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repeated until the gases, vapours, and smoke are perfectly purified, and are then evolved from the chimney or other outlet in an innoxious state, and the deposited matters are removed from the tanks or reservoirs. It should be stated, that the apparatus here shown and described is intended to be applied to the flue of a furnace used in the manufacture of sulphate of soda, but it is equally applicable to other work and manufactory where noxious vapours and smoke evolve from the flues or chimneys where a considerable quantity of smoke is generated, or where mineral or metallic or other noxious matters are evolved into the atmosphere. In such cases, when the invention is applied the purified vapours only are allowed to escape, the metallic and other matters previously carried by the gases, smoke, or vapours being separated by the washings with water and deposited. Although the apparatus is shown to be constructed of iron, brick, and stone, we do not confine ourselves thereto, as other suitable materials may be used. In some cases, where the impurities are not easily separated, we apply a series of jets forming a sheet of water in an oblique direction, within the first inclined or descending flue, a, a, as is shown at i, i, and we also apply jets of steam in some of the ascending flues, as is shown at m, in, such jets of steam mixing with the gases, vapours, and smoke, assists the washing process and quickens the draft in those flues; but these are not essential to our invention. k, k, k, k, are the apertures from the flues into the reservoir or tank, D, D, D. o, is a damper to regulate the draft ; l, is a pipe for supplying water to the water boxes, and the water is supplied by pipes from a reservoir or by pumps. We would remark, that this apparatus is not intended to be applied to small fires, stoves, or furnaces for domestic purposes, but is intended for factories and extensive works where the quantities of impurities are very great.

Having thus described our invention, and the manner

in which the same is to be performed, we would have it understood that what we claim as our invention is,

First, the mode of constructing an apparatus for purifying vapours, gases, and smoke arising from certain fires, stoves, and furnaces, by combining two or more ascending flues with descending flues by inclined or sloping flues or passages at their upper ends, with streams or showers of water to fall down the descending flues into suitable reservoirs below, leaving a space above the water in such reservoirs for the passage of the gases, smoke, and vapours to pass into the next ascending flue, as above described ; and,

Secondly, we claim the combining an ascending flue and a descending flue by means of an inclined passage or flue at the upper parts thereof, in such cases as have water descending down a descending flue to purify gases, vapours, or smoke from certain fires, stoves, and furnaces, as above described.---In witness whereof, &c.

Thomas HEDLEY.

CUTHBERT RODHAM. Enrolled September 7, 1842.

Specification of the Patent granted to John Read, of

Regent-street, in the County of Middlesex, Machinist, Henry PUTLAND, of Hurst-green, in the County of Sussex, Farmer, and CHARLES Woods, of Fore-street, Cripplegate, in the County of Middlesex, Commercial Traveller, for Improvements in the Construction and Make of Driving Reins, Harness Bridles, and Reins, and in Bridles and Reins for Riding. -Sealed April 6, 1842.

WITH AN ENGRAVING. To all to whom these presents shall come, &c., &c.—

Our invention relates to a mode of constructing or making reins and bridles in such manner that a rein or bridle is made capable of acting on two powers of leverage of the same bit, or on two bits used at the same time, whereby a horse will, under ordinary circumstances, be governed and restrained by a lesser power of a bit, but when that is not sufficient to control and govern a horse, the strain of the bridle or rein will be brought to act on a more powerful leverage of the bit or bits used, and thus, by the employment of one rein or bridle in the hand, a person driving or riding will have equal power over a horse to what has heretofore been obtained by using two reins or bridles, in connexion with two different powers of leverage in the same bit, or with two different bits. And in carrying out our invention, each end of a rein or bridle is constructed and made with two means of attachment to a bit or bits, one attachment being made to a more powerful part of the bit, and the other means of attachment being caused to act on a lesser power of leverage of the bit, through an elastic medium-which, however, is of sufficient strength for the ordinary purposes of riding or driving—such elastic medium giving way when a more powerful action of the bit or bits employed is necessary to restrain or govern a horse, and thus allowing the more powerful action of leverage of the bit or bits to be brought into use. In order that our invention may be most fully understood and readily carried into effect, we will proceed to describe the drawing hereunto annexed.

Description of the Drawing. Fig. 1, represents a sketch of a horse's head, having a driving-rein applied thereto, constructed according to our invention.

Fig. 2, shows another sketch of a horse's head, having a bridle or rein for riding applied thereto, constructed according to our invention. We have not thought it necessary to show reins and harness bridles for driving horses in double harness, and for riding post, they being similar, so far as our improvements are concerned, to what are shown in figures 1 and 2, and the description hereafter given will be sufficient to enable a workman to make such descriptions of driving reins, and harness bridles and reins, and bridles or reins for riding. a, a, fig. 1, represents a rein for driving, and the same letters in fig. 2, also represent a bridle or rein which is held by the person riding ; and it will be seen that from the point, a', the rein, and also the bridle held by the hand, is single, and is of the ordinary construction ; but at the point, a', it branches into two parts, b and c, the part, b, being attached at a more powerful part of the leverage of the bit or bits, than the part, c; and the part, b, hangs slack and out of use under ordinary circumstances; and the horse will be controlled and governed by the rein or bridle acting on the lesser power of leverage of the bit or bits; but when from any circumstances a greater power of action on the bit or bits is required to govern or control a horse, then, owing to the attachnient of the part, c, of a rein or bridle being through an elastic or yielding medium, the part, c, elongates, and allows of the part, b, of a rein or bridle being brought into action, and thus obtain a more powerful use of the bit by simply pulling on the same rein or bridle, a.

Fig. 3, shows a plan or external view of the part, c, of a rein or bridle, full size.

Fig. 4, is a section of the same parts; and,

Fig 5, is another section, the spring used as the elastic medium being drawn out of the cover, in order to show the means of removing it to be cleansed. d, is a spring coiled round the part, c, of a rein or bridle, having a metal stop at e, rivetted or otherwise fastened to the end of the part, c, of a rein or bridle, and that end of the spring rests against that stop. c', is a case for the spring, having a metal ferule or stop fixed at one end, as is shown at c. The case, c', is attached by means of a strap and

buckle, to the lesser leverage of the bit, as is shown; and it will be readily understood, that on pulling the rein or bridle, a, unless the strain required be considerable, the power will only act on the bit at the lesser leverage; but when circumstances require a more powerful action of the bit or bits, in order to restrain or govern a horse, then the elastic resistance of the spring will be overcome, and the part, 1, of the rein or bridle at each end, will be brought into action; and when the greater force of action of the bit is no longer necessary, then, by slackening the hold of the rein or bridle, the springs will expand, and the horse will be governed by the lesser power of the bit. It will thus be obvious, that by a single rein or bridle in the hand, a person driving or riding will have all the power of two reins or bridles now resorted to, and there will be the further advantage, that the two powers of a bit or bits acted on by the same rein or bridle, will be more readily and immediately brought into action than when two reins or two bridles are used. When using two bits, then the part, b, at each end of a bridle or rein, is to be attached to the bit having a curb; and the part, c, at each end of a bridle or rein, is to be attached to the bit without a curb.

We would remark, that although we have thus been particular in describing and showing all the details of the means we prefer for carrying out our invention, we do not confine ourselves thereto, provided the peculiar mode of action of the parts be retained whereby the parts, c, of reins or bridles are caused to act through an elastic medium on the lesser power of the bit or bits used, thereby allowing such parts, c, to yield, when necessary, to bring the parts, b, of the reins or bridles into use, by the same hand part, for acting on greater powers of the bit or bits employed as above described. And we wish it to be understood, that what we claim is, the mode of constructing or making driving reins, harness bridles and reins, and bridles and reins for riding, by

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