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himself compelled to inform his father, that he could not accede to his request. This he did with expressions of the greatest tendetness and affection, as well as of filial sub mission. The Admiral heard his answer; but could not bear it. Unable to gain the least concession from his son, and in a point where he judged it impossible that persons bred up as gentlemen could disagree, he gave way to his anger, and in the violence of the blast, which followed it, he once more turned him out of doors.



A. 1668–becomes a minister of the Gospel publishes " Truth exalted_also 66 The Guide mistaken" holds a public controversy with Vincent in the Presbye terian meeting-house-publishes The Sandy Foundation shaken-general contents of the same is sent in consequence to the Tower--sends an answer from thence to the Bishop of London--writes there No Cross no Crown-particular contents and character of this work-substance of his letter to the Lord Arlington , writes 66 Innocency with her open Face"-is discharged from the Tower.

WILLIAM was now thrown upon the wide world. Having no independent fortune of his own, a nd having been brought up to no trade or profession, he had not the means of getting his livelihood like other people. This sudden change from affluence to po. verty could not but at first have affected him: but the thought of having broken the peace of mind, however innocently, of so valuable a father, and of being apparently at variance with him, was that which occasioned him the most pain. He is said to have borne his situation with great resignation, deriving support from the belief, that they who left houses and parents for the


kingdom of God's sake, should eventually reap their reward. He began however to find, that even in this his temporal state he was fiot deserted. His mother kept up a communication with him privately, feeding him as well as she could from her own purse; and several kind friends administered also to his wants.

In 1668, being then twenty-four years of age, he came forth in the important character of a minister of the Gospel; having, as has been before stated, joined in membership with the religious society of the Quakers.

In this year he became an author also. His first work bore the following title : “ Truth exalted, in a short but sure Testimony against all those Religions, Faiths; and Worships, that have been formed and followed in the Darkness of Apostasy, and for that glorious Light, which is now risen and shines forth in the Life and Doctrine of the despised Quakers, as the alone good old Way of Life and Salvation.” This work, in which he thought it his duty to stand forth to the world as the champion of his own particular faith, was an address to kings, priests, and people, and to persons of various denominations in religion ; to the Catholics first, then to those of the Church of England, and lastly to the different Protestant Separatists. He exhorted them severally to examine the ground on which their faith and worship stood; to inquire how far these were built on divine authority, or only on the notions of men; and how far they were vitally supported, or dependent upon carnal forms. He put questions to all of them concerning their doctrine and practice, by which it was plain he conceived their religion to stand “not in the divine, but in the fallen or apostate nature ; not in the broken, but in the stony heart.” He then called their attention towards the faith and practice of the Quakers, by means of which he contended that the Truth, that is Christianity, was exalted; and that this was the only system of faith and practice which would radically redeem from human traditions, carnal ceremonies, and a persecuting spirit.

denomi. arrogance

It is probable that some, judging from the title of this work, and from the substance of it as it has now been given, may accuse William Penn of no small share of VOL. I.

arroganće as the author of it. But these must be informed, that it was the belief of the early Quakers, that the system of religious doctrine and practice, which was introduced by George Fox, was really a new dispensation to restore Christianity to its primitive púrity, and that they were to have the honour of being made the instruments of spreading it through the earth. This belief arose out of various considerations. In the first place, they who followed this system led a life of great self-denial. They abstained from the pleasures of the world, that they might avoid every thing that could eontaminaté their moral character. They discarded all customs which could bring their sobriety, chastity, and independence, into danger. They watched over their very words, and changed the very names of things, that they might always be found in the truth. They submitted to a discipline strict and severe, that they might be continued in the proper path. Friends of peace, they avoided, as far as was possible, all recourse to law, and they refused to bear arms against their fellow-creatures on any pretence whatever. Taking then into consideration this their


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