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103 vice-admiral of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, New Plymouth, Pemaquid, and Narragansett, with a council to be appointed by the crown, to make laws and lay taxes.

Andros arrived in Boston in 1685, and revoked the charter of Rhode Island, notwithstanding the submission of that colony. Connecticut would have shared the same fate, but the charter was concealed in a tree until the danger was past. The charter oak was, for ages after, held in remembrance.

The administration of Andros was rendered odious to the people by a variety of exactions and oppressive regulations. Their land titles were declared void, and new patents were offered at enormous prices. The object of the royal governor appears to have been to amass a fortune for himself, to break the charters, and unite the several colonies in one, for the purpose of effectually resisting the encroachments of the French from Canada.

Mather, an ancient divine and politician, was sent to Eng. land to obtain redress; but the king was inflexible in his purpose of uniting the colonies, and annexed New York and the Jerseys to the government of Andros.

The relief which he denied was brought by the revolution of 1688, which was no sooner known in Boston than the inhabitants joyfully proclaimed the new sovereigns, William and Mary. They had already, on the first rumour of the arrival of the sovereigns in England, imprisoned Andros and fifty of his adherents, and restored the government to the ancient magistrates. This example was speedily followed by Connecticut and Rhode Island.

New Hampshire was re-annexed to Massachusetts by its own act; but subsequently separated by the desire of King William.

The revolution of 1688 afforded the people of Massachusetts grounds for expecting the restitution of their charter. Agents were sent to England for this purpose, but their efforts were not attended with success. The king was determined to retain at his own disposal the appointment of governor. He was, however, at length induced to grant a new charter,

How did Andros proceed with Rhode For what purpose ?

With what success ? flor was the charter of Connecticut What brought relief? saved ?

How was the news received ? What were the acts of Andros's ad- What had the Bostonians done? ministration ?

What was done in the other New What was his object ?

England colonies ? Who was sent to England ?


104 although of a less liberal character than the former one. It gave to the king the power of appointing a governor, who might call, adjourn, prorogue, and dissolve the legislature at pleasure. He had also the appointment of all military officers, and with the consent of his council, of all officers belonging to the courts of justice. The charter also annexed Plymouth and Nova Scotia to Massachusetts ; but omitted New Hampshire, which always afterwards remained a separate government.

On the arrival of the new governor, Sir William Phipps, the general court was convened, and accepted the charter. (1692.)

While these events were passing, a war with France was raging, which involved New England and New York in a series of bloody and desolating actions with the Canadians and Indians. Among other atrocities, the village of Schenectady was surprised by a party of French and Indians, and many of the inhabitants massacred. The borders of New Hampshire and Maine experienced similar horrors from the same unrelenting enemies.

Determined to carry the war into the enemy's country, the general court of Massachusetts planned and executed a descent upon Port Royal, under Sir William Phipps, which was conpletely successful; and all Acadia was subjugated. Another against Quebec, in which they had the assistance of New York and Connecticut, failed for want of decision and energy in the commander.

The general court was obliged to issue bills of credit to pay the expenses of the army-a measure which was afterwards productive of much inconvenience and discontent, as the bills suffered a heavy depreciation in the hands of the soldiers.

In 1693, an expedition against Martinique, undertaken by the colonists, failed; and in 1696, Port Royal was recovered by France, and all Acadia resumed its allegiance to that country. The peace of Ryswick afforded the colonists of each country, as well as the belligerent powers in Europe, a brief repose.

When hostilities were renewed in Europe, in 1702, the terrible border war was recommenced. A treaty of neutrality

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Who granted to Massachusetts a new What was done by the general charter ?

court? How did it differ with the former one? | Sir William Phipps? Who was the first royal governor ? What is said of the bills of credit ? With whom was a war raging ? What was done in 1693 and 1696 ? What colonies suffered by it?

In 1702 ?

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between the governor of Canada, and the Five Nations of Indians, having been negociated, New York was left un. molested; and the whole weight of the war fell on New England. An ineffectual attempt was made to reduce Acadia in 1707, by governor Dudley of Massachusetts, with an army of 1000 men raised in the colonies east of Connecticut; and in 1708, Haverhill in Massachusetts was burnt by the Indians, and about one hundred persons killed, and many more carried into captivity. Similar incursions were made along the whole northern border, from the river St. Croix to the great lakes; and the history of those times abounds with stories of scalping and plundering parties of Indians, attacking the defenceless villages, burning the houses, killing numbers of the helpless inhabitants, without distinction of age or sex, and then hurrying back to Canada with a handful of captives, before a force could be raised sufficient to resist or punish the aggression.

The brave colonists were by no means passive under these injuries. We are surprised,' in reading the annals of this early period of their seçilement, at the energy of character and extent of resources displayed by them. Believing that the French were the instigators of all the Indian hostilities, they were constantly raising large fleets and armies for the purpose of depriving them of their American possessions. Expeditions were repeatedly fitted out for Canada and Nova Scotia, at the sole expense of the New England colonies. The British government was too much occupied in humbling the pride of Louis XIV, to render more than occasional and insufficient aid to the colonists in their arduous struggle. Some regiments were furnished for the expedition, which took Port Royal in 1710, and this grace was acknowledged by giving the captured place the name of Annapolis in honour of Queen Anne

A few regiments of Marlborough's veterans were sent over to assist in the grand expedition against Quebec and Montreal, which took place in 1711; and failed, notwithstanding the unsparing efforts of the colonies in raising men, and the lavish expenditure of bills of credit. When the treaty of Utrecht at length afforded them a breathing time, the colonists found themselves weakened in numbers, exhausted of funds

In 1707? What is said of the colonists? Of the expedition against Quebec and The British government ?

Montreal? What is said of the expedition to Of the exertions of the colonists ?

Port Royal ?



and encumbered with a heavy public debt. They, no doubt, considered it a hard case that they should be compelled to depend so much upon their own resources.

But this was the most fortunate circumstance of their condition. Had they been perfectly protected, they would scarcely have taken the trouble to learn the art of war. The exertions they were compelled to make in their own defence, rendered them a young nation of soldiers ; and paved the way for the successful assertion of their independence.

After the return of peace, the New England colonies found themselves embarrassed with a heavy public debt, the consequence of the unavoidable emission of bills of credit for the payment of the soldiers. Various expedients were proposed for relief; but the evil proved a lasting one; and all the exertions of the different legislatures could not prevent a constant depreciation of the paper, and consequent loss to the holders.

In Massachusetts a controversy arose, (1619,) which is worthy of particular attention, as it evinces in the people that jealous guardianship of their rights, and that determined adherence to a principle of freedom, once adopted, which runs through the whole of their history; and which rendered that state on all occasions of collision with the mother country, the acknowledged champion of the New England confederacy.

When, by their new charter, the people of this colony were constrained to receive a governor appointed by the king, they established a system of donations and free gifts to this functionary, undoubtedly with a view to attach him to their own cause, and identify his interests with those of the colony. Determined to break up this system, Queen Anne gave peremptory orders that the governors should receive no more gifts; and required that the legislature should fix their salaries permanently at a sum named by herself.

The wary republicans regarded this as an inordinate stretch of arbitrary power; and offered the most determined resist

This led to constant misunderstanding between the governor and his council, and the legislature. One of the disputes related to the right of the governor to negative the appointment of the speaker, and the right of the house to adjourn. An appeal was carried to England, and the consequence was an explanatory charter favouring the governor's views, which after some difficulty the legislature accepted.


Of the public debt?
Of its effects?

What gave rise to a controversy with

the crown? Give its history


107 In 1728, Mr. Burnet, who had been appointed governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, arrived in Boston, and was received with great pomp. When the legislature met, he communicated the king's instructions to insist on an estaolished salary, and his own determination to adhere to them. This was the signal for a new contest, and a long series of vexatious proceedings followed. The legislature would readily vote him a large sum of money ; but they firmly declined to bind themselves to any annual payment; and the governor, to exhaust their patience, changed the place of their meeting from town to town. The contest lasted for three years, extending into governor Belcher's administration; and at length was terminated by the governor's obtaining from the king permission to accept such sums as might be given by the assembly. The people by inflexible firmness had gained their point.

In 1744, war broke out between France and England. This was immediately followed by a descent on Nova Scotia, which had been ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht. The French governor of Cape Breton took possession of Canseau in Nova Scotia, and made the garrison and inhabitants prisoners of war. He then attacked Annapolis, but was deleated by the arrival of a reinforcement from Massachusetts. These offensive operations determined the English colonists to attempt the complete subjugation of the French possessions in North America.

The island of Cape Breton was at that time deemed a highly important post for the protection of the French commerce and fisheries. Its fortifications had already cost thirty millions of livres, and twenty-five years of labour. It was the bulwark of the French colonies.

Shirley, who was at this time governor of Massachusetts, had conceived the project of conquering this island. Information of the position and strength of Louisbourg, the principal fortress on Cape Breton, and of the design of the French to send a large fleet for the conquest of Nova Scotia, had been brought to him by prisoners who had returned from captivity, and this confirmed Shirley in his design.

He accordingly made application for assistance to the British admiralty, and obtained a promise of the co-operation of Commodore Warren with a large fleet. Mr. Vaughan, sol'

How did it terminate ?

What is said of that island ? What took place in 1744 ?

Of governor Shirley? What was done by the French gover- of the admiralty ?

nor of Cape Breton ?

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