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VOL. 4.]

M. Dupin's Journey in England.

471

M. DUPIN'S JOURNEY IN ENGLAND.

From the New Monthly Magazine, December 1916. BRIEF Account OF THE FIRST JOURNEY IN M. Dupin observes, that the favour

ENGLAND, IN 1816, MADE BY M. CHARLES with which his former labours have been DUPIN.*

honoured, in which it seems he has deTN a modest address to the French scribed whatever is worthy of notice re1 Society, of which he is a member, lative to the French maritime establish

Cments, has stimulated him to examine * M. Dupin is a protege of the celebrated the same sort of establishments amongst Carnot, and a brother of the advocate M. DuPIN, who defended Sir Robert Wilson in a people who, for more than a century, his trial. He was educated at the Polytechnic have held the sceptre of the seas, and School, and was a favorite pupil of M. MON the founder of that School. Recently, on the death of his illustrious preceptor, he has the superiority they have attained, enbeen appointed to fill his place as a member of deavour most sedulously, to approach the Institute. M. Dupin is a Captain of Engineers, and a superintendant of the marine towards perfection. constructions in the Dock-yard at Dunkirk. The author then proceeds to speak He is about 30 years of age, and, being equal in the highest terms of the kindness and ly conversant with the mathemalical and physical sciences, and with several of their practi. polite assistance he received in England cal applications, while he possesses an ardent from the most illustrious men of science, and enterprising spirit : it seems to have occurred to him that he could not find a readier road

who were eager to testify their friendto distinction, than would present itself in a ship for him, and to evince their respect careful scientific examination of the principal for those members of the Institute who military, maritime, and commercial establishe na ments of Great Britian.

ve had furnished him with letters of recomWe think it due to M. Dupin to say, that he mendation. “ The names of Bertholhas conducted his enquiries, and detailed his let Humboldt Larenede

is let, Humboldt, Lacepede, Prony, &c.

Pronu se results, with a mind far more free from national prejudices, than any preceding scientific (says he) opened to me the cabinet of traveller from the same country.---Flis feelings the philosopher, as well as the workas a Frenchman, however, lead him to one wome mistaken inference, which, as it pervades the

he rooms of the artists ; so that by time and

rooms of the artists; whole volume from which 'this narrative is er. perseverance I gained the object of my tracted, we shall briefly correct. M. Dupin aim." He then proceeds to give the regards most of the great works, which he saw in the British empire, as resulting from the following outne of his visits and obser

he following outline of his visits and obserimpulse given to the arts and sciences by the vations, which is however, to be enFrench Revolution ; and especially as practi- larged upon so as to form an elaborate cal applications of the profound theories de veloped within the last 30 years, by the mem- work. bers of the French Institute. With no wish In my first tour (says he)* I visited whatever to depreciate the inventions and discoveries of that learned body, we can most se

the establishments of London, which riously and conscientiously assure M. Dupin, are connected either directly or indithat all he savo and admired in England, would rectly with the Navy, all the grand have been precisely the same if those ingenious matbematicians and philosophers had military stations, and the two most imnever written a single line. The architects portant commercial ports, next to the and civil engineers of Britain, are none of them profound mathematicians. Scarcely any of

man capital, those of Bristol and Liverthem know more than the rudiments of mechan- pool. ics, hydrodynamics, and pneumatics, but hap- London offered itself to my observapily, these are sufficient to preserve them from errors in their constructions. Even the Des- tion under three different points of view : criptive Geometry, so peculiarly fitted, as the First, as the greatest mercantile port French conceive, to guide the labours of archi- of the kingdom.secondly, as a focus tects and engine rs, and to the perfection of tohich MONGE, Haco ETT E, and our author, M. Dupin, have so richly contributed, is

their value, from other sources than those to scarcely known, except to our theoretical ma- which M. Dupin usually adverts ; and we are thematicians ; our practical men are, with a persuaded that if a man of his acumen should few erceptions, as ignorant of this elegant pro

honour this country with a third visit, he will duct of French ingenuity, as they are of La be able to trace them lo those sources. Place's elaborate investigations in physical as- * The author made troo visits to England. tronomy. No; our architects and engineers for the purposes in question, one in 1816 and derive their eminence as their great works do the other in the last and present year.

of industry for whatever relates to the This great lesson will perhaps enamaritime arts; and thirdly, as the cen- ble us at a future time to understand tre of the operations of the British Na- the real sources of power and national vy. Let us then take a rapid survey prosperity. But I must bere confine of the capital of that Empire, under inyself to speaking of the chef-d'autres these different aspects.

of art, aod oot of their results. London enjoys naturally an advan- The formation and building of the tage which Paris ought to have enjoy- Wet Docks and Basons of England ed long since, through the efforts of art, differ esseutially from labours of the that of being a maritime port. Large same kind which have been executed in ships go up the Thames in full sail, and France.--Instead of being, like ours, come to anchor almost at the arches of bounded by quays, formed of smooth London Bridge. On going down the walls, inclined or vertical, with stones river towards the sea, you see on each placed in horizontal layers, these walls side of it, five, six, seven, or eight ves- are concave at the exterior, or the side sels ranged alongside each other, and next the water ; and the layers of stone these lines succeed almost without in- are joined perpendicularly at the surface. terruption, 10 an immense length. Nev- The piles are also inclined, and plant. ertheless, this is only a portion of the ed perpendicularly to the inferior face mercbant ships of the capital. All those of the lowest stratum. The entry to which belong to the East INDIA TRADE the sluices is built upon a similar and have their Docks and private Bason3, equally advantageous plan. In short, one for import and another for the flood-gates, instead of being formed export-goods. All the ships whicb by two masses, plain and abutting at the carry on the West INDIA TRADE ends are formed by two vertical cyliohave their's also; and the ships of all ders, the convexity of which makes an nations are indiscriminately received in arch or vault, for resistiog the pressure the London Docks, while the Green- of the water. The advantage of these LAND Dock, formerly appropriated to curvilinear over our rectilinear forms, the vessels concerned in the whale fish- with respect to economy and solidity, ery, being enlarged by the labours of can be geometrically demonstrated. late years, is now devoted to a more ex- Hydraulic works in England are distensive object.

tinguished by the constant use of the It is not more than twenty years steam--engine for exbaustion, and for all since this last mentioned Dock, now the those manœuvres which require great smallest of all, was the only one in that and continual efforts on the spot. The quarter. The war breaking out, and removal of earth, the conveyance of the Continent of Europe becoming im- stones, sand, lime, &c. are all performed poverished, the commerce of England by little four-wheeled carriages, drawn seemed to withdraw before our victori- by one horse, and moving on an iroa ous flags, and we thought that Great rail-way. These roads are composed Britain was exhausted, and on the point of materials that are laid down and reof ruin. But while our eyes were be- moved with the greatest facility, and clouded by the incense from the altars the advantage they afford is immense. of our glory, an unlooked-for opulence Indeed England is indebted to them overflowed the British Empire; her for a part of her riches; for without rivers were no longer large enough to them coals, minerals, and primary subhold all the ships, and a lesser number stances of all kinds, could never have of years sufficed for private individu- been conveyed to great distances at hardals to construct, at their own expense, ly any expense. the Docks which receive the merchant The excavations under water, when Meets of the two hemispheres, than was the bottom is muddy or sandy, are made required for a triumphant Government by a chaplet or line of buckets, fixed on to build a few of the quays on the the sides of barges, and kept in circolar Seine. Such are the prodigies of the motion by a steam-engine. I shall speciocean !

fy as a model of this mode of clearing,

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the machine employed at the West In- ed over any desired point. On enterdia Docks.

ing it they descend at pleasure by the A barge bearing the steam-engine aid of the axle, and the chain or rope. which moves the buckets, is conveyed This apparatus is employed in building to any part of the Docks, the bottom those parts of the walls of a quay which of which it is necessary to clear or lie under water, and thus it is unnecescleanse. Another vessel of the barge sary to have recourse to the expensive kind, which is to receive and carry away method of erecting coffer-dams. Some. the excavated mud or sand, is fixed times the bell is suspended at the poop alongside the former, and receives the of a vessel which conveys it where recontents of the buckets as they empty quired. This machine is also employed themselves by their rotatory motion. to raise in rivers, road-steads, harbours, When a barge is loaded it moves off, and docks, any ponderous articles and another takes its place; it is then which may have sunk, such as anchors laid under another line of buckets, mop. cannon, the remains of wrecked ships, ed by another engine, stationed at the &c. It is likewise made use of to preedge of the Dock. The contents are pare, for being blown up, rocks which thus raised and emptied into vehicles are under water, and dangerous to navwhich go round the wall of the build- igation.* ing, and spread thein like a torrent, in Hence, if we consider the nachinery a large vacant spot. This system of now employed by the English in their clearing is not only extremely simple, great undertakings, we shall find that but vastly economical. By means of an immense change has been effected in the apparatus here described, the the course of a few years. English have not only dug out and The basons and other works built in cleared large basons, but have ren- former times were enclosed by a simdered streams navigable which were ple system of timber-work. It was not so before, and have also removed however thought, and with reason, that sand-banks which obstructed certain by devoting a small capital to these laparts of the course of their most impor. bours, the expense of keeping in retant rivers.

pair and renewing such perishable conAnother machine not less remarkable, structions would be repaid with interand which is employed in all grand by- est. But when maritime operations draulic works, is the Diving-bell. The assumed an excessive activity, it was form of the kind now in general use, is perceived tbat their frequent interrupthat of a truncated square pyramid, the tion, produced by repairs and rebuildgreat base of which is open and turned ing, caused a loss wbich mnight be amtowards the bottoin. Within this py- ply repaid by a moderate expenditure. ramidal truok, two men, who descend Upon this principle, bricks and castsitting on two benches, can rise and iron have been gradually subsituted for work at their ease. Ten lenticular wood in the docks of commerce; and glasses fixed in the upper base of the

# We know not whether it be the prejudice bell, combine to refract as much light to which we have pointed in a preceding annoas gives the requisite illumination at a tation, or real ignorance of any such apparatus,

that should lead M. Dupin to class the Divinggreat depth under water. A paeuma

bell among the inventions of the last 30 uic machine resembling a fire-engine, years. He might have learnt from any of our serves by means of a long leather tube Encyclopædias, and from some such works

printed at Paris, that Diving-bells were emto convey fresh air incessantly into the ployed in raising some of the treasure lost in bell.

the ships of the Spanish Armada, that were Sometimes this bell is suspended to a

sunk near the isle of Mull in 1558: tha! Sin

clair (ars pova et inagna gravitatis et levitamoveable axle, formed of two systems tis, 1669), Phipps, Kessler, Halley, Triesof indented bars, which, by their direc- wald, Spalding, Smeaton, and a long list of

others in succession, had in the compass, not of tions and functions, represent co-ordi- 30, but of 930 years, brought the apparatus nate rectangular axles. By means of from the rude sinte in which it first eristed, to

reofshe hell is place the finished, elegant, and sale sumarine vehiinese axies the centre of the belt is piacche ichich he describes,

3M ATHENEUM VOL. 4.

free-stone, marble, and granite, in the the Thames. I saw one of the India ports of the state.

company's ships launched from it, of This change is very striking along 1300 tons burther. This ship was a the banks of the Thames, where the model of perfection; there were three oldest dock-yards still contain basons others of a similar size, on slips in the and lips constructed of wood; while same yard. the more modern establishments pre- London, considered as a focus of insent nothing but quays and embank- dustry for the maritime arts, contaios a ments of masonry. Along the Thames number of important establishments.--there are but very few of those modes The Royal Society of London, the Soof building formed by imbedding the ciely for the encouragement of Arts, hull of an old ves:el in the soil of the the British Museum, and the Royal shore, with its end next the river cut Institution, are the principal sources open for a flood-gate, Another change from which to collect materials for the not less remarkable is effected in the theoretical part. It is about thirty tirnber edifices built on land. Where. years since a society was formed for the ever there was reason to fear accidents improvement of naval architecture; it from fire, wood has been replaced by made many very important experiments iron.

in Greenland Dock, on the resistance One of the finest works of this kind experienced by bodies moving in wais a storehouse built by Mr. Rennie, ter. This society, abandoned by along the grand West India Dock. It the Government, and perhaps counis eight hundred yards long, and is sus- teracted secretly by powerful individutained by hollow columns of iron ; the als, was dissolved after ten years of beams, the joists, the rafters and laths commendable labours. are likewise all of iron. Those parts with respect to the practical part of which have only pressure to bear are of the maritime arts, I shall mention some cast-iron; those which have to resist of the principal establishments that I tension are of wrought-iron. The lon- visited. gitudinal elements of this system are so The manufactory of MAUDSLEY, in combined, that its various parts can the Borough of Southwark, is one of either be extended or contracted, with- the most interesting in reference to out altering the whole length of the applications of iron. There may be building. If this precaution had not seen in the Conservatory of the Arts been taken, it is apprehended that the and Trades at Paris, one of the small least variation of temperature, would steam-engines made at this manufactoupon a length of eight hundred yards, ry. At the same place were made the have thrown out the extreme columns, machines of M. BRUNEL, of wbich I and quickly have effected the destruc- shall presently bave occasion to speak. tion of the whole edifice.

There were also made at it, for the In the course of this memoir I shall British Navy, 7000 iron cases, each cahave several opportunities of mentioning pahle of containing about two cubic the new and ingenious purposes to which metres of water. The introduction of . wrought and cast-iron are applied in these water-boxes on board ships is an England.

incalculable advantage, both for preserv. The great docks or basons of Lon- ing the purity of the water and the don are surrounded by cellars, store- health of the crews. houses, and sheds of an immense ex- In another part of London, Messrs. tent. The quays are often covered Huddart and Brown bave establishwith iron rail-ways, and have pume- ed two manufactories, one for ships rous cranes likewise of iron, which cordage, and the other for iron cables. are' of various sizes, shapes, and me- ---Huppart's ropes are spun and formchanism.

ed by the action of steam, on the prinNear to the East India Docks is the ciple of equal tension of all the threads, largest commercial Dock-yard along which gives them much greater strength

VOL. 4.]

Morier's TravelsWater turned inlo Marble.

475

than by the ordinary method of spioning. periority of the means which they atThe cables of Captain Brown are of tempt to introduce, bave been forced to two sorts : one being formed of flat make comparative experiments in a large chains, and the other of half-twisted way, on the strength of the unwrought ones. The former seem more fit for re- and the wrought materials, from which sistance in proportion to their length; has resulted an abundance of positive but the latter appear to be more easily information of great importance to the worked. Thus the one is preferred for ultimate progress of industry. holding dead weights at anchorages, and It is also near London that M. Brunel the other for being embarked on board has built his manufactory for circular the ships. Captain Brown has also taken såws. These saws cut the smallest out a patent for the manufacture of veneers from enormous blocks of satin iron bridges, which are extremely light, wood. The operation is performed with and may be furnished at a cheap rate.- such perfection, that the workmen have The greatest advantage of his plan is, hardly any thing to do but arrange the that where some parts of a bridge have slips as they come from the mill: they decayed or given way, either from age bave but merely to rub them to take off or accident, one can by means ot a very the roughness, and they are ther persimple instrument, take down and re- fectly plain. I shall hereafter describe new successively as many parts as may the structure and operation of these be necessary, without being obliged to saws, the largest of which is six metres, erect large scaffold-works for the pur- (19 2-thirds feet) in diameter. But I pose. Thus a whole bridge may be re- should exceed the limits of this analytical built, piece by piece, at a very small ex- memoir, if I were to give only an outpense.

line of all the articles manufactured at, Those arts in which iron and hemp and sent from London, for the use both are used, have made great advancement of the merchant ships and those of the towards perfection, by the emulation state. I shall therefore proceed to take that exists between the inventors of new a view of London as the centre of the processes, and the followers of the old operations of the British Navy.. methods. The former to prove the su

Continued in our next.

WATER TURNED INTO MARBLE....MOUNT ARARAT,

From the Literary Gazette.

SECOND JOURNEY THROUGH PERSIA, AR- in most of the burial places in Persia,
MENIA, ASIA MINOR, &c. BETWEEN TAE and which forms a chief ornament in all
YEARS 1810 AND 1816. BY JAMES MORIER,
ESQ. &c. &c. LONDON. 1818.

the buildings of note throughout the

country. These ponds, which are silWWE have more than once had occasion to mention the monu

gated close to one another, are contain

ed in a circumference of about half a meots of Tabriz marble, but the ac

mile, and their position is inarked by count of its formation and quarry af.

confused heaps and mounds of the fords a picture of one of the most curi

stone, which have accumulated as the ous sights in the whole range of these

excavations have increased. We had travels;

seen nothing in Persia yet which was “ This natural curiosity consists of more worthy of the attention of the certain extraordinary ponds or plashes, naturalist than this; and I never so whose indolent waters by a slow and much regretted my ignorance of subregular process stagnate, concrete, and jects of this nature, because I felt that petrify ; and produce that beautiful it is of consequence they should be transparent stone, commonly called brought into notice by scientific obserTabriz marble, which is so remarkable vation. However, rather than omit all

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