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thanks and recompense. Soe I bum- the witchfinding critics to be teats for bly take my leave and rest

the suckling young imps. “ Your servant to be commanded, Another method of discovering

“ Matthew Hopkins.” Witchcraft was hy placing the accused In the same letter be mentions a cir. person on a stool or table in the centre cumstance, which if it be true, will of a room crosslegged, or in some other shew the influence which the belief had uneasy posture, in wbich he or she was

continued by being bound with cords, then obtained, he says :-“ I have knowne a minister in Suffolke preach

and thus watched and kept without against their (the Witches) discovery the period during which the imp must

meat and drink for 24 hours, this being in a pulpit, and forced to recant it by

come and suck. It cannot be wonderthe committee in the same place.” It is reported that he caused sixty under the infirmities of age, and suffer

ed that weak and ignorant persons, persons to be hanged in one year, under the imputation of being Wizards. ing such tortures, should be agitated

to frensy and indeed to confess any " And has he not within a year,

thing however false or ridiculous, for Hanged three-score of 'em in a shire."


purpose of putting a period 10 their

misery_death itself being preferable to And that amongst them was “an old such ic rents. But the dernier resort, minister who had been many years a the darling expedient of this Wirebpaintul preacher.”

finder, was hy tying the toes and thumbs His most usual victims were persons of the persons suspected, a cord being who from their age, poverty, or desor- thep fastened about the waist and held mity, were already unjustly the objects on the bank by two men. If upon this of popular prejudice, and whose mis- experiment they swam, it was a satisfortunes, instead of protecting them, faciory proof of their guilt

. This inprovoked the blood-thirsty spirit of this genious meiliod is said to have been Witchfinder, while the burthen of their invented by James the 1st, who gave misery rendered them unable to con- as a reason for it, that, “ as such pertend with his detestable artifices. sons had renounced their baptism by

Exclusive of the gift, or natural tal- water, 30 the water refused to receive ent, which this man affected to possess, them.” be pretended to discover Witches by Alter this detail of the detestable marks or spots on their bodies, which barbarities committed by the miscreant he said were the seals of the diabolical Hopkins, it is with gratification that we compact entered into by them for the learn that his great skill in witchfinding sale of their souls to the powers of dark- led to the belief that it was through ness. The effect of this seal was to diabolical assistance that he was enrender the part insensible, the test there. abled to do so. “ That he cast out fore, waz by thrusting a needle or some Devils through Beelzebub." In consharp instrument into it; if no blood sequence, bis favourite swimming exfollowed, or no pain was felt by the periment was tried upon himself, and unhappy subject of this experiment, it he was upon the event condemned and was decisive evidence of her being a executed for a Wizard ! Witch. It frequently bappened that The different modes in which this this test was not offered until by pre. subject has been treated by the poets vious torture the poor wretch had been of the reign of Queen Elizabeth and rendered insensible to the slight degree James Ist, will shew the difference of of pain caused by it, and the operators public opinion entertained on it, and were too sanguinary and too much in- how much more force the belief had terested to delay the execution of their gained in Ford's days than it possesshorrid barbarities. Some old persons ed with Middleton and Shakspeare. too were convicted, in consequence of These, although they agree in familiar. baving warts, which sometimes growing ly introducing them, have used them large and pendulous, were detected by for quite different purposes, and the



VOL. 4.]

Witchcraft-Coincidences. similarity thought to subsist between “In moonlight nights, o'er steeple tops, will not cast the imputation of plagia. Seem to our height: high towers and roofs of princes,

Mountains and pine trees,that like pricks or stops rism on either when it is recollected, Like wrinkles in the earth ; whole provinces that the mere general feature (in which appear to our sight, then even like alone the resemblance can be traced) A russet mole upon some lady's chcek, were drawn by both from the same Dance, kiss, and coll

, use every thing."

When hundred leagues in air we feast and sing, The Witches of Sbakspeare seem to

Ford's Mother Sawyer is the mere be perfectly poetical beings above hu- common Witch of a country town, manity, and having no affections in beaten and despised for her age and incommon with created beings. They firmities; the revilings and scorn of her seen to be lesser ogents of evil ; they oppressors drive her to Sorcery : she is appear, unsought for, to generate im- in short the very Witch of James Ist. pure thoughts in the breast of Macbeth, “ And why on me, should the envious world and do not actually interfere to assist Throw all their scandalous malice upun me, his designs, but by tempting his am

'Cause I am poor, deform'd and iguorant,

And like a bow buckled and bent together bition—they

By some more strong in mischief than myself, " raise such artificial sprights,

Must I for that be made a common sink

For all the filth and rubbisla of men's tongues As by the strength of their illusion,

To fall and run into ? Some call me Witch, Shall draw him on to his confusion."

And being ignorant of myself, they go Middleton's Witches are many de- About to teach me how to be one, urging grees beneath Shakspeare's in point

That my bad tongue, by their bad usage made so, of

Forespeaks their cattle, doth bewitch their corn, sublimity; they are agents of wicked- Themselves

, their servants, and their babes at nurses tiess, delighting in the misery they inflict This they enforce upon me, and in part ou mankind, and lending their assis- Make me to credit it.” tilice lo any one who seeks them for It is, however, happy for us that

whether the fact be that such practices

bave or have not existed, it is of vo * Tis for the love of mischief they do this,

our faith as And that they're sworn to the first oath they consequence either to

Christiaus, or to our happiness as men; Again: they are more in common

and as we look back into the prejudiLise than the Weird Sisters, their feel. ces of our ancestors, and tracing their ings seem more of earth. Hecalé has superstitions, blush for, while we coua son, and the other Witches have demn them, we may congratulate ournauies--they delight to soar

selves that we live in times when such things are neither practised nor credited,

this purpose.


Mr Urban,


From the Gentleman's Magazine. IT T is well known to every classical I have now to add, that, at the

scholar, that the ancient Greeks present day, and onder similar iinpresgave to the Furies the name of Eu- sions, the lower class of the Irish peamenides (the “good-natured, mild, or santry observe the same respectful friendly Goddesses") from a supersti- caution in speaking of the Fairies, tions dread of their malignity, and a whom they generally consider as mawish to soothe and conciliate them by lignant, mischievous beings, very differthat flattering title :--and it is equally ent from those frolicksome good-națured well known, that the ancient Romans, elves, that perforin so many kind for the same reason, thought it expedi- offices for rustiç maids who happen to ent to flatter the inhabitants of the oth. be in favour with them. Such, then, er world, by giving to the Spirits of being the disposition of the Irish the dead the appellation of Manes-- Fairies, it is thought prudent to keep i. e. “ The Good Prople"—from the on good terms with them; and, with antique word, Munis, goo *.

a view to this, they are usually desig* Whence Immanis, tie reverse of good. nated by the flattering title of " The Good People,"<a title, deemed so quickly and anxiously reprimanded, as indispensable, that if a child should in- if speaking treason in the hearing of a advertently mention them by the simple magistrate.

JOHN CAREY. name of « Fairies," he would be as

From the London Time's Telescope.
Moments make minutes, minutes form the bour,

And cireling hours the day and night compose ;
Days form the week, and months the weeks devour,

And to the months the year its fulness owes.
Yet moments, minutes, hours, we throw away,

And heed not Time, that wings his rapid flight;
In folly we consuine the flitting day,

In lengthened slumbers waste returning night :
And weeks flow on, and months, and seasons too,

And years are lost as if too light to prize;
And as we older grow, alas ! how few

Grow with our years more diligently wise :
And yet that life is short we all complain,
With days, weeks, months, and years, all spent in vain.

7. Rodu. ALMANACK-CALENDAR-EPHEMERIS. YEARS-MONTHS-WEEKŞ-DAYS. All these words describe date-books

Among different nations, the beginfor the current year. According ning of the year varied as well as the to Golius, al manach signifies the reck- length. The Jews began their ecclesioning,' and is the Arabic designation astical year with the new moon of that given to a table of time, which the as- month, whose full moon bappened next trologers of the east present to their after the vernal equinox. The church princes on New-year's day. Calendar of Rome begin their year on the Sunas so called from the Latin culenda, a day which falls on the said full moon, Roman name for the first day of the or that happens next after it ; or on month. Ephemeris is a Greek word, Easter Sunday. The Jews began their signifying for the day. Almanack, civil year with the new moon which has therefore, is a divider of time by the its full moon happening next after the year; calendar, by the month ; and autumnal equinox. The Grecians beepbemeris, by the day. Nature's al- gan their year with the new moon manack is the orbit of the earth ; her which happened next after the summer calendar, the circuit of the moon; her solstice. The Romans, according to ephemeris, the circumference of the Plutarch, began their year at March, globe.' The French name their an- from the tiine of Romulus to Numa, nual anthologies of poetry, Almanacks who chaoged the beginning to January. of the Muses. «The gardening book, Romulus made the year consist of only which directs what work is to be done, ten months, as appears from the name of what seeds are to be sown, every the last, December, or the tenth month; month, is fitly called the Gardener's and that March was the first is evident, Calendar,' A daily newspaper might because they called the fifth from it aptly be denominated the Political quintilis, the sixth sextilis, and the rest Ephemeris.

in their order. The first month of the Verstegan fancies that almanack is Egyptian year began ou our August 29, derived from allmonuth ; but if the et- The Arabic and Turkish year began ou ymon was Anglo-Saxon, the present July 16. The antient Clergy made form of the word would be . allmonth.' March 25 the beginning of the year. The first European date-book, which The first division of the civil year is assumed the title of almanack, is the into months, of which there are twelve. almanach royale de France of 1579 : it These cannot be of an equal length, heincludes notices of post-days, fairs, and cause the number of days in a year is festivals.

not divisible by 12. There are thereVOL. 4]

Years--Months-Weeks-Duys of the Week. 279 fore, in every year, seven months of 31 placed in a temple,and there adored, and days each, four of 30 days each, and in sacrificed unto, for that they beleeved the common years one of 28 days, but that the Sun in the firmament did with which contains 29 in every leap year. or in this idoll correspond, and co-opeThese are the months used for civil.pur- rate. It was made like halfe a naked poses. But the space of 28 days is al- man, set upon a pillar, his face, as it so called a month, and it is by the di- were, brightened with gleames of fire, vision of this into four equal parts that and holding, with both his armes the year is subdivided into weeks, each stretched out, a burning wheele upon bis consisting of seven days. · Hence, a breast; the wheele being to signifie the common year cousists of 13 of these course which he runneth round about months, or 52 weeks and 1 day; the world; and the fiery gleames, and and a leap year of the same, and 2 days. brightnes, the light and heat where

The days into which the civil year is with he warmeth and comforteth the divided, are called natural, and contain things that live and grow.' 24 hours. But there is a day called

D Monday. artificial, which is the time from sun-rise to sun-set. The natural day is either • The next,according to the course of astronomical or civil. The astronomi- the dayes of the week, was the idoll of cal day begins at poon. The British, the Muone, whereof we yet retaine the French, Dutch, Germans, Spaniards, name of Monday, instead of Mooneday. Portuguese, and Egyptians, begin the The forme of this idoll seemeth very civil day at midnight; the antient strange and ridiculous, for being made Greeks, Jews, Bohemians,aod Silesians, for a woman,shee hath a short coatlike a began it at sun-setting, as do the mod- man: but more strange it is to see her era Italians and Chinese ; and the an- hood with such two long eares. The tient Babylonians, Persians, Syrians, holding of a Moone before her breast and modern Greeks, at sun-rising. may seeme to have beene to expresse The Jews, Chaldeans, and Arabians, what she is; but the reason of her chapdivide the hour into 1080 equal parts, ron with long eares, as also of her short called scruples.

coat and pyked shooes, I do not finde.'

Tuesday. The old Latin names for the days of Tuisco, or Tuiscon, was the father the week are still retained in the jour- and conductor of the Germans, who, afnals of parliament and of medical men ; ter his name, even uoto this day, doe ia they are as follow, beginning with Sun- their owne tongue call themselves day-dies Solis, dies Lunæ, dies Mar- Tuytsh, and their country of Germany tis, dies Mercurii, dies Jovis, dies Tuytshland, and the Netherlanders using Veneris, and dies Saturni. The north- berein the D for T, doe make it Duytsh ero nations substituted, for the Roman and Duytshland, both which appelladivinities, such of their own as most tions of the people and country I doe nearly resembled them in their peculiar here write right according as we, in our attributes, and hence the derivation of English orthography, would write them, the games now in use. VERSTEGAN, after their pronunciation.' in his Restitution of Decayed Intelli

8 Wednesday. gence, 4to. Lond. 1634, thus describes the Saxon deities who presided over

• The next was the idoil Woden, each day of the week. The churacters who was made armed, and, among our sometimes employed to denote each Saxon ancestors, esteemed and honourday are prefixed.

ed for their god of battell, according as

the Romans reputed and honoured © Sunday.

their god Mars.-(Verstegan, p. 72.) • Unto the day dedicated to the idoll- Odin (or Wodin is believed 10 of the Sun, they gave the pame of Sun- have been the name of the one true day, as much as to say, as the Sunsduy, God among the first colonies who came or the day of the Sun. This idoll was from the east, and peopled Germany


and Scandinavia, and among their pos- set as if he had reposed himselfe upon terity for several ages. But at length a a covered bed. On his head be wore mignty conqueror, the leader of a new a crowne of gold, and round in compasse arıny of adventurers from the east, over- above, and about the same, were set or run the north of Europe, erected a fixed iwelue bright buruished golden great empire, assumed the name of starres. And in his right hand he held Odin, and claimed the honours which a kingly scepter. He was of the seduced bad been formerly paid to that deity. Pagans beleeved to be of most marvelFrom theoceforward this deified mortal, ous power and might, yea, and that under the name of Odin or Wudin, there were no people through out the became the chief object of the idolatrous whole world that were not subjected worship of the Saxons and Danes in unto hiin, and did not owe him divine this island, as well as of many other honour and service. That there was no natioos. Having been a mighty and puissance comparable to bis: his dominsuccessful warrior, he was believed to ion of all others most farthest extending be the god of war, who gave victory it selfe, both in heaven and earth. That and revived courage in the conflict. in the aire he governed the winds and Having civilized, in some measure, the the cloudes; and, being displeased, did countries which he conquered, and cause lightning, thunder, and tempests; introduced arts formerly unknown, he with excessiue rain, haile, and all ill was also worshipped as the god of arts weather. But, being well pleased, by and artists. In a word, to this Oilin the adoration, sacrifice, and seruice of his deluded worshippers impiously bis suppliants, he then bestowed upon ascribed all the attributes which belong them most faire and seasonable weather, only to the true God: to him they and caused corne aboundantly to growe, built magnificent temples, offered many as also all sorts of fruites, &c. and kept sacrifices, and consecrated the fourth away from them the plague and all day of the week, which is still called by other evill and infectious diseases. Of his name in England, and in all the the weekly day which was dedicated other countries where he was formerly unto his peculiar seruice, we yet retaine worshipped. Notwithstanding all this, the name of Thursduy, the which the the founders of all the kingdoms of the Danes and Swedians doe yet call Anglo-Saxon beptarchy pretended to Thors-day. In the Netherlands, it is be descended from Wolin, and some of called Dunders-dugh, which, being them at the distance only of a few written according to English generations.'--( Henry's History of orthography, is Thunders-day; whereGreat Britain, vol. iii. pp. 175, 176.) by it may appeare that they antiemly # Thursday.

therein intended the day of the god of

Thunder; and, in some of our old • The next in order was the idoll Saxon bookes, I find it to have beene Thor, who was not only served and written Thunres-deug. So as it seemreib sacrificed unto of the aptient Pagan- that the game of Thor, or Thur, kas Saxons, but of all the Teutonicke abbreviated of Thunre, which we now people of the septentrionall regions, yea, write Thunder.'-( Verstegan, p. 73.) even of the people that dwelt beyond Thor, the eldest and bravest of the Tbule or Island, for in Greeneland was sons of Odin and Frea, was, after his be knowne and adored ; in memory parents, the greatest god of the Saxous whereof a promontory or high poynt of and Danes while they continued beathland lying out into the sea, as also a ens. They believed that Thor reigoed river which faileth into the sea at the over all the aërial regions, which coille said promontory, doth yet beare his posed his immense palace, consisting name. This great reputed god, being of five hundred and forty hails; that of more estimation than many of the he launched the thunder, pointed the rest of like sort, though of as little lightning, and directed the meteors, worth as any of the meanest of that winds, and storms. To bim they rabble, was majestically placed in a addressed their prayers for favourable very large and spacious hall, and there winds, refreshing rains, and fruitful


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