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misfortune of this poor man, at least in brought us nearest the Divinity! At the cause of it. He is very ugly, as present, he believes bimself ambassador you see, but he was also very rich; and of the Great Mogul; adorned with therefore it was not astonishing that he ribands of all colours, he pleases himself married a very handsome woman, of a with his chimerical grandeur, and gave rank above his own. Naturally jealous, audience in bis celt at Charenton, with a the levity of his wise furnished him dignity very amusing, and not altogethwith frequent occasions of giving way er without model. What would he to this failing. He had, or fancied he gaip by being cured ? He is no longer had, a rival, a young man on whom of an age for dancing, and with the renature had prodigally bestowed every turn of reason would lose his embassy. physical advantage, except on the head; A little farther on dwelt a philososome parts of which were so ill provided pher, who became mad from frequently with hair, that he was obliged to have repeating, on his own person, the exrecourse to the industrious hand of periments of Spallanzani upon frogs. Harmand, or Michalong. In a word, His lodging place communicated with he wore those fragments of a peruke that of an old commentator, whose reaknown by the name of “ mouches." I son was extinguished in profound rewill not tell you how, or in what place, searches to discover whether the ancients this suspicious husband found the wore perukes. sample of a coiffure, which disturbed Their neighbour was the footman of him so much respecting his own; but a man of quality, whose brain got out from this moment hell was in his head, of order, because he was not admitted his jealousy became a delirium, and his to the honour of a place behind the carreason evaporated in the most furious riage of his master on a day of cere. paroxysms. The very sight of a woman mony. raises him to a pitch of rage, of which it In passing across a corridor, to go to is difficult to form an idea.” It was the quarter of the women, we saw a impossible for me to support the sight maniac on whom they were putting the of these torments, and we entered the straight waistcoat-" That man," said quarter of the maniacs ; some of whom Monsieur C— ,"was formerly a saMonsieur C- described as he pass- tirical writer ; that trade is not without ed their chambers.

danger, and people in anger do not “ This one,” said he, pointing out a always look where they strike. In the man who walked backward and forward, last assault he had to sustain, his head with a speaking-trumpet of paste-board came in contact with a cudgel, and in bis baod, “ was the captain of a pri- moral alienation was the consequence ; vateer; after a brilliant cruize he was since he is mad, he has changed charactaken in sight of port, with all his prize- ters : he no longer writes against any money, by a frigate, which he fought for one, but wishes to cudgel every body." two hours with the greatest intrepidity. Madness, among the women confined

This misfortue deprived him of his in this place, appeared to me to have, as reason; he believes he is still on-board a society, two characters very distinct his vessel, engaged in the combat that love and vanily. was so fatal to him; and he calls out The first we visited was a species of incessantly, “ Fire the magazine !Aunt Aurora,* whose brain had been

The chamber adjoining was gro- bewildered by melancholy romances. tesquely ornamented with strips of tinsel, Seated on the foot of her bed, an oid and was occupied by poor T- whom guitar, without strings, in her hand, she I knew formerly in society, attacked by believed herself on the banks of a tora mania of a different kind, and much rent, or the point of a rock; and thrilled, more ridiculous. When he passed for with an almost extinguished voice, a a reasonable being, he was persuaded song, in which the “ Bird of Night," that the soul of man resided in his heel; and the “ Wind of the Desert" were not and that dancing, in which be excelled, forgotten. was, of all perfections, the one that The French play of Ma Tantc Aurore.

VOL. 4.]

Manners and Customs in Modern Persia.

187

This maniac had, as a neighbour, a deprived of ber reason by an excess of young girl, whose misfortunes interested mystic devotion, dow experienced a me still more deeply. Abandoned by delirium of a very different nature; it is an unfaithful lover, the evening of the impossible to divine to what suggestions day fixed for her marriage, her heart she owes the ideas and images that was broken by mortification, and the necessarily present themselves to her loss of reason kindly restored the pleas- mind, for the first time, and which she ing illusions which she had lost. announces in a language she could never

I expressed the astonishment I felt bave had an opportunity of hearing. at seeing in that place, a woman who was informed that Monsieur Cexhibited no other mark of maduess had sought, in concerts and scenic exhithan that of believing herself thirty bitions, executed by his patients, a years younger than she really was; means of operating or preparing their smiling graciously at all the young men, cure. I witnessed this double experiand being convinced that no one could ment; but it did not appear to me that see her without falling in love with her. he had any just grounds for the hopes of “ If these are proofs of madness," said success, which he still appears to enI, “where could we find room to tertain. lodge all who are afflicted in the same I returned to Paris to dine,and passed manner ?”

the evening in a very brilliant assembly, I stopped a moment to behold a wo- where I continued any remarks on fools, man, whose madness is directly opposed almost without perceiving that I had to the cause that produced it. This lady, changed the place of observation.

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS IN MODERN PERSIA.

From the Literary Gazette, Sept. 1818. A SECOND JOURNEY THROUGA PERSIA, ARMENIA, ASIA MINOR, &C. BETWEEN THE YEARS

1810 AND 1816. BY JAMES MORIER, ESQ. &c. &c. London. 1818. ON the 7th of April, when the Em- but as the work of yesterday. The

bassy reached Shiraz, they were faces of all the figures to the right of welcomed honourably, and remained the staircase are iputilated, which must there some time, during which Mr. be attributed to the bigotry of the first Morier took an opportunity of revisiting Mussulmeo wbo invaded Persia ; those Persepolis, and other gentlemen of ex- of the newly discovered figures are ploring different parts of the surrounding quite perfect, which shews that they country. The most interesting portion must have been covered before the of the ruins of Persepolis, in point of Saracen invasion; the nicety of their sculptured detail, is the front of the preservation would lead one to suppose staircase which leads to the great hall that they had been so protected for of columos. Of these Mr. M. sent a many ages before that invasion.” quantity to England ; but his greatest His observations on Hamadan condiscovery seems to have been the com- firms the opinions of D'Anville and mencement of the arrow-headed in- Rennel, that this place occupies the scription, the termination of which Le site of the ancient Ecbatana, and that Bruya has given in his drawings ; so if the mountain of Alwend is the Orontes ever this character should be deciphered, of ancient geography. we should have the whole of the in- “Another monument of positive scription.'

antiquity, we discovered casually in Both Le Bruyo and Chardin bave exploring the Northern skirts of the city, only given one line of figures on the left It consists of the base of a small column, of the staircase;–Mr. M. fortunately of the identical order of the large bases dug out a second row highly preserved, of the columns at Persepolis, and ap“The details of whose faces, hair, dress- pears to be of the same sort of stone. es, arms, and general character seemed This led to a discovery of some importance; for adjacent to this fragment this subject. The Persians are very is a large but irregular terrace or plat- superstitiousthose who had the charm form, evidently the work of art, and called the Dum, or breath, thought perhaps the ground plan of some great themselves secure' against the bile of building; of the remains of which its snakes, and the sting of scorpions; and soil must be the repository. The situa- as some of them were servants attached tion of this spot agrees with that which to the Embassy, they were always put Polybius (lib. x. 24) would assign to into requisition to seize the snakes and the Palace of the Kings of Persia, scorpions found, which they did must which he says was below the citadel.” courageously. ,

This we have little doubt is the site “Not long ago lived at Shiraz a man where Alexander slew Parmenio, and greatly celebrated for his sanctity, who where Hephestion died. Would not had the reputation to possess the Dum such a place reward the labours of an to such a degree, that he communicated intelligent people more than Pompeii it 10 Mureeds, or disciples, who again or Herculaneum? To our minds it dispensed it to the multitude. A young would furnish as interesting grounds for Mirza, brother to the then acting Vizier research as Persepolis itself, where of Shiraz, gave to the Ambassador as a Thais led the way

great present, a koife, which he said To light him to his prey,

had been charmed by this holy man, And like another Helen fired another Troy. and if rubbed over the bite of a snake "Great light is thrown upon the cele- would instantly cure it. One of his brated march of the Ten 'sthousand, in disciples was at Shiraz whilst we were other parts of Mr. Morier's tour; but there, and he willingly complied with as we must not dwell too long on an- our request, that he would communicate tiquities, we return at one stride to our his charm to us. The operation was days, when the Persians are as much sinple enough. From his pocket le astonished at the sight of an English- took a piece of sugar, over which he man's wig, as their ancestors would, mumbled some words, breathed upon have been when Darius was defeated. it, and then required that we should eat We shall select a few notices illustrative it, in full belief that neither serpent nor of modern manners.

scorpion could ever more harm us. The Mehmander at Shiraz treated He then pulled some snakes out of a the Embassy with “A concert, per- bag, which some of us, whose confiformed by four musicians; one of whoin dence was strong, ventured to handle played on the Kamounché; a second and flourish in the air." sang, fanning his mouth with a piece Snake-charm is, however, too wellof paper to aid the undulations of his known an art to excite much surprise. voice; the third was a tambourine The following legend of superstition atplayer; and the last beat two little tached to the Mil Shalir, or pillar of the drums placed on the ground before him." running footman,near Ispahan,to which

A whimsical picture of these, the best Chardin tells us that those who wished musicians of Shiraz, is given. The to enter the King's service in that capaauthor once shewed a miniature picture city, were required to run from the pa

of his mother to an Ethiopian eunuch, lace gate twelve times within twelve ' who was quite incredulous of the ac- arrows, between sun-rise and sun-set, as count given him of the liberty enjoyed a proof of activity and strength-the by European womeo.

distance would be 120 miles in about “After looking at it for some time, 14 hours. But the tradition related to 'he exclaimed, Then I suppose your the Embassy is more romantic:

father is a painter ?'' When I answered, “In former days a King of Persia • No,' in great astonishment he said, promised his daughter in marriage to • Then who could have painted this any one who would run before his horse picture ?!”

all the way from Shiraz to Ispahan. Thus in a few words giving an insight One of his Shatirs nearly accomplished into the whole of eastera feelings upon the task, haviog reached to the eminence

VOL. 4.]

The Lund Mermaid--Persian Superstition.

189

marked by the tower, 'when the King, “Zohak had two serpents growing fearful that be should be 'obliged to out of his shoulders, which it was 'mekeep his promise, dropt his whip. The cessary to feed daily with human braius; ligatures which encompassed the and two men of Demawend were every Soatir's body were such,* that in the morning killed for this odious purpose : state be then was, be knew for certain, mat length, a youth'resolving io‘rid his that if he stooped to the ground to pick country of such a scourge, went to slay up the whip, his death would imme. him; and informed his towosmen, that diately follow; therefore le contrived if he succeeded he would light a fire on to take up the whip with his foot, carried the top of the neighbouring mountain, it to his hand, and so presented it to the as a signal of the Tyrant's death and of King. This trick having failed, the bis triumph. "Zobak was living near King then dropped his ring, upon which the mountain of Demawend, whither the Shatir, who saw that his fate 'was the youth repaired and slew bim : and decided, 'exclaimed, “O King, you the illuminations (to this day) are intenhave broken your word, but I'll show ded to commemorate the promised fire you my' submission to the fast.” Upon which he lighted." which he stooped, picked up the'ring It is probabiy, however, the commeand died. In cominemoration of this moration of the flight to the mountains event, the 'Shatir 'Was ' buried on the of those whose escaped from the oppresspot, and this tower, now called the sion of this despot, and there became Sbatir's Tomb, was built over his re- the founders of this Courdish people. Dainis."

But superstition is not confined to The Goule; a sort of Land Mermaid, Persia : at Echmiatzin, during Mr. Mowhich entices travellers by its cries, and rier's stay there, the Armenian Pathen tears them to pieces by its claws, triarch, in mercy to the inhabitants of is an object of peculiar dread to the Per. Tefflis, who sunt a deputation to him, siaps in a district through which our allowed “the bead of the very spear countrymen passed-without seeing any with which the Roman sold er pierced of thein! Their companions affirmed, the side of our Saviour" (and which is that the goule had the faculty of chang- preserved theret) to visit Teffis, where ing itself into different shapes and co- its entrance at one gate drove out the lours; sometimes that it came in a plague, which was desolating the city camel's form, sometimes as a cow, then in the shape of a cow, at the other !! as a horse ; and when of a sudden they At Ispaban 'there is a Dominican discovered soinething on the horizon of Catholic Church, but in sore decay. the desert, which they could not make The priest was a little, smart, cheerfuiout, they all at once cried it is a Goule.' looking man, called Padie Yusuf, a When pointed out to be the stump of a Roman by birth, and the last of the reed, they still thought it might be a missionaries of the Propaganda, who Goesse of the goule; and inapy declared, had long been established in ' Persia. with grave faces, they had seen them on He had been 15 years at Ispahan, and crossing the desert, and only kept them his flock is about as numerous as his off by spells, the most efficacious of years of residence. There were forwhich was loosening the string of their 'merly several other Catholic Churches shalwars, or riding trowsers.

here, but they have long ceased to exiii. A tradition at Deinawend may well. We trust more success will attend a be classed with the description of these "translation of the New Testament into imaginary beings. Ai Demawend they Persian, by Mr. Martyn; 'the Chaplain have an annual festival, or rejoicing for to the Embassy. This “gentleman the death of Zohak, a renowned Persian having had many controversies with tyrant, whose seat of government it was. the Mollahs, who wished to convert The resern blance to a portion of the him, threw his arguments in favour of beathen mythology is curious :

† Among other relics, including the arm of St.

Gregory, and the scalp of St. Repsime, so incased • They bind themselves all over tightly by way in gold and ornamento, tbat poither can be distinctof support to the body.

Iy seen,

Christianity into a tract, which obtained for several days, and expressed them-
a wide circulation in Persia. "A Mollah selves much edified by its contents. The
of high fame was ordered to answer it, Mollahs (or Scribes, however, reviled
which he perforined, after the lapse of him for undertaking such a work. On
a year, so lamely, that even his coun- reading the passage where our Saviour
trymen were ashamed of bis work. is called the “ Lamb of God," they
Another answer was ordered, but never scorned and ridiculed the simile, as if
produced ; and Mr. Morier observes, exulting in the superior designation of
that “ We may inser from this circum- Ali, who is called Sheer Khoda, the
stance, that if, in addition to the Scrip- Lion of God. Mirza Baba observed
tures, some plain treatises of the eviden- to them, “ The lion is an unclean beast,
ces of Christianity, accompanied by he preys upon carcases, and you are not
strictures upon the falsehood of, the allowed to wear his skin, because it is
doctrines of Mahomed, were translated impure; he is destructive, fierce, and
into Persian, and disseminated through- man's enemy. The Lamb, on the
out that country, very favourable effects contrary, is in every way hulal, or law-
would be produced. Mr. Martya ful. You eat its flesh, you wear its
caused a copy of his translation to be skin on your head, it does no harm,
beautifully written, and to be presented and is an animal beloved. Whether
by the Ambassador to the King, who is it best then to say the Lamb of God,
was pleased to receive it very graciously, or the Lion of God ?"
A copy of it was made by Mirza Baba, The reflections to which these facts
a Persian, who gave us lessons in the are calculated to give rise, we shall not
Persian language; and he said, that impair or confuse by adding any thing
many of his countrymen asked ais per- to our present Number. In our next
mission to take Mr. Martyn's transla- we shall resume lighter matters.
tion to their homes, where they kept it

USEFUL ARTS.
From the New Monthly Magazine, Sept. 1818. or, for his new method of ornamenting
LESTER'S NEW DISCOVERY IN OPTICS. japanoed metal work by efflorescence
W E understand that this patent resembling the appearance produced by

Ligbt-Projector, as it is called, is frost upon glass windows, called moire
exceedingly recommended by its excel- metallique. The Society of Arts and
lence in an economical view. The small Sciences at Paris, have also presented
one, when applied to a candle, produces him with a gold medal for this discove- .
so great a degree of heat, as to render it ry.
extremely useful in cold weather; and it In addition to what we have already
not only increases the heat to a high de- stated on this subject,* we shall observe
gree, but produces light driven forward that the moire metallique is produced by
into a large deep space, so as to illumi- sulphuric acid, diluted in from seven to
nate more powerfully than can be con- nine parts of water, and then laid on
ceived without occular demonstration, the sheet of metal with a sponge or rag.
The apparatus is now getting up in an The tin must be heated, so as to form
article that will possess all the beautiful an incipient fusion on the surface, when
effects of the most finished mirror, with- the acid is applied ; after which the
out the liability to tarnish, and it is sup- crystallization ensues. The phrase
posed to be capable of producing many moire is borrowed from the word used
more important advantages than have to designate watered silk, (soie moirée)
yet been developed.

The citric acid, it is said, answers bet

ter than any other. By employing the CRYSTALLIZATION OF Tin. blow pipe before the acid, small and M. ALLARD, of Paris, has obtained beautiful spots are formed on the tip. a patent from the Minister of the loteri

• See p. 483, Vol. 3.

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