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· forming thereon two means of attachment at each end

thereof, the one to be attached to a more powerful part of the leverage, and the other to a less power of leverage of a bit, or two separate bits, the attachment to the lesser power of a bit being through an elastic medium, in order that the same may yield to allow of a greater power of action of bit being brought into use, as above described. -In witness whereof, &c.


CHARLES Woods. Enrolled October 6, 1842.

Specification of the Patent granted to EDWARD SLAUGHTER,

of Bristol, Engineer, for Improvements in the construction of Iron Wheels for Railway and other Carriages.-Sealed March 4, 1842.


To all to whom these presents shall come, &c. &c.

Description of the Drawing. Fig. 1, is a wheel four feet in diameter, constructed according to my invention.

Fig. 2, is a section of the same.

Fig. 3, is a section across two abutting spokes, as at A, B; and

Fig. 4, is a section of the outer ring and crown of spoke, as at c, d. The same letters in all the drawings indicate the same parts. A, A, are the spokes. Any desired number may be used (I prefer eight for a four feet wheel) of malleable iron, rolled or otherwise manufactured, produced with a dovetail projection on the outer side, and bent (when hot) round a cast-iron block of any suitable

form, and of such dimensions that they may collectively serve as an inner framing to the wheel. B, is an outer ring also of malleable iron, furnished on its inner circumference with a dovetail recess, corresponding with the projecting dovetail of the spoke; but it will be evident that the recess may be formed in the spoke, and in that case the dovetail projection must be produced upon the outer ring. The making of the dovetail groove or the dovetail projection to the outer ring, B, may be made in various ways, such as by rolling or by forging, a hoop of iron being formed, the dovetail groove or the dovetail projection thereto may be turned in the lathe to the form shown in the drawing; but I make no claim to the forming dovetail grooves or dovetail projections in or on bars of iron, that being no part of my invention. c, is the nave which is cast round the spoke ends, when placed together within the ring, B. When the outer ring has been hooped or welded, so as to form a perfect hoop, the space, D, where the weld was taken, is dressed out on the face side of the wheel, of just sufficient width to receive the circular end of one end of the spokes, thereby leaving the dovetailed recess perfect throughout its entire inner circumference. The outer ring is then made hot, and one of the spokes dropped into the slot, the dovetail recess of the ring being a little expanded, the spoke is readily entered and left there; a second spoke is entered and passed completely round, till it is placed in contact with the first; a third is placed against the second, and the same method being adopted for all the spokes, till all the spokes are introduced into the ring, B. The framing of the wheel is then completed. Previous to running the metal round the ends of the spokes to form the nave, the wheel is perfected by being placed upon a cast-iron table of suitable dimensions, with clamps and screw bolts to maintain it in the shape and figure represented in fig. 1, care being taken that that portion of the spoke contained between e and f, be made sufficiently round to meet the contraction of the nave. The slot at n, is then filled with a piece of metal, driven into which will occupy all the space between two spokes for the entire depth from the face to the bottom of the dovetailed recess, and maintained in that position by one or more tap bolts, which, in addition to the natural shrinkage upon each spoke end, will effectually prevent the wheel from turning in the outer ring.

I would remark, that the figure or shape of the dovetail might be varied; I do not, therefore, confine myself to that shown and described. The shapes of the spokes may be varied. I hereby declare that I claim as my invention the framing a wheel for railways or common roads, with an outer ring, having a dovetail groove or recess, and spokes having a corresponding projection dovetail, or vice versa, with spokes having a dovetail groove or recess, and an outer tyre having a projecting corresponding dovetail, so that the wheel shall be held together by means of dovetails to the spokes and rings, as above explained.— In witness whereof, &c.

EDWARD SLAUGHTER. Enrolled September 4, 1842.

Specification of the Patent granted to Joseph CLISILD DANIELL, of Twerton Mills, near Bath, Clothier, for Improvements in making and preparing Food for Cattle. --Sealed March 31, 1842.

WITH AN ENGRAVING. To all to whom these presents shall come, &c., &c.— My said improvements consist, First, in the mode hereinafter described of preparing and treating certain substances hereinafter set forth, in order to render such substances fit to be used as food for cattle. Such substances may for the sake of description be designated ligneous matter, because it is in all cases of the nature of wood, and such ligneous matter comprises all kinds of wood; but that which I have found best calculated for the purpose is such as is cominonly called under or coppice-wood, either oak, ash, maple, sycamore, or hazlewood, brushwood, hedgewood, brambles, furze, gorse, heath, or any other fibrous matter of the nature of wood, possessing the qualities of those above stated, and which, when prepared as hereinafter stated, will be applicable as food for cattle.

Secondly, in the mode of treating and preparing grass, either common grass, or lucerne, sainfoine (or French grass), green clover, or green vetches; also, either wheat or barley straw, bean or pea haum, or straw vetch, or any other sort of straw or haum, or hay, such as may be used as fodder for cattle, after being treated according to my said improvements, or part thereof, as hereinafter set forth.

The mode of preparing such substances designated ligneous matter, as aforesaid, in order to constitute them food for cattle, according to my improvements or part thereof, consists in reducing the same to a state of fine powder, by any machinery or series of machines adapted for cutting, bruising, and grinding such ligneous matter as aforesaid, to a state of fine powder; and suitable machinery for such purpose is hereinafter mentioned and referred to. In order to reduce such ligneous matter to a state of fine powder, when such powder will be fit food to be given to cattle, I take the wood (if under or coppice wood), such being cut the whole length of the growth, and not cut into short lengths as when made into faggots, and put it into a machine such as is used for cutting hay into chaff, but inade much stronger, for the purpose of cutting under or coppice-wood into fragments, the large sticks of which require stronger machinery for that purpose than hay, or even furze, heath, or smaller wood. (This machine is represented in the drawings annexed to the specification of a former patent taken out by me, entitled, “ Improvements in the manufacture of manure, or a composition to be used on land as a manure.”) When it is reduced into fragments by passing it through the machine above mentioned, and which is done exactly in the same manner as in cutting hay or straw and chaff, I run it through a machine made similar to a coffee mill or malt mill, but made much larger, and strong, and similar to that used by tanners in grinding bark. This machine also is represented in the drawings annexed to the specification above referred to. I then run it through another machine of a similar form, only made finer in its cutting parts, in order still further to reduce the fragments. I then pass the wood so reduced as above stated, through a pair of millstones, such as are commonly used for grinding flour. After it is so reduced by passing through the millstones as above stated, it is to be then passed through a miller's screen, such as is used by millers in separating the sharps from the gurgeons and the brán; the finer sort of wood so treated will be then fit to be used as food for cattle. The second sort, which passes through that part of the screen which separates the gurgeons from the bran, may be mixed again with the coarser sort (which does not pass through either screen), and be again passed through the millstones with a small quantity of the wood added, in the state it is after passing through the third machine, as above, to facilitate the grinding, until it is sufficiently reduced, by grinding and screening, for food for cattle.

Note.-When either gorse, heath, brambles, or brushwood is used, it is to be cut close to the stock or stouel, the same as under or coppice-wood is cut; and it does

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