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VOL. 4.]

December Scenery-Climate of Nice.

241

The cow-horns set all the dogs in the performed in the open air, every noise city bowling in a frightful inanner. is heard. At night, all sleep on the tops T'he asses of the town generally begin- of their houses, their beds being spread oing to bray about the same time, are upon their terraces, without any other answered by all the asses in the neigh- covering over their heads than the vault bourhood; a thousand cocks then in- of heaven. The poor seldom have a trude their shrill voices, which, with screen to keep them from the gaze of the other subsidiary voises of persons passengers; and as we generally rode calling to each other, knocking at out on horseback at a very early hour, doors, cries of children, complete a dio we perceived on the tops of the houses, very unusual to the ears of an Euro- people either still in bed, or just getting ropean. In the Suinmer season, as the up, and certainly no sight was ever operations of domestic life are mostly stranger.”

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From the London Time's Telescope, for Dec. 1818.
THE NATURALIST'S DIARY,

IN DECEMBER
• "ris winter, cold and rude,

Heap, heap the warming wood ;
The wild wind hums the sullen song to night.

Ob, hear that pattering shower!

Haste, boy-this gloomy hour
Demands relief ; the cheerful tapers light.

Though now my cot around

Still roars the wintry sound,
Methinks 'tis summer by this festive blare!

My books, companions dear,

In seemly ranks appear,
And glisten to the fire's far-flashing rays.

BUTT.
W INTER again commences his flowers and fruit, and butterflies are

iron reign ;' and although he every where seen fluitering. The does not rule with so ferocious an bighways even, in some parts, are boraspect in this country, as in more dered with a hedge of American aloes northern regions, yet his approach is, (agave Americanu.) If frost sometimes generally, sufficiently terrible to persons occurs, which only happens during the ja delicate health, and too often proves coldest days, it is but slight, and is soon fatal to the anxious hopes of many a dissipated by the influence of the sun, parent. To those, who are blessed No climate possesses a more genial with the gifts of fortune, it is a con30- atinosphere, no soil a more smiling lation to know, that, like the swallow, vegetation. The blossoms of the or other migratory birds, they may orange, the vine, and the laurel-rose, change their climate at the approach of the infinite variety of flowers, plants, winter, and return with the spring and shrubs, at all seasons of the year,

Many a spot in Italy, or the south lead us to exclaimof France, present to the invalid the

Vertumne, Pomone, et Zephyre, greatest advantages, and holds out the Avec Fiore y regnent toujours; most alluring prospects. The climate C'est l'asyle de leurs amours, of Nice is particularly favourabie to

Et le trone de leur empire. valetudinarians during the winter, Such a temperature as this, bas powerwhich is, in general, remarkably mild, ful attractions for the natives of northern The spring is subject to piercing winds, regions—a sky ever clear, serene, and and the autumn is usually wet; the bespangled, during the night, with insummer is hot, but not insupportably numerable stars, is pecuniarly welcome 60. Verdure prevails even at this to the Russian, the German and the Season ; the trees are loaded with Englishman. From the time of Swol

2G ATRENKUM. Vol. 4.

lett, who first made known to our mur; but, if he turns his thoughts tocountrymen the inildness of this delight. wards the polar regions, and considers ful climate, it became the fashion to the nations to whom a great portion of resort to Nice during the winter. But the year is darkoess, and who are conthis hyberpation was put an end to by demned to pass weeks and months the Revolution, and by the long and amid mountains of snow, he will soon tedious wars that succeeded it.

recover his tranquillity; and, while be The winter fruits are olives, oranges, stirs bis fire, or throws his cloak about lemons, citrons,* dried figs, grapes, ap- him, reflect how much he owes to ples, pears, almonds, chesnuts, walnuts, Providence, that he is not placed in filberds, medlars,pomegranates, azarole, Greenland or Siberia.' and the berries of the laurel. TheW ere we condemned to the dreary grapes are large and luscious. Musk- climes, and to the manner of life, of the melons are very cheap, and they have natives of the arctic countries, we should water-melons from Antibes and Sare deem it insupportable. How deploradinia.

ble should we think our situations, if The environs of Nice are truly en- we saw nothing before our eyes but chanting. The irregularity of seasons, stupendous mountains of ice and ex80 detrimental to vegetation in other tepsive wastes of snow; if the absence parts of the world, is here exchanged of the Sun, for entire months, rendered for a progress so uniform and imper- the cold more insupportable still; if, ceptible, that the tenderest plant appears instead of our comfortable habitations, to feel the change, and acquire new we had no other asylum than a gloomy vigour hy it. Every day brings forth cavern, or a skin-covered tent; if we another flower, every month its fruits, bad no other resource for our subsistence and every year a copious harvest. The than a perilous activity in the chase; light tinges of the spring yield to the and if we were deprived of all the pleabrighter hues of summer; and autumn sures which the arts impart, and of all boasts of the deep crimson and the the sweets of society that exalt exisorange. Unexposed to the bleak in- tence, and render life delightful! Let fluence of the north, the pendent grape the consideration, then, of the unspeakasoon comes to full maturity; the al. ble advantages wbich we enjoy in our mond and the peach already tempt the temperate clime, and to which we are taste; the citron and the orange prom- so inattentive, not only banish every ise an ample recompense for the toil of repining thought, that we are not the husbandman. In the language of placed in still milder regions and still Lady Mary Montague, it may be serener skies, but teach us to regard the said :

Divine Being with increasing love and Here summer reigns with one eternal smile; unceasing adoration. Succeeding harvests bless the happy soil.

Englisbmen must, with all her Fair fertile fields, to whom indulgent heav'n

faults, love England still.' Most sinHas ev'ry charm of ev'ry season givin. No killing cold deforms the beauteous year,

cerely do we accord with the Danish The springing flow'rs no coming winter fear;

poet :But as the parent rose decays and dies, The infant bude with brighter colours rise,

Oh! no where blossoms so bright the summer rose, And with fresh sweets the mother's scent supplies. As where youth eropt it from the valley's breast;

Oh! no where are the downs so soft as those No inconvenience is less superable That pillowed infancy's unbroken rest. by art or diligence than the inclemeney In vain the partial sun on other vales of climates: A native of England, Pours lib'ral down a more exhaustless ray, pinched with the frost of December, And vermeil fruits, that blush along their dales, may lessen his affection for his own Mock the pale products of our scanty day. country, by suffering his imagination In vain, far distant from the land we love, to wander in the vales of Asia, and on the

The world's green breast soars higher to the sky; aport among woods that are always

Oh! what were heav'n itself, if lost above

were the dear memory of departed joy? green, and streams that always mur. On! what are Eloisa's bowers of cost,

• A thousand of either citrons or lemons may be Matebed with the bush, where, hid in berries white, had for a ruiner.

Mine arms around my ipfaat love ere tivese di

VOL. 4.]

Winter Scenery-Mosses and Lichens.

213

What Jura's peak, to that upon whose height and some shoot out in branches. All

I strore to grasp the moon; and where the flight whoon hanchir didunt sonde which of my first thought was in my Maker lost ?

hat these have their different seeds, which

do not require great delicacy of soil, As Winter unfolds his awful train, but take root on any thing where they vapours, and clouds, and storms, the can grow unmolested. Those mosses contemplative observer of nature be- which rise immediately from the earth comes habituated to views of the stu- are inore perfect; some of them white pendous and sublime. Verdant groves, and hollow, or fistulous; and some of variegated meadows, and radiant skies, them not inuch inferior to regular plants. are now succeeded by leafless woods, The more perfect sorts grow on stones, dejected wastes, and a frowning atmos- in the form of a fine pile or fur, like phere. But while the incurious and velvet, and of a glossy colour, between inattentive perceive a dreary uniformity green and black. But the first sort, in all around, the penetrating eye of which appears like scurf or crust, seems the rural student discovers many a to rise but one degree above the linvaried aspect of beauty and excellency, wrought mould or earth. An unwhich still invite to the most pleasing healthy tree is never without these iminvestigation. And, however paradoxi- perfect super-plants; and the more cal it may appear, he finds inexhaustible unhealthy the tree is, the better they sources of serenity and delight, in that thrive. mood of melancholy musing on scenes Mosses, diminutive as they seem, of desolation, which, io vulgar estima- are no less perfect plants than those of tion, would rather

greater inagnitude, having roots, flowers, “ Deepen the murmur of the falling floods, and seeds : And breathe a browner horror o'er the woods."

Each Moss, In fine, in each vicissitude of the sea

Each shell, ench crawling insect, holds a rank

ue sedImportant in the plan of Him who formed sons, he still discerns the omnipotent This scale of beings; holds a rank, which lost Creator, ever bountiful to man; and. Would break the chain, and leave a gap whether the gentle gales breathe propi

eventle goles breathe propiThat Nature's self would rue! tious in spring, or resistless storms.

e Of the liverworts, or lichens, there savave the earth in winter. bis cultivata are more than three hundred and sixty ed mind kindles with devotion, and species, the greater number of which even calls upon the ioaninate world to are natives of Britain. The various join him in adoration.

kinds of lichens are subservient to many

important purposes: some are used Those dwarfs of the vegetable king- as drying drugs; in Lapland, one dom, mosses, and the liverwort (lichen,) species constitutes the sole winter subare now the only subjects for the ex- sistence of that useful animal the reinamination of the botanist. Mosses are deer; and, in Britain, the lichen islunspread over the whole globe, so that, dicus, which grows much on the mounin some situations, the soil is exclusively tains of Wales and Scotland, is used covered by them; and thus, frequently, as a medicine. In Iceland, food is bare rocks gradually become fertile. prepared from it. For this purpose, a As they grow most copiously on the dish of the lichen is prepared by chopDoribwest side of trees, it is probable ping it small, boiling it in three or four that mosses serve to protect them from successive portions of water to take off the severity of cold; but if these par- its natural bitterness, and then for an asiticial plants be suffered to increase hour or two io milk. When cold, this too abundantly, they not only tend preparation has the forın of a jelly, materially to injure trees, but also to which is eaten with milk or cream, and stifle the inore useful vegetables of the makes a very palatable dish. soil. Mosses are almost constantly The most minute species of this great green, and have the finest verdure in genus hold a much more important autumn. Some of the mosses spread place in the economy of nature than is in a continued leaf; others grow apparent to superficial observers. They hollow above, like small cups ; others are the first beginning of vegetation on round on the top, like musbrooms; stones of all kinds exposed to the air

whose decomposing surfaces are the once affixed malignant qualities. The receptacle of their imperceptible seed, witches in Macbeth name its cry among and soon afford tourishment 10 the those of evil omen :sprouting plants, whose minute fibrous

Tbrice the brinded cat hath mewed ; roots still farther insinuate themselves. Twice and once the hedge-pig whined. The larger species take possession of every cavity and fissure, both of stones, And Caliban complains of it as one and of the decaying external bark of of the creatures that his inaster, Prospetrees. In time they all decay, and ro, sent to torment bim : furnish a portion of vegetable mould, For every trifle they are set opon mecapable of nourishing mosses, or still Sometimes like apes that mew and chatter at me, larger plants. The residuum of these and after bite me ; then like hedgehogs, whicla being still more considerable, is washed Lie tuinbling in my bare footpath. by rains into large cavities, where even And the vulgar still believe that forest trees can scatter their seeds ; by hedgehogs are unlucky, and even more the penetrating power of whose roots, actively mischievous ; for, that they eat great masses are dislodged from the the roots of the corn ; suck the cows, most lofty rocks. Thus the vegetable causing their adders to ulcerate ; and kingdom exercises dominion over the inany other misdemeanors are laid to tributary fossil world, and, in its turn, to the charge of this poor little beast; affords the same no less necessary aid who, being guilty of none of them, lives to animal existence. Nothing in nature in remote hedge-rows, copses, and the is allowed to remain stationary, idle, or bottoms of dry dirobes, under leaves and useless, and the most inconsiderable fern, and feeds on beetles, worms, aod agents frequently appear, in the hands flies. Sonietiines, with its snout, it of Divine Providence, to be the most digg up the roots of the plantain among irresistible.

the grass, and makes them a part of its Few birds are now heard except the food. sparrow. No bird more frequentlyThe conger-eel now caught, upon the meets the eye than this, and if it does western coast, is the most disgusting not charm the ear by its voice, it amuses marine production that can meet the eye. the mind by its familiarity and crafti- The largest are two yards in length, ness. It frequents our habitations, and and proportionate in thickness ; which is seldom absent from our gardens and the poor people are obliged to eat, for fields. Though its note is only a chirp, want of other victuals. Soup, it is said, in a wild state ; when early reclaimed, made from thiseel is very nutritive, and it may be taught to imitate the strain of delicious to the palate. A conger eel the lionet or goldfinch. Few birds are was some time since, taken in the Wash more execrated by the farmers, and at Yarmouth, by a fisherman. wbicb none, perhaps, more unjustly. It is ineasured six feet in length, and twentrue, indeed, they consume a considera- ty-two inches in girth, and weigbed ble quantity of grain and fruil, but then three stone seven pounds. The eel, on it should be considered that a pair of finding no way for escape, rose erect, them will destroy upwards of three and actually knocked the fisherman thousand caterpillars in a week. Nor is down before he could secure it. the otility of these birds limited to this The shortest day, or winter solstice, circumstance alone : they likewise feed bappens or

feed happens on the 21st of December ; and their young with butterflies and other the joyful season of Christmas is now insects, which, if suffered to live, would fast approaching. be the parents of numerous caterpillars.

Those wild animals which pass the How many a heart is happy at this bour winter in a state of torpidity, have retired winnin totoofanidi haporired In England ! brightly o'er the cheerful hall,

Flares the heaped hearth, and friends and kindred to their hiding places. The frog, lizard, meet, badger and hedgehog, which burrow And the glad mother round ber festive board in the earth, belong to this class. The Beholds her children, separated long hedgehog or urchin is a nong those in

in Amid the worid's wide way, assembled now;

And at the sight, affection lightens up offensive animals to which superstition with smiles the age that age bas long bedimmed.

VOL. 4.

Varieties.

245

Whatever inconvenience may be ex- of Winter, and the buds and flowers perienced from the cold and long nights of SPRING, alike remind us of our terof winter, all is compensated by the restrial progress, our decay, death, and cheerful blaze of the evening fire with renovation in another state of being. the social circle round it, and the sub

I have seen the green-budding opring, sequent retreat to a comfortable bed ;

The scenes of my hope it iliumed ; and those who experience this bappi- I've seen the gay Summer's bright beam, ness cannot express their gratitude to On its stay I fondiy presumed. Him who affords it to them, better than I've seen yellow Autumn's rich stores, by extending the blessing to those who I hoped its delights would abide ; want it, by assisting in making their

And Winter's chill blasts I have heard,

The spoils of the groves spreading wide. cottages comfortable, mending their

Since then Spring, the parent of joys, windows, supplying them with firing,

Is followed by Winter's bleak wind, clothing, and bedding.

Ah! why should I foster the hope Having recommended to our readers Perpetual pleasures to find ? the practice of benevolence to others, But despair not, for Winter's hansk storms and gratitude to the Divine Being for Are the nurse of the hopes of the Spring i all the favours they enjoy, we must re Both the smiles of Suinmer's bright days, peat, at the close of this annual volume,

And Autumn's rich treasures, they bring. what cannot too often be insisted on So the stern Winter's day of our life, the Seasons' are emblematic of the hu. And the tempests that over us rove,

Shall yield to the durable smiles man lile ; and that the pride of Sumo

of Spring, ever-blooming above. MER, the riches of AUTUMN, the rigours

D. €.

VARIETIES.

Bite of the Adder.--- Dn. LESLIE, in a of mechanism which is doubly curious from communication to the Medical Jouroal, de- its own powers, and from the extraordinary scribes a case in which ammonia was suc- difficulties in whose despite it has been ac. cessful in preventing the effects of the bite complished. It is not easy to convey an of an adder. Travelling in the North of idea of it without plates.---Ă wooden beain, Eugland, he stopped to give assistance to a pois.d by the centre, has a piece of steel poor man who, having laid down on the attached to oue end of it, which is alternates grass to sleep, had been bitten. From expe- Jy drawn up by a piece of magnet placed rience of the beneficial effects of ammonia above it, and down by a:other placed beiow in India, in cases of the bites of different it: as the end of the beam approacbes the snakes, Dr. Leslie procured some spirits of magnet, either above or below, the machine hartshorn, and gave about a drachin of it, interjects a non-conducting substance, which mixed with about half an ounce of gin and a suspends the attraction of the magnet aplittle water. The effect was very sudden. proached, and allows the other to exert its In ten or fifteen minutes the patient's eyes powers. Thus the end of the beam continobecame more bright, his pulse fuller and ally ascends and descends betwixt the two stronger, and his countenance altogether magnets, without ever coming into contact more cheerful, and by the repetition of the with either; the attractive power of each same dose as above stated, in about the space being suspended precisely at the moment of of an hour and a half, he appeared perfectly nearest approach. And as the magnetic recovered. Another dose was left to be attraction is a permanently operating pow. taken at ten o'clock at night, and in the er, there appears to be no limit to the conmorning he said he was quite well, except a tinuance of the inotion, but the endurance of Jittle numbness and weakness in the arm : the materials of the machine.---The first the third day after he returned to his work. machine made by Mr. Speuce is very rude,

Perpetual Molion.---John SPENCE, an in- and fashioned by his own bands; but he genious individnal residing at Linlithgow, intends applying the principle to the motion in Scotland, has applied the magnetic power of a time-piece. We trust this ingenious man to the production of a perpetual motion. will meet the encouragement he deserves.. This person was in early life apprenticed to if not as the reward of his talents and per. a shoe-maker, but the natural bent of his severanc

hent of his severance, at least for the benefit of the genius for mechanics overcame every obsta- community, for it is from such sources, that cle; he got to be keeper of a steain-engine great national improvements are often de. in a spinning factory at Glasgow, and after rived.

Gent. Mag. Sept. 1818. two years' study in this school, retired to his MEDICAL REPORT FOR SEPT 1, 1818. native place to pursue shoe-making for Those atlections of the stomach and how. bread; and wheels, Jevers, &c. for the gratifi. els which are usually incident to the autumcation of his owo taste. The perpetual nal season, have this year visited us before motion was an object worthy of such a devo- their accustomed period; and the return of tee, and we find that he has invented a piece this visitation is sufficiently ouvious, viz. the

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