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Vol. 4.] Useful Arts-- Improved Composition for Statues, 8c. 191 NEW PATENT.

pit-sand, river-sand, rock-sand, or any To Mr. Peter HANELIN, of Albany-Place, other sand of the same or the like Bent Road, Surrey : for an Improvement or nature, or pulverised earthen-ware or Improvements in the making of a Cement or Composition for Ornaments and Statues, and porcelain, Mr. H. adds two-thirds of for making artificial Bricks, or an Imitation such given weight of the earth or earths, of Bricks, Tiles, and Stones, and joining and commonly called Portland-stone. Bathcementing the same, and erecting, covering, and decorating Buildings internally and ex' stone, or any other stone, of the same ternally.

or the like nature pulverised. To every M R. Hamelin's very useful inven- five hundred and sisty pounds weight

U tion consists in making a cement of these earths, so prepared, he adds or composition, which may be applied forty pounds weight of litharge, prein the formation or making of ornaments pared as before described ; and, with the and statues, and of bricks, or an imi- last mentioned given weights, he comtation of bricks, tiles, and stones, and bines two pounds weight of pulverised joining and cementing the same, and in glass or flint-stone. He then joins to erecting, covering and decorating, build- this mixture one pound weight of miings internally and externally; and the pium and two pounds weight of grey said cement or composition may be oxyd of lead. mixed and moulded upon any sort of This compound of earths, oxyd, and materials, and whole and entire erec- glass or flint-stone, he puts into a circular tions and substances may be worked or other proper machine, that will, by and moulded therewith.

its rotatory or other motion, mix thern The cement consists in a mixture of well. And their proper intermixture earths and other substances that are may be ascertained by tbe shade or insoluble in water, or nearly so, either colour, which should appear of one even in their natural state, or such as have and regular shade or bue ; but any parbeen manufactured, as earthen-ware, ticular shade or colour may be given by porcelain, and such like substances; a proper selection of earths, or by adbut Mr. H. says, he prefers those earths ding a small quantity of vegetable, that, either in their natural or manu- mineral, or pther colouring matter. factured state, are the least soluble in This composition being thus mixed, Water, and have, when pulverised or he passes the same through a wire sieve, reduced to a powder, the least colo'ır. or dressing machine, of such a fineness To the earth or earths, as before named, or inash ag may be requisite for the either in their natural or manufactured purposes it is intended for, preferring a state, and so pulverised, he adds a fine sicve, mash, or wire-work, when the quantity of each of the oxyds of lead, composition is to be used for works that as litharge, grey oxyd, and minium, require a fine smooth or even surface. reduced or ground to a fine powder, and The composition, thus formed and to the whole of the above-named sub- mixed, is a fine and dry powder, and stances a quantity of pulverised glass may be kept open in bulk or in casks or flint stone. These various earths, for any length of time, without deteoxyds, and glass or Alint-stone, recluced rioration. to a pulverised state, in proper and due When this composition is intended to proportions, and being mixed with a be made into cement, for any of the proper and due proportion of vegetable purposes described, it is spread upon oil, as hereinafter named, form and a board or platform, or mixed in a make a composition or cement, which, trough; and to every six hundred and by contact or exposure to the atmos- five pounds weight of the composition phere, hardens and forms an impenetra- are added five gallons of vegetable oil, ble and impervious coating or covering, as linseed-oil, walnut-oil, or pink-oil. resembling Portland or other stones. The composition is then mixed in a

The cement or composition is com- similar way to that of mortar, and is posed in the following manner and afterwards subjected to a gentle pressure, proportions.-To any given weight of by treading upon it; and this operation the earth or earths, commonly called is continued until it acquires the appearance of moistened sand. The mixture, cement or composition. A thin coating being thus composed, is, a cement fit of the cement is then applied between and applicable to the enumerated pur- the two bodies to be joined. poses. It is requisite to observe, that when the cement is applied for the this ceinent should be used the same day, purpose of covering buildings intended the oil is added, otherwise it will fix or to resemble stone, the surface of the set into a solid substance, and be uofit buildings is washed with oil. The cefor use,

ment is then applied of the thickness When the cement is to be used or of a quarter of an inch, or any greater applied to the makiog of decorations, thickness, according to the nature of ornaments, and statues, or artificial the work, joint or stone, it is intended bricks, or an imitation of bricks, tiles, to resemble. It is requisite to observe, and stones, running or casting moulds, that wben a joint, inteuded to resemble prepared, suited, and applicable for the a plain stone joint, is to be made upon purposes for which they are intended, the surface of the cement or composiare made use of. The moulds for tion, the cement or composition must makiog ornaments, statues, or other be partly set or hardened previously to fancy works, are prepared and macle of the impression of the joint upon its gypsum, or plaster of Paris, or seasoned surface, and the joint is made by a rule or dry wood, and must be prepared by and steel jointer. When the cement is rubbing the internal parts well with raw used for the coveriog of substances less linseed-oil, until they are brought to a absorbent than bricks or tiles, (as wood, dry, smooth, and polished surface, to lead, iron, or tin,) a much less quantity prevent adhesion; and, in some instan- of boiled linseed oil in preparing the ces, to obtain a more perfect, dry, surfaces is required. smooth, and polished surface ; pulver- From specimens which we have seen, ised plumbago is used. Io all cases it we think that this is a valuable discos. is requisite to detach or remove, with ery, and that in due time it will be convenient speed, the mould from the preferred to all other compositions, and body of the cement or composition to even to stone itself, as more elegant which it is intended to give form. The and more durable.- Mon. M. Sep.1818. statue, ornament, bricks, tiles, and stones, or the imitations of all or either of them CURING OF HERRINGS, &c. thus formed, must be removed with Mr. R. Alken, merchant, Stranraer. care, and placed upon a bench or plat- in Scotland, has discovered a mode of forin, which must be previously covered curing herrings so as effectually to prewith fine dry sand, to prevent adhesion. vent the yellow fust, and to preserve the And, in some cases, for statues and fish in its original whiteness. After ornaments, a bed of fine dry sand is having accomplished his purpose in renecessary to receive them, where they gard to herrings, he applied generally must reinain, in both cases, for the the same mode of curing and preserving perpose of setting, for twenty-four to mutton, beef, pork, and butter, in hours, or a longer period, according to which application he bas also succeedthe temperature to which they are ex- ed. Some months ago he correspond, posed. When it is applied for the pur- ed on this subject with the Commispose of cementing and joining of bricks, sioners for Victualling his Majesty's tiles, stones, and other substances, the Navy, sending to them specimens of the surfaces, to which the cement or com- meat cured after his manner. He in position is to be applied, are prepared due time received their acknowledgment by brushing and cleaning thein from of the great value of his discovery, with dust and all loose matter; the said sur- permission to use the name of the Board faces are then covered with boiled lin- in support of his claim to public notice, Seed--oil, with a brush, as in painting. He likewise communicated the nature

This application of the boiled linseed- of his discovery to the Commissioners oil prevents the too rapid absorption of of Customs, Excise, and the Fisheries in the oil employed or mixed with the Edinburgh, who examined specimens

VOL. 4.]

Curing Herrings~ Virtues of common Chalk,

193

of the herrings, mutton, pork, and beef, Last summer, a man working in my cured by Mr. Alken in November last. garden was stung by a wasp in my The result of their examination was the presence: I directed him to apply the most unqualified admission that Mr. remedy, as described above, immediAlken's discovery is calculated to pro- ately; which he did, and in a few minduce verv great benefit, not only to fish- utes, while rubbing the wound with the curers and viciuallers in particular, but mixture, the pain began to abate, and to society in general. The specimens in a few minutes afterwards ceased altoexhibited shew, when cut, the fat and gether, and never troubled him again, the lean of the several kinds of meat, al- a perfect cure being produced by a sinmost as fresh as when newly killed, gle application of the remedy. This and the taste is particularly pleasant. being the case, there can be no doubt

the same remedy would cure the sting The importance and value of salt as of a bee, and that of all other insects. an introduction into food, becomes con- From the above facts it is reasonable to tinually inore evident, as its medical infer, that the application of chalk properties are rendered more distinct would be efficacious in the bite of vipers, and fully known. Among other salu- and of other snakes ; possibly even of brious virtues, may be meotioned its those whose bite is generally, if not alauthelminthic (worm destroying) pro- ways, mortal ;. but in these cases the perties which bave been rendered very powdered chalk should be applied dry, evident by the publication of some late jostantly after the bite, and pressed into cases. It appears, that whenever salt the wound, then wiped or washed off, is depied to the human being, diseases and fresh chalk applied immediately in of the stomach are general, and that the like manner; and these operations worms are engendered in the body ; to be repeated successively for some and in one instance where a person, time, with a view of absorbing or neufrom aversion to that substance, had re- tralizing all the venom injected into the fused it either in food or in any other wound by the bite. If it be the bite of form, they appear to have been the a snake, whose bite is known to be consequence, and remained for many mortal, it would be advisable, immediyears. Io Ireland, salt is a well known ately after the above-mentioned operaremedy for bots in the horse ; and tions, to cut the wound out with a knife, among the poor people a dose of com- or apply the actual cautery, and renew mon salt is esteemed a cure for worms. the applications of dry powdered chalk,

subjecting the wound afterwards to From the Monthly Magazine, Sept. 1818. surgical treatment. BITE OF VIPERs, &c. · Ii would be prudent to treat the bite

of a mad-dog exactly in the same magA FEW years ago I was stung by a ner as described above for that of a h gnat, and, not having my usual snake, whose bile is mortal, with this remedy at hand, and reflecting on the addition--apply the dry powdered chalk absorbent and neutralizing quality of daily to the wound, and wash it by cbalk, I resolved to make trial of it, and pouring water (the coider the better.) mixed some of it powdered with a little out of the gpont of a tea-kettle upon it, water, to the consistency of paste near- refilling the kettle, and emptying it in ly, which I rubbed for some minutes this manner upon the wound for the well into the wound. This immedi- space of an hour every day for a month, ately effected a perfect cure. Since that in order to wash every remaining partitime, I have occasionally applied the cle of venom out of the wound, which same remedy for the above purpose, and should be kept open as long as the suralways with the same invariable success, geon deems expedient. by a single application, a second having Alerton ; July 14, 1818.

G. Boota. never been found necessary; and seve P.S. Persons in bot climates, where eral persons, whom I acquainted with snakes are numerous, should constantly keep the remedy, have uniformly found this a little powdered cbalk in their pockets. to be the case on using it.

JA ATHENEDU. Vol. 4.

SIR,

COTEMPORARY AUTHORS.

THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF LADY MORGAN,

From the New Monthly Magazine, Sept. 1818, W HATEVER theorists may im- that dull routine of mediocrity to which

V agine or philosophers assert, re- the vanity of man has subjected the sex specting the proper sphere of woman's in general, it opens a new path to the activity, it is a fact past all contradiction investigation of gepius itself, that literature stands indebted to the For the productions of Lady Morfemale sex for its richest possessions in Gan, the world, as she has herself hintthe department of imaginative compo- ed, * is indebted to that great parent of sition.

exertion, necessity. In the earlier periThe naturalist will readily admit, that od of her school education, she is said the softer sex is conspicuous for a more to have exhibited alternately a taste for refined susceptibility and a more viva- music and for painting, which held out cious mobility of fibre, than the soi-di- the most flattering promises of future sant superior animal. The sepses of eminence-promises which, by giving women are more acute, their apprehen- a bias to her industry, and concentrasion quicker, their interest in observa- ting her exertions upon those arts, might tion more intense, their feelings more have impeded the intellectual culture prompt, and their affections warmer, necessary to literary eminence, and have thao those of muo. In works, there- dictated to her other paths to emolufore, of pure imagination they are pecu- ment and distinction. But before the liarly calculated to excel.' A richer arrival of the epoch of life, in which glow of fancy a deeper pathos, a great- taste and genius build a superstructure er warmth of colouring, and above all upon the bases of well-grounded ina more captivating grace and delicacy of struction and practical effort in the arts, thought and expression are the natural domestic misfortunes threw her upon attributes of beings thus constituted; her own exertions for support, and de while all that belongs to the beart and termined the necessity for adopting purthe tender passions must be considered suits in which natural talent is more as most especially within their domain immediately available, and expensive and jurisdiction.

preparation and protracted mechanical The literature of our own country is labour are les necessary to success. singularly distinguished by the number Her fatåer, the late Robert Owenson, and brilliancy of the gems, which female was grandson of Sir --- Crosion, the genius has set in its crown. In the representative of an ancient protestant works of Cowley, Inchbald, Ratcliffe, family in Connaught, in the reign of Smith, Lee, Edgeworth, Tighe, the Elizabeth. By an imprudent connecsubject of the preseot memoir, &c. &c. tion with a beautiful and once celebra&c, may be found an exuberance of ted actress, he became early in life infancy, a vivacity of wit, a deep strain fected with a dramatic mania ; and of feeling, a masculine philosophy, and having afterwards married a respectable a rich harmony of language, sufficient English woman, in the possession of a to forto the entire intellectual capital of good life income, he purchased a share other less favoured nations. The bie in one of the royal theatres of tbe Irish ography, therefore, of these distinguish- capital, and became joint proprietor of ed females possesses ao interest beyond the establishment with the celebrated u bat is merely personal; it furnishes Mr. Ryder. He was afterwards sole documents for determining the acciden: proprietor of one of the metropolitan tal and concurrent calises, which have theatres, but resigned on Mr.Daly's obdeveloped so much intellectual superior- taining an exclusive patent, upon an ity, and by betraying the agency that equivalent hring guaranteed to him (we has elevated so many females beyond See Preface to the first edition of France."

Vol. 4.]

Memoir of the Life and Writings of Lady Morgan.

195

believe) by act of parliament. Mr. O. a person of more experience would have afterwards embarked in the double been careful to avoid speculation of mercantile and theatrical Another circumstance, which has concerns : he became a wine-merchant, materially contributed to give peculiar and built some theatres in the country, features to the productions of this lady, particularly the beautiful edifice at Kil. was a long residence in some of the kenny. In both thege careers he pro- wildest and most classical scenes of Ireved unsuccessful ; and under the pres. land, which, while they stored her fancy sure of difficulties, originating in these with picturesque and romantic images, causes, the literary talent of Miss Ow- afforded a primitive race of inhabitants, epson developed itself, accompanied by whose antiquie customs, fiery passions, an energy of mind and unvanquishable and calamitous history, supplied ber elasticity of spirit that, spurning depen- with materials for interesting moral dence and disdaining compromisc, was combinations, and for striking dramatic neither depressed by misfortune nor narrative. Previous to the composition unbent by pleasure.

of the “ Wild Irish Girl,” Miss OwenYoung, inexperienced, unacquainted son and her sister had been kindly rewith the world, and removed from the ceived by their relations, Sir Maltby scene of observation, Miss Owenson and Lady Crofton, at their ancient and drew entirely from her own resources, hospitable seat in the county of Sligo, Her first priated novel (for we have situated on the wild shores of the Atreason to believe she did not publish her lantic ocean. To her residence in this earliest efforts) was too decided an imi- mansion Miss Owenson makes grateful tation of a known model : but in the allusion in her “ Patriotic Sketches." course of her labours she gradually ac- The progress of civilization in Euquired a greater originality, and in the rope has left but few sites adapted to * Wild Irish Girl" succeeded in creating fictitious narration. The upiformity a geous of composition exclusively her which fashion casts over the exterior of own, and to which we are, perhaps, in- polished manvers, and the protection debted for that delightful series of na. which established governments hold out tional tale, now universally attributed to to the lives and fortunes of the citizens, Walter Scott. The success which at- circumscribe at the same time the range tended this publication, and that of the of adventure and the latitude of personal “ Novice of St. Dominick,"which preced- peculiarity, admissible into the scale of edit, introduced Miss Owenson at once real life.” On the other hand, the rointo the highest circle of English and Irish mance of feudal superstition, and of bafashion, and afforded her opportunities ronial oppression, with its ghosts, dunof observation that gave a vast and sud- geons, and trap doors, was exhausted den expansion to her ideas, and greatly before the epoch of Miss Onenson's increased her powere as a novelist. In first appearance as a writer. In the tbe more unfavourable epochs of her life, rudeand uncultivated scenery of Ireland, a natural repugnance to the valgar, the in the isolation of its inhabitants, and in dull, the vitious, and the uniostructing, the surprising chances and changes of in a great measure secluded her from its domestic warfare, a resource awaited society; and, except within the narrow the novelist for escaping the siltiety and limits of a few personal friends, she insipidity of the common romance ; maintained little or no intercourse with and guided by her taste, her genius, the world, till she came forth herself one and her natidoal affections, she eagerly of its ornaments. This circumstance availed herselt of it; for wbile coinpoexplains the ideal cast of her earlier sing the “ Wild Irish Girl," and the compositions, the richness and abun- “ Patriotic Sketches," at the seat of Sir daoce of her sentimental reflections, the Maltby Crofton, she embodied in those romance of her heroines, and at the works the picturesque beauties, and same time the paucity of her remarks on siinple but characteristic manners of the life, the “ unreal mockery” and impro. district and population by which she bability of her story, and a certain haz- was surrounded. arding of situation and character, which 'The poetry and music of Ireland are

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