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“XI. For ten years the grantee is not permitted to work, or cause any person to work, directly or indirectly, at the profession and trade of a blacksmith, locksmith, armorer, or brewer.

“XII. All effects and articles of merchandise sent to or brought from Montreal, must be sold by the grantee himself, or other person, who, with his family, is a French resident, and not by engagées, or clerks, or foreigners, or strangers.

"XIII. The grantee is not to sell to a foreigner, without special permission.

“XIV. If he sells to a foreigner with permission, the rent reserved is: greatly increased; and the duties of the coutûme, in such cases, are to be paid.

“XV. IIe is not to sell or trade brandy to the Indians, on pain of confiscation.

“XVI. The public charges and servitudes, and royal and seigneurial rights of the coutûme de Paris, are reserved generally.

“XVII. The grantee is to suffer on his lands that, which may be thought necessary for the public utility.

“XVIII. The grantee is to make his fences as it shall be regulated. ?

“XIX. IIe is to assist in making his neighbour's fences when called upon.

“XX. Ile is to cause his land to be alienated, that is, surveyed, set apart, at his expense.

“XXI. IIe is to obtain a brevet of confirmation, from Europe, within two years,

“ With a system of policy so narrow and illiberal, it was impossible for France to raise in her settlements a strong agricultural interest, alike the support of colonies in peace, and their defence in war.

"In the Territory of Michigan, the policy of Great Britain was not better than that of France. During the twenty years this territory belonged to her, she withheld all grants of land.”

NOTE L. Page 297.

Letter of General Henry Dodge, to the Hon. Austin E. Wing, delegate in Congress from Michigan, on a division of the Territory : -

DODGEVILLE, February 10th, 1829.

Dear Sir,

In my last communication, I promised you, as early as possible, to present my views as to the claims the people have on the national legislature for a division of the territory. To you the subject is not a new one; you know well the many inconveniences and hardships the people have to encounter in this remote part of the Territory of Michigan. Our relations are entirely with the General Government, and not with the peninsula of Michigan; our trade is immediately with the States of Illinois and Missouri; taxation and representation should go together, and it will readily appear, on examination of the returns made by the superintendent of the United States' lead-mines, that the people of this mining country have paid a greater amount of taxes than any equal number of citizens in the United States, or Territories; and that, a direct tax upon the labour of the whole community. It cannot be expected, that a delegate, elected from the peninsula of Michigan, can understand the wants of a people so detached and remote from him, however talented and zealous he may be to represent truly the interests of this detached territory of the United States. There is no branch of the government in which the people are more interested, than the just and impartial administration of the laws of the country, and those laws should be made to suit the condition of the people over whom they are to operate : hence the necessity of a local legislation, following a division of the territory. At present, we have but two representatives for five counties; there are thirteen in the territory, and the seat of our territorial legislature is from 800 to 1000 miles

It is not to be expected that so small a representation can effect any important measure for this remote section of the territory, when the legislature is permitted to sit but sixty days; it is, in fact, but a nominal representation. The great interests of a growing and interesting territory, which bids fair soon to become a member of the great confederation of States, must show the propriety of granting the division of the territory; for it cannot be expected that the General Government will permit the people of this country to be attached to the State of Michigan. The legislative council have twice memorialized Congress on this subject, as well as the legislature of the State of Missouri. Michigan never can become a State, with us attached to them. Another strong reason why we should be separated from the Territory of Michigan, is, we are surrounded by Indians; some friendly, others, who are still hostile to the extension of the American empire, and to the people of this country. A local legislature, and a separate government here, would place the people of this country in a situation to defend themselves, and have the aid of the constituted authorities near them; it would be almost impossible to receive aid from the peninsula of Michigan. Mounted companies of riflemen would be the best arm of defence to afford this country protection; the couutry is well adapted for mounted men to act effectually and promptly. Recent events at Rock Island prove the secret influence that exists over the minds of the Indians; and I have no hesitation in saying, that so long as that influence exists, we will have occasional difficulties with the Indians on our borders.

from us.

I fear I have trespassed on your time and patience; the importance of the subjects, connected with the best interests of this country, must plead my apology. I am, dear sir, with great respect and esteem,

Your obedient servant,





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