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Early History-Mississippi Valley-Discovery of Florida-Ponce de Leon,

Miruelo, Narvaez, De Soto-Discovery of the Mississippi, and fate of De Soto

-Charter Grant of New France-Jesuit Missionaries, zealand success-Reach

the Western Lakes-Enterprising views of Discovery-Mesnard, Allouez,

Marquette--Views of the Intendant Talon-Great Congress of Indian Na-

tions at the Falls of St. Mary- Enterprise of Marquette and Joliet-Dangers

pointed out by the Indians-Fox River, Portage, and Wisconsin-Upper

Mississippi discovered—The Illini Indians hospitable-The Missouri passed,

the Ouabache reached, and the Mississippi descended to below the Arkansas

-Return of Marquette and Joliet to Green Bay—Joliet's



of Marquette-De la Salle, his enterprise, protected and encouraged by Col-

bert and Seignelay–Builds a vessel on Niagara River, and navigates the

Upper Lakes-He reaches the sources of the Illinois River-Descends and

builds a Fort-Learns the course of the Mississippi River, loses his vessel on

the Lakes, and resolves to build a new one---Despatches Hennepin on a voy-

age of discovery up the Mississippi-Leaves Tonti in command, and returns

on foot to Fort Frontenac— Tonti builds Rock Fort-Is driven away by the

Indians--La Salle returns, descends the Mississippi to the sea, and takes pos-

session of the country, by the name of Louisiana-Returns to France, pro-

cures a fleet, and endeavours to discover the mouth of the Mississippi by sea

-Passes the mouth, and lands in St. Bernard's Bay–His misfortunes, fruit-

less searches, and assassination-Joutel and Anastasius return by the Missis-

sippi to Fort Crevecour, and thence to Quebec- Attempts to decry the merits

of La Salle's discoveries--Hennepin's alleged discoveries--His two publica-

tions, and interpolations-The claims of England to the Mississippi founded

on Hennepin's books—The claims of France-Conflicting opinions of French

and English Colonists-New France neglected—French possessions in the

West include the whole Valley of the Mississippi - Iberville and his brothers

- Expedition fitted out to discover the mouth of the Mississippi -Iberville

successful-Passes up the River-Finds a letter from Tonti to La Salle

Builds a Fort at Biloxi, and returns to France-Possession taken of the whole

basin of the Mississippi, by France, under the name of Louisiana...


Notes to CHAPTER I.......


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Views of La Salle with respect to the Illinois country--Communication be-

tween Quebec and the Gulf of Mexico-Jealousy, and claim of England-

Exploring Expedition on part of England-Explorations by Bienville and

Sauvole—Application of French Protestant emigrants—Bienville prevents the

English from taking possession of the Mississippi-Belief still entertained of

the route by water to the South Sea-Also of the existence of gold and silver

mines, &c. in the country-French views not agricultural-Le Sueur on the

Upper Mississippi-Fallacious views as to the natural productions of the

country-Baron La Hontan, his travels and discoveries---Mixture of the true,

and the romantic and fabulous-The Illinois country, its extent-The Five

Nations, their relations to France and England-Grand Council called by Do

Callieres—The post and settlement of Detroit founded-Other posts growing

up, in the West-Allies of the English in Wisconsin-Attempt on Detroit-

Trade of the West-Armed occupation by France of the Mississippi Valley

—Forts Chartres, Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher, Kaskaskia–Treaty of Utrecht,

its want of effect--Unsettled questions of boundaries--Localities of the Indian

tribes—The Indians of the Northwest-Colony at the mouth of the Missis-

sippi-Its neglect of agriculture and wild speculations--Le Sueur's copper-

mine on Blue Earth River-Louisiana made a government independent of

New France-Change in the political system of the colony-unsuccessful

attempts of France to colonize-Boundaries of Louisiana-Rio del Norte

Crozat's Patent-Mississippi Scheme-Slavery authorized in Crozat's mono-

poly-Population of Louisiana--Ill success of Crozat-His losses ; surrenders

bis patent-Delusive hopes of wealth, in France-Wretched state of the

French Public Treasury-John Law proposes relief-Paper currency as a

substitute for precious metals-Law's Bank established-Its operations-De-

clared a royal bank-Becomes a commercial companyGreat powers granted.

to the “Mississippi Company"--Bank of France associated with it-Company

of the Indies—Monopolies granted to it--The Mint, and Taxes of the nation

farmed by it--Law, Comptroller General of France--Emigrants to Louisiana,..

their character-Routes from the St. Lawrence to the Lower Mississippi--

The great bubbles burst-Consequences extend to the settlements of the Mis-

sissippi Valley-Similarity of Credit System of 1719 and 1834–Delusion as

to the mineral wealth continues-Mining on the Upper Mississippi-War be-

tween France and Spain-Chain of forts established on the Mississippi-Site

of New Orleans selected-Le Sueur's fort on St. Peter's River--He takes

possession of the upper country-Fort Chartres built--Population of the Ill-

nois country-Posts of Michillimackinac, Green Bay, Chicago, St. Joseph's,

Sault St. Marie, and Detroit-English and French trade with the Indians-

Influence of France unbounded, over the Indians, except the Iroquois--The

Five Nations--Ottagamies adhere to the English-Attempt to destroy Detroit

--Siege of Detroit-Defeat and great loss of the Ottagamies-- Their hostili-

ties and depredations-French expedition against them under Louvigny-

Stronghold at Butte des Morts- The Foxes capitulate-Hostages delivered

Treaty not complied with by the Foxes--They renew their depredations

Expedition under De Lignerie unsuccessful-Progress of settlements in the

West-Villages in the Illinois country- The Natchez nation, their destruc-

tion-The “ Company of the Indies" surrenders its charter-War against the

Chickasaws-Artaguette and Vincennes--Their death--Situation of the Illi-

nois country--Ambitious views of France as to the Great West-Resisted by

the English colonies-George Washington--His mission to the French coin-

mander-First signal of the war of the RevolutionDeath of Jumonville-

Washington capitulates France in possession of the whole Valley of the

Mississippi-English and French encroachments, although with the saine in-

tent, not so regarded by the Indians--Peace in Europe, but war in America-

Boundaries between English and French possessions the cause-War of 1756;

--Braddock's defeat; Wolf's victory; surrender of all Canada–Disaffection

of the Indians-Rogers takes possession of Detroit, and other western posts:

-Pontiac-He orders Rogers to stop in his march-Protects him on condi.

tion-French power in the West for ever overthrown--Feelings against the-

English-Henry, the English trader-His interview with an Indian chief-

Attachment of the Indians to the French ; its causes-State of settlements

in Wisconsin-Carver's account-Prairie du Chien-No establishments west

of Green Bay- Traders alone in the country--Sacs and Foxes, their depreda-
tions and chastisement—Expeditions against them-Lake Superior, settlements
there--Ancient mines-Indications of ancient work...

.Paye 52
NOTES TO CHAPTER II..............


Treaty of 1763–England possesses all New France and Louisiana–Protection

of eminent domain-Carver's Grant--Illinois and Wabash Companies Classes

of grants in the Territory of Michigan, and in Wisconsin-De Vaudreuil's

Grant-French inhabitants under English rule--Indians unfriendly to the

English-Pontiac's designs---IIis great confederacy-Calls a grand council,

and states his plans to them- Unexpected attacks on the Britisb posts

Black rain at Detroit-Surprise and capture of Michillimackinac-Henry's

personal account of it-Fort at Green Bay abandoned–Fort at St. Joseph's

captured--Situation of Detroit—Stratagem of Pontiac-Discovered and pre-

vented-Siege of Detroit-Barbarities of the Indians--Reinforcements arrive

--Captain Dalyell's sortie, defeat, and death-Siege abandoned by the In-

dians-Arrival of General Bradstreet-Concludes a peace with the Indian

tribes-Pontiac does not consent--His death-His character-Absence of

settlements in Wisconsin-- Captain Carver's intentions and attempts-Ilis

travels and remarks--No Europeans on the Upper Mississippi, as settlers, in

1766--Evidence as to Carver's Grant-The Illinois country-Peaceable set-

tlements of the French--Their mode of life--Their villages and general

regulations of property-Tranquillity and happiness-Their religion—Changes

under British rule-Settlements decline-Emigration to Spanish Louisiana

- Population of the Illinois country-British occupy the forts-Colonel

Clark's Expedition-His plan adopted by Virginia-British influence over

Indians the source of the depredations on the frontier settlements--Claims

of Virginia to the Northwest, by her royal charters--Clark assembles his

force-Descends the Obio--Marches overland to Kaskaskia-Captures the

town and fort-Fears of the inhabitants-- They apply to Clark-llis answer

-- T'heir rejoicings-Cahokia surrenders-Fort Sackville, or Vincennes, sub-

mits-Oath of allegiance taken-Clark establishes forts---County of Illinois

established by Virginia-Indians make treaties with Clark--The British

governor collects his forces---Resolves to make Clark prisoner--Governor

Hamilton's character--lle arrives before Vincennes-Captain Helm alone in
the furt--Obtains honorable terms-Clark determines on retaking Vincennes

Marches from Kaskaskia--Hardships suffered by his forces--Arrive at the

town and capture it-Attack the fort-Hamilton capitulates, and is sent pri-

soner to Virginia-Clark's views on Detroit--Captures a convoy of supplies

The result of Clark's enterprises—The five States of the Northwestern

Territory—The Northwest during the Revolutionary War--Claims of States

proposed to be relinquished—Plans devised and debated in Congress-Deeds

of cession by States-Geographical boundaries of the new States not defined

understandingly-Revision of deeds of cession proposed-New boundaries

of States--Resolutions of Congress on this subject-Ordinance of 1787-As-

sent of Virginia to alteration of her deed of cession-Review of sixth article

of ordinance of 1787..





Pritish retain the Western posts—Effect on the Indians--Land speculations in

the West, Washington's opinion-Cession of title by the States--Retrospec-

tive view-Steuben sent to take possession of Western posts—He is refused

the possession-Causes assigned-Boundary line not to be crossed-British

strengthen the posts—Great council of Indian tribes—Treaties of Fort Har-

mar-Not adhered to-Brant and the Northern confederacy-St. Clair, go-

vernor of the Northwestern Territory—Indians deny the validity of his treaties

-State of the case--Ordinance of 1787–Unwise proceeding of government

- British policy and agency-Encouragement given to Brant-Influence of

McKee, Elliott, and Girty-Mission of Gamelin to the Western tribes, and

his report-Conduct of British agents—United States adopt war measures

against the Indians-St. Clair's levies, and dissensions-Harmar's Expedition,

and two defeats-Discord in his army—Indian villages destroyed-Indian

account of the battles---Action of the government in relation to the Indian

War-Peace messengers and warlike preparations---British agents and Indians

dissatisfied-American policy explained-Scott's Expedition--Wilkinson's

Expedition-St. Clair organizes his army at Fort Washington--Commences

his march-Builds Forts Hamilton and Jefferson-Reaches the waters of the

Wabash-Army encamps-Attacked by the Indians and entirely defeated-

Great loss of the Americans---Causes of defeat-St. Clair exculpated-New

army authorized by Congress to be raised-General Wayne appointed to its

command-Peace still offered to the Indians. The chiefs of the nations are

invited to the seat of government Commissioners meet the Indians in coun-

cil--Indians insist on the Ohio boundary–Attempts at peace fruitless--The

causes--British erect a new fort on the Maumee-Spain offers assistance to

Indians—Wayne assembles his forces at Port Washington-Final report of

the poace commissioners—Wayne moves his army-Establishes Fort Green-

ville-Goes into winter quarters-Buries the bones on the field of St. Clair's

defeat—Fort Recovery built-Attack by the Indians on an escort—Wayne

learns the movements of the Indians and the British agents--Indians attack

Fort Recovery, and are repulsed—Wayne marches from Groenville ----Builds

Fort Defiance-Sends a peace messenger to the Indians-The reply of the

Indians-Wayne marches on--Leaves his heavy baggage-Moves down the

Maumeo-Battle, and complete victory-Wayne destroys Indian and British

property-Effect of the victory on the Indians—The army returns-Fort

Wayne built-Fort Loramie built--Army in winter quarters at Greenville-

Indian spirit subdued—The tribes disposed to peace measures- -Opposition

made by the British agents-Great council held—Propositions made by the

English governor of Detroit-Brant coincides-Indians do not consent--They

send peace messengers to the Americans-The preliminaries of peace entered

into-Great council held at Greenville, and treaty made-Terms of the treaty

Other events during the Indian War-Genet, French minister; his schemes

to involve the United States in war--His attempts in the West; contemplated

invasion of Louisiana and Florida-Separation of the Western States, and

revolt in the Spanish provinces, projected—Genet issues commissions----Ex-

citement among the Western people-Action of the United States govern-

ment-Genet recalled by France, who disowns his acts-Free navigation of

the Mississippi insisted on by the United States; denied by Spain-Governor

Miro relaxes the stringent measures in relation to duties-He grants special

privileges of trade on the Mississippi-Attempts of Spain to dismember the

Union--Operations in relation to the navigation of the Mississippi-Unsuc-

cessful attempts of government to treat with Spain-Baron Carondelet's po-

licy and attempts to separate the West--Treaty of Madrid-Free navigation

of Mississippi secured-New Orleans a free port of deposit-Yazoo specu-

lation Projected British invasion of the Spanish provinces, by way of the

lakes and the Illinois-Spanish posts withheld from the Americans-The

causes-Spanish perfidy and duplicity-Powers proceeds to Detroit, the head-

quarters of Wilkinson-Conduct of Wilkinson--New Orleans ceases to be a

port of deposit, unless duties are paid-The act of the Intendant reversed by

the King of Spain-Jefferson sends ministers to France and Spain-Spain

cedes Louisiana to France-Diplomacy of the American ministers relative

to the purchase of Louisiana--All Louisiana purchased from France--Spain
<objects, but renounces opposition-Effectual agency of Mr. Livingston-

Principle which governs European title in America—Rights of original inha-

bitants-Rights of discoverers—Ultimate dominion over the Soil--Political

condition of the Indians Review of the character of Indian treaties--General

Harrison appointed governor of Northwestern Territory_His first acts in trea-

ties with the Indians—The Black Sparrow-hawk-_His rank and place of resi-

dence-Treaty of St. Louis of 1804-Vast territory ceded-Afterward con-

firmed-Fort Madison built-Jealousy among the Sacs, Black Hawk's band

Attempts to surprise Fort Madison-Territory of Michigan erected-Go-

vernor Hull-Fire at Detroit-New town laid out-Lieutenant Pike ascends

the Mississippi-Obtains cessions of lands from the Indians-Prospect of In-

dian disturbances--Tecumthe and the Prophet-Black Hawk-Indian talk

of Le Marquois-Enterprise and efforts of Tecumthe and his brother-They

attempt to deceive Governor Harrison--The governor prepares for emergen-

cies—Indian hostility apparent--Black Hawk urged to join the confederacy

-War parties sent out-Result of their acts-General outbreak expected-

Tecumtho assembles a hostile force-Harrison convenes a council of Indians

Violent conduct of Tecumthe-Governor Harrison assembles an army

Marches to the Prophet's town-Indians temporize with Harrison-He en-

camps, and is attacked in the night-Battle of Tippecanoe--All the Western

posts and settlements threatened-War of 1812-Conduct of the English tra-

ders--Robert Dickson, his great influence--Predatory warfare of the Indians

- Dickson collects the Indians at Green Bay Gives Black Hawk the com-

mand, and sends him to Detroit-Black Hawk remains a short time with the

army, and returns to the Mississippi-News of the declaration of war does

not arrive quickly in the West-Disastrous consequences---Mackinaw surren-

ders-Surrender of Detroit-Fate of the garrison at Chicago-Massacre of

Captain Heald's forces--Alleged cause of Indian vengeance--Events of the

war on the Mississippi Fort at Prairie du Chien repaired-Captured by the

British under McKay—The prisoners sent down the Mississippi --Indian rage

-Major Campbell ascends the river from St. Louis-Is attacked by Black

Hawk; is wounded and retreats with his boats--British send cannon and sol-

diers to Rock Island—Major Zachary Taylor ascends the river with a force

Great body of Indians at Rock Island-They attack Taylor, and after a

severe fight be returns down the river--Forts Madison and Johnson burned

-Peace with Great Britain and consequent peace with Indians by treaties

—Fort Armstrong built at Rock Island-Settlements commence there-Keo-

kuk and his band remove-Black Hawk remains-Illinois about to be admitted

as a State-Boundary question-Increase of white settlements, and outrages

committed--Lead trade with the Indians-Wisconsin a part of Michigan

Territory-Settlements at Green Bay-Indian Jealousy-Winnebagoes attack

a party of Chippewas---Conduct of American commander at Fort Snelling-

Red Bird's resentment-Murders near Prairie du Chien-Red Bird's people

attack two boats on the river-Great excitement in the mining regions

General Atkinson ascends the river with his force-Red Bird and other In-

dians surrender themselves prisoners-General outbreak expected-Prompt

action of Atkinson and the volunteers defeats it-Indians tried at Prairie du

Chien--Convicted, and pardoned-Red Bird dies in prison-Other prisoners

discharged-Country begins to settle-New disturbancos on Rock River

Black Hawk returns to his village and threatens the whites-Governor Rey-

nolds declares the State invaded-Applies for assistance to General Govern-

ment-Raises volunteer force-General Gaines with United States troops

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