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GENERAL HOWE SAILS TO THE SOUTH.
General Washington advanced to Quibbletown, that he might still be near the British army.
Howe finding it impossible to bring Washington, with his greatly inferior force, to a pitched battle, sent off his baggage to Staten Island; and ordered a part of his troops to follow ; but learning that Washington had left his strong ground, and was advancing in pursuit of him, he suddenly recalled his troops from Staten Island, and advanced from Amboy with his whole army, in hopes to accomplish his great object. Cornwallis being sent out with a strong detachment on the 26th of June, fell in with a numerous body of the Americans, under Lord Stirling and General Maxwell. After a smart engagement, the Americans retired, with some loss; and General Washington, apprised of the unexpected movement of the British army, returned towards the mountains and regained the passes which it was the intention of Cornwallis to seize.
Finding himself thus baffled, General Howe, on the 30th of June, crossed to Staten Island; and on the 5th of July embarked his army, to the number of 16,000, on board of transports in order to sail to the southward. The remainder of the army was left with Sir Henry Clinton to defend New York. The fleet did not leave Sandy Hook till the 25th of July.
Howe's original intention was to sail up the Delaware to Philadelphia, but learning that the Americans had obstructed the navigation of that river, he entered Chesapeake bay and landed at the head of Elk river.
Anxious to prevent his approach to Philadelphia, Washington marched to meet him. Howe was not ready to leave the head of the Elk river before the 3d of September. On his advance, Washington retired across the Brandywine creek, and took post with his main body at Chadd's Ford, sending out General Maxwell with 1,000 light troops, to skirmish with the British and retard their
progress. On the 11th of September, the British army advanced, crossed the Brandy wine at different points, and attacked the main army of the Americans, who sustained the assault with intrepidity for some time, but at length gave way. General
To what island did he commence a Who was placed in command at New retreat ?
York? What brought him back ?
What course did Howe take ?
BATTLE OF GERMANTOWN.
Washington effected a retreat with his artillery and baggage to Chester, where he halted, within eight miles of the British army, till the next morning, when he retreated to Philadelphia.
The battle of the Brandywine was the first in which Lafayette drew his sword in the American cause. He received a wound in the leg, but kept his position, and continued to cheer and encourage the troops to the end of the engagement Several other French officers were engaged in this battle, as well as Count Pulaski, a Polish nobleman, who had also accepted a commission in the American army.
Washington remained in Philadelphia two days, collecting his scattered troops and replacing his stores; and then proceeded towards Lancaster.
Congress left Philadelphia on the 18th of September, and proceeded to Lancaster and afterwards to Yorktown. On the 23d, General Howe encamped with the main body of his army at Germantown, seven miles from Philadelphia ; and on the 26th, with a detachment of his troops, he took peaceable possession of the city.
The British now employed themselves in endeavouring to clear the Delaware of the chevaux-de-frise of timber and iron spikes which had been run across it, below the city, and were guarded by fortifications on the banks and islands of the river, and by floating batteries.
While they were thus employed, Washington with his army reinforced to 8,000 continental troops and 3,000 militia, lay encamped at Shippack creek, on the Schuylkill, about 20 miles from Philadelphia. Taking advantage of the diversion occasioned by Howe's operations on the river, he determined to attempt a surprise of the British camp at Germantown. With about 2,500 men, he left Shippack creek on the evening of the 3d October, and at dawn, next morning, attacked the royal army.
After a smart conflict, he drove in the advanced guard, and marched on towards the main body. But five companies of the British having thrown themselves into a large stone house belonging to Mr. Chew, nearly half the American army was occupied for some time in attempting to dislodge them. This circumstance di concerted the original plan of Washington ; and a thick fog which prevailed during
Whither did Washington retreat ?
Of General Howe?
the engagement, gave a character of confusion to all the operations of the day, which renders it difficult to understand or describe them. The Americans, however, were foiled in their attempt to surprise the British camp. although the fog covered their retreat, and they were able to retire in tolerable order. The Americans lost 900 men in this engagement, of whom 200 were killed and 400 were taken prisoners. The British acknowledged a loss of 600, killed and wounded.
They now proceeded to attempt the opening of the Delaware to their fleet, which was waiting to proceed to Philadelphia. The upper line of chevaux-de-frise was protected by a work named Fort Mifflin, erected on Mud Island, and by a redoubt called Redbank, on the Jersey side.
Having withdrawn his army from Germantown and encamped in the vicinity of Philadelphia, Howe despatched Count Donop, a German officer, with three battalions of Hessian grenadiers, the regiment of Mirbach, and some light infantry, to reduce Redbank. They reached the fort on the 21st of October, and Count Donop summoned the garrison to surrender, but Colonel Christopher Greene, of Rhode Island, who commanded the Americans, answered that he would defend his fort to the last extremity. An assault was immediately commenced, and after a desperate conflict, in which Count Donop was mortally wounded, the enemy was compelled to retire, with a severe loss. Count Donop was made prisoner, and soon died of his wounds. The ships which were to co-operate in the attack, were some of them grounded; and one was burnt by the Americans
What was the loss of the Americans ? What did the British now attempt?
Describe the battle of Redbank,
CAPTURE OF FORT MIFFLIN.
The British afterwards sent a very heavy sea and land force against the little garrison of 300 men, at Fort Mifflin, which protected the second line of chevaux-de-frise, and after a terrible cannonade, which was smartly returned, they succeeded in beating down the walls of the fort, and dismounting
The garrison then retired, by means of their shipping. Two days afterwards, the post at Redbank being no longer tenable, was evacuated also. A free passage for the British fleet to Philadelphia was thus secured, although at the cost of great exertion and many lives, on the part of the enemy.
No other important military transactions took place in this quarter, until Washington retired to winter quarters, at Valley Forge, about 26 miles from Philadelphia. The two armies at that time numbered about 14,000 each. Washington, during the early part of the campaign, owing to his want of force, had been obliged to occupy strong positions and be wary in all his movements. He had suffered defeat at Brandywine, and repulse at Germantown, but he had conducted his operations so well, that Howe had gained nothing by the campaign but good winter quarters in Philadelphia.
While the events just related were passing in the middle states, most important transactions were going on in the north, to which we shall now turn our attention.
The British ministry had resolved to prosecute the war vigorously on the northern frontier of the United States, and appointed General Burgoyne, who had served under General Carleton in the preceding campaign, to the command of the royal army in that quarter. General Burgoyne had visited England during the winter, concerted with the ministry a plan of the campaign, and given an estimate of the force necessary for its execution. Besides a fine train of artillery and a suitable body of artillery men, an army, consisting of more than 7,000 veteran troops, excellently equipped, and in a high-state of discipline, was put under his command. Besides this regular force, he had a great number of Canadians and savages.
This force was destined to invade the United States by the way of Lake Champlain and the Hudson, unite with the British army then at New York, and thus cut off all communication between the northern states and those lying south of
Describe the battle of Fort Mifflin. Of the two generals in chief?
of the British army in the north ? What is remarked of the subsequent What force had he?
military operations of the season? What was the plan of the campuign?
Investment of Ticonderoga. the Hudson. New England was then be over-run and reduced to obedience, as a preparation for the complete subjugation of the southern country.
The first attempts of Burgoyne were as successful as the condition of his army entitled the ministry to expect. The Indians, gained by presents, or stimulated by the hopes of plunder, joined him in considerable numbers. Burgoyne, to quiet his conscience, rendered somewhat uneasy by the employment of such auxiliaries, exhorted them to kill none but such as appeared in arms against them, and to spare the women and children, whom the fortune of war might put into their hands. The Indians promised compliance with this injunction, and paid not the slightest regard to it afterwards.
On the 2d of July, the English army encamped on both sides of the narrow channel which connects Lakes Champlain and George, with a naval force on the water, near Ticonderoga. To this strong fortress the Americans had retired at the end of the preceding year; and now it was garrisoned with about 6,000 men, under General St. Clair.
The approaches of the British were rapid and decisive. Soon after their appearance before the American works, they took possession of Sugar-hill; an eminence which overlooked the fortifications, and enabled them to place their batteries to great advantage, but which the Americans had supposed it was impossible to ascend. On the 5th, every step had been taken to render the investment complete.
St. Clair, however, conscious of his inability to defend the
What success had be at first?
Did they observe it? Who were General Burgoyne's allies? What fortress was first invested? What humane advice did he give Describe the siege. them?
What was the result?