body of militia penetrated to the British settlements on the Mississippi, took the town of Kaskaskias, and subsequently surprised Colonel Hamilton, who had been entrusted with the direction of the operations on the Wabash. By his activity in encouraging the Indian hostilities, and stimulating them the perpetration of revolting barbarities, Hamilton had reng bd himself so obnoxious, that the executive council of Virginia threw him, and some of his immediate agents, into prison and put them in irons. The vigorous measures of Clarke disconcerted Hamilton's plan for annoying the western frontier, and deterred the Indians from engaging in their ferocious incursions into the United States.

When the season for active operations in the middle and northern states had terminated, the British commander ir chief resolved to make an attempt on the southern provinces Some royalists who had fled from the Carolinas and Georgia. had made incursions into the latter state. These had been retaliated by General Robert Howe, commander of the military force of South Carolina and Georgia, but the sickness of his troops had compelled him to retire and take post in the vicinity of Savannah, where he had to encounter an enemy far more formidable than the irregulars of East Florida. On the 23d of December, an armament, commanded by

Give an account of the massacre at


What was done on the western fron-
tier of Virginia?
What American general commanded

the military force of South Carolina and Georgia ?

Who had been opposed to him there? What new enemy had he to encoun ter?



Colonel Campbell with about 3,500 men, escorted by a small squadron under Admiral Parker, appeared off the mouth of the Savannah, and proceediug up the river effected a landing without much opposition on the 29th.

Howe, with about 900 men, was posted in a good position about two miles from Savannah. He was surrounded by a swamp, river, and morass, excepting in front. He had destroyed a bridge and broken up the road in front, so that if attacked in that quarter he could have defended himself with advantage. But a black man who fell into Colonel Campbell's hands, informed him of a private path through the morass by which the rear of the American army might be gained. The consequence was, that being attacked on both sides, although Howe and his men fought with the greatest intrepidity, less than one half of them were able to escape and effect a retreat to South Carolina. The capital of Georgia of course fell into the hands of the British, and Sunbury and Augusta being soon after taken, the whole state was brought under the British sway.

The noble defence of Fort Moultrie, in 1776, had hitherto saved the southern states from the horrors of war; but the defeat of General Howe, at Savannah, made those states the scene of fierce and desolating hostilities during the remainder of the contest.

The small navy of the Americans suffered some loss during this year. Many of their ships were destroyed in the harbours on the coast, and one was lost at sea under very distressing circumstances. The Randolph, an American frigate of 36 guns and 305 men, commanded by Captain Biddle, having sailed from Charleston on a cruise, fell in with the British frigate Yarmouth, of 64 guns, and engaged her in the night. In about 15 minutes the Randolph blew up; and all the crew, except four men, perished. These men, floating on a piece of the wreck, subsisted four days on rain water which they sucked from a piece of blanket. They were then discovered and relieved by the captain of the Yarmouth. Captain Biddle, who perished on board the Randolph, was universally lamented. He was an officer whose tried courage and skill had excited high expectations of future usefulness to the country.

What preparations did he make?
Who betrayed him?

What was the consequence?

What state was overrun by the British?

What were the consequences of
Howe's defeat?

Relate the catastrophe of the Ran-

What is said of Captain Biddle?



In April of this year the celebrated wal commander, Paul Jones, in the brig Ranger, of 18 guns, captured the British sloop of war Drake, of 20 guns, which had been fitted out with more than her complement of officers and men for the express purpose of capturing Jones. This was one among a series of brilliant achievements which had already procured for Jones the highest reputation.

Neither of the contending parties was very well satisfied with the result of this campaign. The Americans, who had expected, with the assistance of the French, to terminate the war by some decisive stroke, were not a little mortified that the only result of the co-operation of their ally, was the recovery of Philadelphia. On the other hand, the British ministry were grievously disappointed on learning that the issue of the campaign, as far as regarded their main army, was the exchange, by their commander in chief, of his narrow quarters in Philadelphia, for the not much more extended ones of New York island. Hitherto they seem to have carried on the war under the idea that the majority of the colonies were favourably disposed towards the royal government, and were only restrained from manifesting their loyalty by a faction, whom it would be easy with their assistance to subdue: but from this period they appear to have abandoned thin chimera, and conducted their hostilities in a spirit of despe ration and revenge.



THE principal operations of the war were now transferred from the northern and middle, to the southern states of the union. In the north the British seem to have aimed chiefly at creating as large an amount of distress and devastation a possible. They had declared their intention of making "the colonies of as little avail as possible to their new connec tions ;" and truly the zeal and activity with which they en

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deavoured to render the country a desert, were worthy of a better cause.

With a view to subject Virginia to the unmitigated horrors of war, Sir Henry Clinton, on the 10th of May, 1779, sent an expedition into that state, under the command of Sir George Collyer and General Matthews, who, after landing at Portsmouth, proceeded to Suffolk, and laid that town in ashes. The houses of private gentlemen in the surrounding country shared the same fate. After burning and capturing 130 vessels of different sizes, and devastating the whole country in their line of march, the marauders sailed back, loaded with plunder, to New York.

About five weeks after their return, governor Tryon, doubtless stimulated with ambition at so noble an example, took the command of a similar expedition to the coast of Connecticut. With about 2,600 men, he sailed from New York, by the way of Hell-gate, and landed at East Haven, which he devoted to the flames, in violation of his promise of protection to all the inhabitants who should remain in their houses. He then marched to New Haven, and delivered up that town to promiscuous plunder. The inhabitants were stripped of their household furniture and moveable property, and subjected to every outrage of a brutal soldiery, excepting only the burning of their houses. The British then embarked and proceeded to Fairfield and Norwalk, which were also plundered and then burnt. Governor Tryon having effected this mischief in ten days, with little loss, returned to the British head quarters to make a report of his proceedings to the commander in chief.

Whilst this mode of warfare was carried on, Washington could spare very few men, for the defence of the invaded districts. His attention was engrossed by the main army of the British, to keep which in check, he posted his forces at West Point, and on the opposite side of the Hudson, pushing his patrols to the vicinity of his adversary's lines.

It was about this time that General Putnam performed his famous feat of riding down the stone stairs at Horse Neck. He was stationed at Reading, in Connecticut, and visiting his out post at Horse Neck, with but 150 men, and two iron fieldpieces without dragropes, he was attacked by governor Tryon


Give an account of the expedition | What is said of General Washingof Sir George Collyer and General Matthews into Virginia.

Of General Tryon's expedition to

Give an account of Putnam's feat at
Horse Neck.

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